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Why did George W. Bush call Iran part of the Axis of Evil? - Quora

Why did George W. Bush call Iran part of the Axis of Evil? – Quora – Axis of evil – Wikipedia The term "axis of evil" was used by U.S. President George W. Bush in his State of the Union address on January 29, 2002 . The notion of such an axis was used to pinpoint these common enemies of the United States and rally the American populace in support of the War…answers ✅✅ President Bush claimed that the 'Axis of Evil' plan to 'develop weapons of mass destruction'. The countries Bush referred to are He had repeatedly said this and has shown people that there are people out there (particularly governments) willing to plan an invasion and terrorize the…President George W. Bush gives his "State of the Union" address just months after the 911 attacks. These excerpts show that, Republican or Democrat, it was…

President Bush argued that the so-called "axis of evil" had shown… – Yet the reverberations of Bush's axis-of-evil speech are still being felt in Iraq, Iran, and North Korea. RFE/RL has asked three analysts to look back and assess He called it just another "data point" that helped persuade the North Koreans that the Bush administration was not interested in continuing the…new video loaded: The 'Axis of Evil' Speech. In his 2002 State of the Union address, President George W. Bush named a number of foreign states he deemed to be part of an "axis of evil."The protectionism Bush calls "evil" was the policy of 12 Republican presidents from Abraham Lincoln to Coolidge, who made the GOP America's Party For eight years, Bush pursued interventionism, free trade and open borders. Result: two wars that have bled his country and reaped a harvest of hate, the…

President Bush argued that the so-called "axis of evil" had shown...

President Bush Axis of Evil Speech – YouTube – President George W. Bush has defended his axis of evil rhetoric, stressing the U.S. was willing to seize the moment in its Bush said he had stressed this point with Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi during talks on Monday that focused on terrorism as well as the struggling Japanese economy.Although mentioned in the Axis of Evil SOTU address, North Korea was not so much the concern of the United States as Iraq and Afghanistan were, bluntly because the United States had ground troops actively fighting both of these conflicts, however the Bush doctrine was not applied to North Korea the…An "axis of evil" was a term first used by President Bush in this address. The so-called "axis of evil" was said to Bush argued that the most effective means of creating jobs was by investing in factories and In his response, the Congressman from Missouri argued the importance of unity among the…

Druze - The Full Wiki
Eckhard Bick - PDF Free Download
Druze - The Full Wiki

50 Insane Cold War Facts That Will Shock You! – Ok, so before we start this Cold War epic,
we should probably explain to you what the Cold War was.
The Americans and Soviets were more or less
buddies during the Second World War, fighting together against the Axis powers. But the U.S. was very concerned about communism
and the despotic Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. To put it bluntly, America feared that the
commies – as it liked to say – would take over the world. For that reason, the U.S. wanted to contain
communist expansionism. But the Soviets were building an arsenal of
arms, including nuclear weapons. Thus, an arms race was on the way. It’s thought Bernard Mannes Baruch, an American
financier and multimillionaire, coined the term Cold War, which basically means a war
without military action. And so, without further ado, welcome to this
episode of the Infographics show, 50 Facts About Cold War You Didn't Know. Fact #50. So, as we said, it was Bernard Mannes that
coined the term Cold War. He was a rich man and also an advisor to all
U.S. presidents from Woodrow Wilson to Harry S. Truman. He’s famous for saying this: “Let us not
be deceived. We are today in the midst of a Cold War. Our enemies are to be found abroad and at
home. Let us never forget this: Our unrest is the
heart of their success.” 49. It was Winston Churchill who first used the
term, “Iron Curtain” in relation to the Cold War, which basically means the metaphorical
divide between the Soviet bloc and the West. 48. Churchill is often said to be one of the most
mythologized leaders that ever existed. He may have been a great orator during times
of conflict, but he has also been accused of being a bigot, a snob, a racist, and being
not too sympathetic to those who suffered at the hands of the British Empire. Perhaps one of the reasons why he was good
at talking was because he was a big fan of amphetamines. 47. Over on the other side of the iron curtain,
Joseph Stalin was responsible for around 2.9 million deaths. Those deaths, historians say, were related
to Stalin’s oppression, the Gulag, and forced resettlement. But if we include total deaths due to poverty
and famine while Stalin was in power, the number could be as high as 60 million. As far as evil dictators go, Stalin is often
said to take the number two spot behind China’s prolific paranoid practician of violence,
Mao Zedong. Surprisingly, Hitler only gets the bronze
for evilness. 46. Stalin wasn’t really named Stalin. He was born Josef Vissarionovich Djugashvili,
but that doesn’t really have a cool ring to it. He changed his name to Stalin ‘cos it means
Man of Steel. Superman’s currently rolling over in his
grave. 45. The Cold War started under American president
Harry Truman and ended while George Bush Sr. was in power. If you were around in 1989, you might have
read the headline, “Bush and Gorbachev suggest Cold War is coming to an end.” 44. The Soviets drew amazingly detailed maps of
the whole world during the Cold War. In fact, the U.S. and the UK were astounded
by how detailed and accurate they were, so much so that the US State Department uses
them today. Wired wrote in 2015, “University libraries
at places like Stanford, Oxford, and the University of Texas in Austin have drawers stuffed with
Cold War Soviet maps.” 43. In 1956, President Eisenhower signed off on
a resolution that made “In God We Trust” the official American motto. Some people didn’t like this, given America’s
religious diversity, but the president saw it as an important move against Communist
materialism. He also made it a law that the motto should
appear on all American coins and bills, presumably to make sure the American public would not
forget who they trusted the most. 42. “Under God” was added to the American
Pledge of Allegiance for pretty much the exact same reason. 41. Even though the Soviets and the USA were involved
in what was called the “Space Race,” at one point they were thinking about teaming-up
during the Cold War. According to NASA’s website, “Eisenhower
suggested creating a process to secure space for peaceful uses. Khrushchev, however, rejected the offer.” 40. Chinese Communist Party leader, Mao Zedong,
had been treated badly by the Soviets on many occasions. He got his own back, though, when he met Soviet
leader Nikita Khrushchev. Mao loved swimming, and he had learned that
Khrushchev couldn’t swim. On one visit, the latter was met by Mao, who
offered him some bathing shorts. He took Khrushchev to a private swimming pool. According to The Smithsonian, “Khrushchev,
meanwhile, stood uncomfortably in the children’s end of the pool until Mao, with more than
a touch of malice, suggested that he join him in the deeper water.” The embarrassed Soviet leader needed a floatation
device and apparently paddled like a dog. Mao was a happy man. Some years later, Khrushchev said, “It was
Mao’s way of putting himself in an advantageous position.” 39. When Mao visited Moscow in 1949, Stalin pretty
much left him in a hotel and kept feeding him lots of food. Little did Mao know that Soviet scientists
were secretly collecting his poo so that they could analyze it and see what he was made
of. 38. When Mao was 69, he had a 14-year old girlfriend. 37. According to the BBC in 2017, for decades,
the BBC hired MI5 to vet anyone who worked for it. If they were even slightly too left-leaning,
they would soon be made unemployed. The BBC writes that by hiring what they called
subversives, it might lead to a left-leaning government. You must remember that many American and European
intellectuals might not have been keen on Soviet rule, but many were so-called Marxists. 36. In the USA, Joe McCarthy created vast paranoia
regarding Reds Under the Bed and communist infiltration of good ole American society. McCarthy was feared, and his stringent witch
hunts pervaded all areas of society. He didn’t seem to have any scruples either,
but that may have been down to the heroin that he was addicted to. It’s said that America’s first “War
on Drugs” czar, Harry Anslinger, made sure McCarthy got his fix. 35. It’s said one of the most successful spying
operations from the UK and the U.S. was something called Operation Tamarisk. This involved rooting through Soviet trash
to find documents. The thing was, though, sometimes the Soviets
ran out of toilet paper and had to wipe themselves with said documents. According to one writer, Tamarisk was British
jargon for, “sifting through the detritus of military exercises.” 34. MI5 was almost as bad as McCarthy, believing
anyone with slight communist links was a threat to British security. They monitored and spied on left-leaning politicians,
anti-nuclear weapons groups, anti-apartheid groups, members of Amnesty International,
and Civil Liberties organizations. 33. The US planned to detonate a nuclear bomb
on the moon in the 1950s. It was known as Project A119 and Carl Sagan
was on the team. He was hired to study what the effect would
be if you detonated such a bomb in a low gravity vacuum. It was thought that such a thing would boost
American morale and demoralize the Soviets. 32. The Soviets wanted to do the same thing. Their plan was codenamed E-4. Apparently, the E project had certain steps. 1 was to get a spacecraft to the moon. 2 and 3 were to orbit around it, and 4 was
to bomb it. What a world we live in, eh? 31. The CIA used LSD on its own soldiers as mind
control experiments. They did the same to biochemist Frank Olsen,
who nine days later mysteriously jumped to his death from a 13-story New York City hotel. 30. In 1951, there was a mass poisoning in a French
town called Pont-Saint-Esprit. People died, but others suffered from scary
hallucinations and ended up in the madhouse. It was said to be something in the bread. There are many theories about what happened,
and one is that the CIA spiked the bread with massive amounts of LSD as part of its MKNAOMI
chemical warfare program. Writing about the incident of what became
known as the “cursed bread,” the Telegraph newspaper said, “One man tried to drown
himself, screaming that his belly was being eaten by snakes. An 11-year-old tried to strangle his grandmother. Another man shouted: ‘I am a plane’ before
jumping out of a second-floor window, breaking his legs.” CIA 1 France 0. 29. The United States Air Force in the 50s used
drugged bears to test ejector seats in powerful planes. Apparently, Himalayan and American black bears
were a good size. No bears died, but some broke bones. You can watch it on YouTube. 28. And Canada was just as bad. It forced some of its Inuit population to
relocate further north, just so it could show the Soviets it had sovereignty there. 27. It’s actually sometimes said that the Cold
War started in Canada. That’s because a soviet cipher clerk named
Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko defected there just after WWII and handed over 109 documents relating
to Soviet espionage and future plans. Some of those plans of course were to build
massive bombs. 26. According to the BBC, during the Cold War,
Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev and US President John F Kennedy wrote each other lots of letters. They even sent each other gifts. One such gift was given to Kennedy’s daughter. It was a dog called Pushinka, who was the
offspring of one of the Soviet space dogs. It in turn had puppies which JFK called the
pupniks. 25. If you check out recently released secret
files from the National Archive, there’s a conversation with the CIA director in 1975
and an attorney. The attorney asks, “Is there any information
involved with the assassination of President Kennedy which in any way shows that Lee Harvey
Oswald was in some way a CIA agent. . .” But mysteriously, that’s where the
document ends. 24. The term ‘Third World’ was not related
to poverty or standards of living when it was first used, but it meant any countries
not in NATO. 23. The British satirical puppet show “Spitting
Image” showed Soviet Leader Mikhail Gorbachev with what looked like a hammer and sickle
painted on his forehead. It’s actually a port-wine stain, a discoloration
of the skin. 22. If you look at secret files, you can see what
Gorbachev thought about 3,000 Chinese being killed at Tiananmen Square in Beijing in 1989. In a meeting, he discussed what would happen
if his own government met with resistance. “We must be realists. They have to defend themselves, and so do
we. 3,000 people, so what?” he said. 21. Later in life, Gorbachev teamed-up with former
U.S. President Bill Clinton to make a children’s music CD. They won a Grammy for their efforts. 20. During the Cold War, the Americans devised
a cunning plan. They would portray President Nixon as crazy,
so crazy he might press that red button at any time and start a nuclear war. They called this “The Madman Theory.” The theory was that if they could make someone
look so volatile, then other countries wouldn’t provoke the U.S. Some media now say Donald Trump uses the madman
theory, or at least it looks like that. 19. The USA spent 20 million dollars on a cat…We
should probably just leave you to think about that…But we won’t. Called the acoustic kitty, this cat was designed
to spy on Soviets, as it had a listening device implanted in its ear canal. On its first mission to spy on two gents in
a Soviet Compound in the US, it got hit by a taxi and died. Some people refute this and say the cat was
just useless. Either way it’s amusing if you don’t pay
taxes in the U.S. Declassified documents show how the CIA resigned themselves to failure,
stating that spying cats were just not practical. 18. The CIA didn’t stop at felines. They also trained ravens, pigeons, and goats. In fact, as was revealed years later, animal
training for spying purposes was a huge project at Langley. 17. In 2017, the New York Times wrote a story
about a man who had just died at 77. His name was Stanislav Petrov and it was a
decision he made that saved us from an all out nuclear war. In 1983, his missile early warning system
informed him that the U.S. had launched 5 Minuteman intercontinental ballistic missiles
at Russia. Protocol was an immediate retaliatory strike,
but the man just couldn’t believe it was real. And it wasn’t, the machine was malfunctioning. “Twenty-three minutes later, I realized
that nothing had happened. If there had been a real strike, then I would
already know about it. It was such a relief,” he told the press. 16. This is the first line of an article in The
Guardian, “If you were born before October 27th, 1962, Vasili Alexandrovich Arkhipov
saved your life.” At the height of the cold war, during the
Cuban missile crisis, the Soviets were about to strike with nuclear weapons. They believed America was about to strike
a submarine with a nuclear weapon and so the giant USS Randolph became the target for a
ten kiloton nuclear torpedo. You need three high-ranking officers to launch,
and Arkhipov said no. It turned out the U.S. wasn’t thinking about
its own launch. Phew. 15. LA Times headline, July 25th, 1986: “U.S.
and Soviets May Stage Joint Mars Mission.” Apparently, Reagan changed his mind, which
must have been a bummer for the then child, Elon Musk. 14. in 1983 Korean Airlines Flight 007 was
on its way from New York to Seoul. It didn’t get there because the Soviets
shot it down, killing all 269 passengers and crew. It was thought to have been a spy plane, but
it was just a regular old 747 carrying mostly vacation-goers. This created a lot of anti-Soviet sentiment
around the world. 13. The reason we first got the Global Positioning
System (or GPS) was because of that plane getting hit. After the event, President Reagan made sure
that GPS became a technology available to anyone in the world. Prior to that, only the military had it. 12. In the 60s in the USA, planes would fly around
all the time carrying nuclear bombs. This was a ‘just-in-case’ scenario. 5 of these planes with the bombs on board
crashed. That included a B-52 that crashed in North
Carolina in 1961, and it was carrying two 3–4-megaton Mark 39 nuclear bombs. Two people died, but you won’t have heard
about it. This was classified information. And little did North Carolina residents know,
that the bombs almost detonated…Do you think they would have blamed Russia? 11. As is often the case, the Russian threat was
overblown. While it was reported that Russia had scores
of intercontinental ballistic missiles in the 50s and 60s, it was later revealed they
only had 4. 10. If you look at the CIA field agent training
manual from the 50s, you’ll find the secret CIA shoelace code. This showed how you could tie your laces in
certain ways to tell someone something. It might mean I have some information, or
keep following me. 9. In 1959, Soviet Premier Khrushchev wanted
to take his family to visit Disneyland when he was visiting the U.S. He found out he was barred. The State Department was later apologetic,
saying he could take his family another day to see Mickey Mouse and co. The U.S said the reason for the snub was only
because of safety reasons. Soviet leaders weren’t exactly popular in
the states in those days. Putin didn’t go either; he just made his
own version of Disneyland in Russia. 8. If your job is related to the destruction
of the world and you know how tenuous our safety is, you might as well have some bad
habits, eh? Well, check out the 1960s Semi-Automatic Ground
Environment computer for the department of defense. It’s got built-in ashtrays. 7. But health of citizens wasn’t a big concern
of the USA in those days. Indeed, during the 50s and 60s, the military
secretly used biological weapons on parts of the country to see what would happen. People got sick in San Francisco, but it was
worse elsewhere, especially if you were poor. A sociologist named Lisa Martino-Taylor said
St. Louis was particularly used for these experiments, and the reason was because there
were plenty of poor black neighborhoods you could spray with radioactive particles. Live Science says no one would have died because
of the experiments, but people were definitely exposed to toxic particles. “The Army exposed St. Louis residents to
a maximum of 14.4 cigarettes' worth of cadmium over 31 months,” said the website. 6. During the cold war, U.S. air force pilots
were given eye patches. They were told that a nuclear explosion would
blind them and make flying impossible. So, if they got the Defcon 2 or “DEFense
readiness CONdition 2” alert, which means “Next step to nuclear war. Armed Forces ready to deploy and engage in
fewer than 6 hours,” they should put on the patch and save one eye. 5. The military had programs in the 50s and 60s
whereby they would tattoo children with their blood group. It seems the programs were only in Indiana
and Utah. These kids then became walking blood banks,
which is handy if everyone around you is dying. “I still have my atomic tattoo (O-), but,
as I grew it got distorted, so it's pretty illegible today,” said one person, now an
adult. 4. Back to animals and a bright idea from the
Brits. MI5 didn’t need exceptionally expensive
cats, what they used were the entirely expendable rodents called gerbils. “MI5 sleuths planned to use gerbils to trap
secret agents, terrorists, and subversives during the cold war,” writes the Guardian. The plan was simple. Gerbils can smell sweat easily. Bad people at airports sweat and release an
adrenalin scent. So, gerbils were left at airport counters. Theses crafty creatures had been trained to
push a lever if they smelled someone releasing lots of adrenalin scent. And yes, this is real. 3. In 1962, the U.S. detonated a hydrogen bomb
in space, creating what it called a spectacular light show. Why did the U.S. do this? Just to see what would happen, of course. The test was given a cool name: “Starfish
Prime.” 2. When the Brits weren’t training gerbils
to work at airports, they were busy lying about H-Bombs. In the 90s, the US Department of Energy released
archives from 1958. In those archives were documents pertaining
to the British bluffing about an H-Bomb test in the 50s. H-Bombs are known as fusion bombs, while atomic
bombs are fission bombs. The former is much more powerful. The Brits wanted to be seen as a superpower
that shouldn’t be messed with, so they faked the whole thing – in that they blew up an
A-Bomb and said it was an H-Bomb. 1. We are going to end on something funny. The story goes that a man called Frank Wisner
who was managing psychological warfare for the US planned to drop thousands of condoms
over the Soviet army from the air. The condoms would be labeled ‘medium’,
and this was supposed to demoralize Soviet troops as they contemplated their well-endowed
American foes. Wisner was said to have had a great sense
of humor, but that didn’t stop him from killing himself in 1965. Hmm, I guess that story wasn’t as funny
as it was supposed to be… So, there you have it. 50 lesser known facts about the the Cold War. There are so many more secrets we didn’t
speak about today, but maybe we’ll come back to this another time. Can you think of a cold war fun fact that
we failed to mention? Let us know in the comments! Also, be sure to check out our other video
called Average American vs Average Russian! Thanks for watching, and, as always, don’t
forget to like, share, and subscribe. See you next time! .

2012-02-11 1300 EST Helga Zepp LaRouche seg 01 – Good evening actually this webcast originally was meant to address primarily a European audience but because of the urgency of the strategic situation, and since I'm presently near by Washington, I decided to do this webcast in English.
And I'm addressing myself to those of you, who recognize that civilization right now is in mortal danger. It should be obvious to any thinking human being on this planet, that a continuation of the present policies, is possibly leading to the extinction of the human species. And I appeal to you, at least those who agree with me, to join the mobilization to do everything in your capability, to stop this danger of civilizational collapse. Now, it is not true that this catastrophe is inevitable, and in the beginning, before I go into some rather heavy material, I want to say, rule out the idea from your thinking that one can not do anything, anyway. This sentence which is the most spoken sentence in Germany, "Man kann ja sowieso nichts machen" [ph], "One can not do anything anyway." I don't want to address this situation from that standpoint. There are solutions and they can be implemented in time, but it requires a very drastic and dramatic fundamental change of the system, of the global financial order, and an equally dramatic change in the thinking of most people. Now, we are confronted right now with two immediate crises: One is the immediate collapse of the trans-Atlantic financial system, which is already leading to the collapse and the breakup of the euro, as we can see most clearly in the situation in Greece. But if Greece leaves the euro, which it will have to, it has no other choice, this will mean the breakup of the euro and in all likelihood, the entire EU. Secondly, we have the immediate danger of a thermonuclear war, triggered by the events around Syria and Iran, but not really focused on these two countries, but actually aiming at the regime change or destruction, disintegration of Russia and China. Obviously, what I'm saying here is not what you read in Bildzeitung, or what you listen to on other mass media. But I can assure you, I would not say these things lightly: I'm trying to address the reality of the situation as it is because only if you look at it in the most rational and most unblocked fashion can you find the necessary remedy. The name of the game is empire, or more precisely, British Empire. Now, I know that there are lot of people who say, "What British Empire? It ceased to exist in the long time [a long time ago] But if you understand that the empire which has been dominating the European, and actually global situation for almost 4,000 years, has a tendency to come back in ever-new cloth [wolf-in-sheep's clothing] in new shapes and forms like a slime-mold and this time, it has another name, called "globalization." If you understand under "British Empire," the complex system of central banks, investment banks, hedge funds, private equity funds, insurance companies, … THE SHADOW BANKING … then you know what I mean by British Empire: It is that financial system which has been responsible for the paradigm shift in the last 40-45 years, shifting away from the production of physical goods, the so-called real economy, more and more to speculation, to the idea of profit maximization and 'pure' monetarism As long as the Soviet Union existed, that system of globalization had certain constraints, because the Soviet Union existed as a second superpower. But when the Warsaw Pact started to disintegrate between '89 and '91, the world had reached a turning point. With the communist system gone, there would have been the chance for a new peace order of the 21st century. There was no more enemy, and one could have used the economic and scientific resources of the entire world, to go the solution of those urgent tasks of mankind which were then there, and still are, namely: the elimination of hunger, the development of the underdeveloped sector, joint scientific breakthroughs to reach the next level of mankind's development. Instead, rather than the United States recognizing the chance to go back and reconfirm the principles of the American Revolution which had made America be a "temple of liberty and a beacon of freedom," you know, unfortunately with the Bush Sr. Administration, the neo-cons appeared, and declared the "New American Century" doctrine, which was the idea to run the world as a empire, based on the "Anglo-American special relationship." Now, we from the international LaRouche movement, we had a plan, which was the Productive Triangle, and later, the Eurasian Land-Bridge, which would have been the basis for such a peace order, which, however, for reasons which I shortly will mention, was rejected. At that time, the policy of regime change was adopted in every country which was not willing to submit to this empire. Now, the first expression of such regime change was the first Gulf War, which started in August 1990, which was called Operation Desert Storm, which had the explicit goal to "bomb Iraq back into the stone age" — and it did. This policy was interrupted between 1992 and 2000 in the eight years of the Clinton Administration, but it remained in the background, in the form of the "Clean Break" policy, which was the idea of having regime change of every country not friendly to Israel, which was around even during the Clinton years, and was a clear response to the efforts of President Clinton to have peace in the Middle East through the Oslo Accords; it was adopted by the Netanyahu government, then. And it came fully back with the Bush and Cheney administration and all the time being pursued by the British government. Now, with George W. Bush Jr., who declared these countries to be the "axis of evil," the next target was the second Iraq War, which as we now know was based completely on lies, developed through MI5 and Tony Blair, and that was then the basis for the speech [by then Secretary of State] Colin Powell gave in the United Nations, which he later called "the worst mistake he ever made in his life." Now, this was behind the war of aggression against Libya and the assassination of Qaddafi, because at that point, the forces pushing these regime changes could not wait to could not wait to put Qaddafi on trial, because they already had in mind a continuation of this campaign against Syria and Iran. A trial would have been too long, and Qaddafi might have told some very unpleasant details about his dealings with his previous collaborators. .

HIST 1122 Lesson 83 – End of the Cold War Part 1 – Welcome back.
I want to talk about the end of the Cold War
today. I call this lecture the end of the Cold War
structure and/or agency; by this I mean structure, that the Cold War structure sort of hems in
the options that leaders have for policy or for action. But of course, individual agency whether it’s
Mikhail Gorbachev or Stalin or Kennedy or Reagan or Nixon, individual agency is still
important but this individual agency operates in this larger Cold War structure. So let’s keep that in mind as we go through
this. We’re going to do probably three segments
on this end of the Cold War. It’s a fascinating story. It’s important. So I’m going to devote a little time to
it. In this opening lecture, I’m going to talk
about context and significance first, and then I want to take you on a little bit of
a timeline to give you some sense of the pace in the 1980s into the early ’90, when the
Soviet Union breaks up and the Cold War ends. So context, well the Cold War is the obvious
context. I guess a second context is the end of, the
end of communism as a real viable political ideology. Significances – First, this ends the bipolar
political world. We’ve talked about this before, this notion
of the two poles. Here you have the United States, NATO in the
West; here you have the Soviet Union, the Warsaw Pact in the East; and the world sort
of revolves around these two poles or these two axes. The end of the Cold War is going to put an
end to that. The United States will emerge as the only
superpower. Other significances – This ends the Warsaw
Pact. You’ll notice that NATO does not end. NATO is designed specifically to defend Western
Europe against the Red Army, and that threat apparently goes away with the end of the Cold
War yet NATO remains. Of course, it’s the end of the Soviet Union;
the world’s first communist state bites the dust here. Another significance – It reduces the territory
under Russian control. All those states along the Western frontier
and along the Southern frontier of Russia that had been a part of the Old Russian Empire
or had been a part of the Soviet Union in the 20th century, these states begin to break
away and create their own sovereign nations. Another significance – The end of the Soviet
Union alleviates – for the most part – the fear of nuclear exchange and the destruction
– if not the planet, then at least the Northern hemisphere and what we think of as the West. And I guess another significance – The end
of the Cold War I suppose represents a victory for the market economy and for the liberal
democracies that had emerged out of the Middle Ages and into the premodern era. This trend or this tendency towards liberal
democracies and market economies continues and it continues to expand. So let me talk about this timeline so I can
give you some sense of the actors and the pace of these events. Reagan, Ronald Reagan is elected president
in 1981. Now he’s opposed, fundamentally opposed
in a visceral way, to communism. The Nixonian policy of detent that is a relaxation
of tensions between the Americans and the Russians, he didn’t have a lot of, Reagan
doesn’t have a lot of patience for that. Reagan – what did he say – he wants peace
through strength. His rhetoric toward the Kremlin is unmistakably
hostile. He made a joke one time before one of his
radio broadcasts that he was going to launch weapons in five seconds – five, four, three,
two, and then someone said, well, Mr. President, your mic is hot. This led to rueful laughter and some embarrassment. He referred to the Soviet Union as the – what
did he say – the source of evil in the modern world. He said that Marxism was destined for the
ash heap of history. So Reagan did not make any bones about his
contempt for Soviet communism. In 1984, the Soviets and their allies, they
boycott the Olympics in Los Angeles. Of course, the United States had boycotted
the Russian Olympics in 1980 because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. So tit for tat. Reagan complained in the early ’80s that
someone, one of the press corps, somebody in the press corps mentioned that he had not
met with any Soviet leaders, and Reagan pointed out that it was hard to meet with Soviet leaders
because they continued to die in quick succession. I think you had Brezhnev die in the early
‘80s; he’d been leader since Khrushchev. He was replaced by Andropov, Uri Andropov,
and he died shortly thereafter, and then he was replaced by another aging revolutionary. What was his name? Chernenko, I believe, Konstantin Chernenko. He died, so bang; bang; bang – in quick
succession these old Russian leaders had fallen away and now in 1985 you get something completely
different in Russia, the rise of a new General Secretary of the communist party and leader
of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev – one of the more interesting figures in the second
half of the 20th century. Gorbachev, of course, is going to try to reinvigorate
or revive the Soviet economy and the Soviet political system, and we’ll get into that. Reagan now does take advantage of having this
young, dynamic, Russian leader and he does meet with him and they do establish something
of a rapport, an element of trust. In 1986, you have the Chernobyl disaster there
in Ukraine, the Soviet nuclear power plant explodes, the worst nuclear power plant accident
in history. I think the city Pripyat there in Ukraine
is, I think it’s still abandoned. This happened in ’86, yeah ’86. So that’s a generation ago. This gives you some notion of the danger of
nuclear fallout. Can you imagine an exchange of missiles between
the Soviets and the Americans and the catastrophic sort of end of the world damage that would
do, when here we have one plant with a terrible accident, and the city in which the plant
is located is still abandoned by human beings. I guess the rats and the roaches thrive there. In ’86, Reagan and Gorbachev meet at Reykjavik
in Iceland and the proposal to eliminate nuclear weapons entirely comes to the fore, or at
least a dramatic reduction in strategic arms. This agreement does not come to fruition because
of Reagan’s insistence on maintaining what he called his strategic defense initiative,
or Star Wars. That is, space-based defense systems to shoot
down incoming Russian ICBMs. In 1987, Gorbachev announces his major policy
initiatives – Glasnost and Perestroika – designed to open up the Soviet economy to market forces,
designed to open up civic society in Russia to pluralism – there should be more than
one voice in other words, more than one communist voice, perhaps multiple parties, pluralism. In 1987, December, intermediate-range nuclear
weapons in Europe, NATO and Warsaw Pact are eliminated in a treaty signed by Reagan and
Gorbachev. This is a major step towards reducing tensions
and ending the Cold War. In 1988, Gorbachev begins to withdraw the
Red Army from Afghanistan. Before going before the U.N. general assembly
in ’88, Gorbachev urgently pushed through the Politburo unilateral reduction of the
Red Army by half a million men. We’d never seen anything like this in the
Cold War, and this is interesting. The domestic and foreign political effect
of this demobilization was that Gorbachev was highly praised on the one hand but the
Soviet economy had no way of integrating this massive number of men back into an economy
that was already broken – insufficient housing. Just I suppose, motivated by good intentions. The practical effects though, the practical
consequences were not as pleasant. In 1989, George H.W. Bush, of course, becomes
president. In 1989, the Solidarity movement in Poland
elects – and this is, at the time seemed completely outrageous – elects a new, non-communist
government in Poland. Throughout the Cold War had any of the Russian
satellite states in Eastern Europe, had they been tempted to stray from the reservation,
the Red Army would come in and put them back in their place. Here, for the first time, we have a non-communist
government in a Warsaw Pact country in Poland. Solidarity, of course, was Poland’s greatest
trade union, the largest trade union in the country. It had morphed into a political party as well. 1n 1989, in November, the Berlin Wall comes
down. As someone who lived through the Cold War,
I can’t convey to you the utter surprise and joy that accompanied the destruction of
the Berlin Wall. In December of ’89, at the Malta Summit
– Malta is an island in the Mediterranean bush, and Gorbachev announced the end of the
Cold War. October 1990 – Germany is reunited. Again, the sheer surprise of these developments
was astounding. Traditionally in the West we believed that
if the Cold War ever ended and it wasn’t clear that it ever would, but if it did end
it would end with mushroom clouds as nuclear weapons exploded over Europe and Russia and
the United States. Here, the Cold War is ending and not a shot
is fired. July 1991, the Warsaw Pact is dissolved. I suppose if there was any symmetry, NATO
would have been dissolved the next month. Of course, it was not. August 1991, there is a coup. The Red Army leadership sees that Gorbachev
either intentionally or inadvertently is taking Russia down the road to ruin, or at least
the Soviet Union down the road to ruin with his reforms, with his relinquishing the Warsaw
Pact, the satellite countries. And the Soviet military attempts a coup against
Gorbachev, keeps him under house arrest. This leads to the unpredictability of Boris
Yeltsin, the president of Russia, sort of standing up and defending the peoples’ rights,
the people of Russia and of the other constituent republics, to establish their own sovereign
countries. So this bizarre ending to the Soviet Union,
think of it like this, Mikhail Gorbachev is the president of the Soviet Union, this massive
sort of federalist structure that stretches from the Bering Strait all the way to the
Baltic Sea, from the Arctic all the way to the Black Sea, with many constituent republics,
many different ethnic and language groups. By the end of ’91, all of these constituent
republics – including Russia, the biggest – now have their own presidents and now
have declared their own independence and their own sovereignty. So Gorbachev is left standing there, the president
of something that doesn’t exist anymore, the Soviet Union – the emperor without clothes. That is a brief timeline of the end of the
Cold War. In our next two lectures I want to talk about
long- and short-term causes in a little more detail and then try to draw some conclusions
from this. Again, this is, this marks the end of a major
period in European and in Western history, and I want to spend a little more time with
it. But we’ll get back to it in our next session. .