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Chapter 3 Classification of Rocks Flashcards

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Chapter 3 Classification of Rocks Flashcards

TermGenerally, what are rocks made of?

Definitiona mixture of minerals and other materials

TermWhat determines a rock’s texture?

Definitionthe size, shape, and pattern of a rock’s grains

TermA rock the cools quickly when formed may have what kind of texture?

Definitionsmooth and shiny with no visible grain

TermWhen all the grains in a rock are large and easy to see.

DefinitionCoarse-grained

TermRock that forms from the cooling of magma or lava is called

Definitionigneous rock

TermTrue or False: Most metamorphic rock forms underground.

Definition

TermType of igneous rock that formed from cooling lava on Earth’s surface

DefinitionExtrusive Rock

TermWhat is the most abundant intrusive rock?

Definition

TermThe texture of an igneous rock that has large crystals scattered on a background of smaller crystals.

DefinitionPorphyritic

TermThe process by which sediment settles out of water or wind carrying it.

DefinitionDeposition

TermThe process in which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together.

DefinitionCementation

TermThe sedimentary rock formed when water deposits tiny particles of clay in thin, flat layers.

Definition

TermA sedimentary rock formed when rock fragments are squeezed together.

DefinitionClastic rock

Term**A ring shaped coral island found far from land is called this.

Definition

TermChalk formed from sediments made from skeletons of microscopic living things in the ocean.

DefinitionOrganic rock

TermTrue or False: If the sea level rises or if the sea floor sinks, a coral reef will continue to grow upwards.

Definition

TermCoral is a form of what organic rock?

Definition

TermLimestone that began as coral reef can now be found on the continents. Why?

DefinitionMovements in Earth’s crust have moved ancient sea floors above sea level.

TermHeat and pressure below Earth’s surface can change any kind of rock into this kind of rock.

DefinitionMetamorphic rock

TermThe heat that changes rock into metamorphic rock comes from where?

DefinitionThe heat of the mantle

TermHow do geologists classify metamorphic rocks?

Definitionthe arrangement of the grains that make up the rock

TermThe texture of a metamorphic rock that has grains arranged in parallel layers is called this.

Definition

TermMetamorphic rocks that are __________ do not split into layers.

DefinitionNonfoliated

TermA series of processes on Earth’s surface and interior that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another is called this.

Definitionthe rock cycle

TermTrue or False: Smelting is one of the stages of the rock cycle.

Definition

TermWhat stage in the rock cycle would be necessary to change granite into sandstone?

DefinitionDissolved calcite in ocean water cements granite sediment together

TermFor Stone Mountain in Georgia, the rock cycle began when?

DefinitionWhen a granite batholith formed beneath the Earth’s surface

TermIn the rock cycle, what type (or types) of rock can change to form sedimentary rock?

DefinitionAny type of rock

TermTrue or False: During the rock cycle, forces inside Earth can push rock down toward the heat of the mantle to form metamorphic rocks.

Definition

TermA sedimentary rock made up of round fragments of other kinds of rocks is called this.

Definition

TermMagma that is high in ________ usually makes light colored rocks such as granite.

Definition

TermA metamorphic rock that forms grains in bands is called _________.

Definition

TermThe texture of slate is said to be _______ because its mineral particles can be seen only with a microscope.

Definitionfine-grained

TermWhat are coral reefs formed from?

DefinitionThe sketetons of tiny ocean creatures that have grown together.

TermWhere are coral reefs formed?

DefinitionOnly in warm, clear ocean water

TermSome of the sedimentary rock called ________ is made from ancient coral reefs buried by sediments.

Definition

TermSome of the sedimentary rock called ________ is made from ancient coral reefs buried by sediments.

Definition

TermSome of the sedimentary rock called ________ is made from ancient coral reefs buried by sediments.

Definition

TermSome of the sedimentary rock called ________ is made from ancient coral reefs buried by sediments.

Definition

TermA coral reef is made of ________, a material that forms the skeletons of coral animals.

Definition

TermIn the rock cycle, some rock melts and forms magma in the layer of Earth known as the _________.

Definition

TermAn igneous rock that is formed from lava is called an __________ rock.

Definition

TermDissolved minerals and particles of sediment stick together to form sedimentary rock in a process called ________.

Definitioncementation

TermSmall, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or living things are called _________.

Definition

TermAs layer upon layer of sediments are deposited, the process of _________ presses them together.

DefinitionCompaction

TermFoliated and nonfoliated are terms used to describe the texture of ______ rocks.

Definitionmetamorphic

TermIgneous rock that cools in two stages(a slow stage forming large crystals & then a fast stage forming very small crystals) is said to have a _______ texture.

Definitionporphyritic

TermTwo conditions that can cause sedimentary rock to change to metamorphic rocks are?

Definitionpressure and heat

TermWhat type of sedimentary rock is coal?

Definition

TermWhen mineral solutions evaporate, a type of sedimentary rock called a ________ rock can form.

Definition

TermThe carrying away of rock fragments by water, wind, or ice is called ______, an important process in the formation of sedimentary rocks.

Definition

TermCoral grown on top of a volcanic island can form an _______.

Definition

Using Sedimentary Structures to Interpret Ancient Environments

Using Sedimentary Structures to Interpret Ancient Environments – The formation of sediment and sedimentary rock involves many physical, chemical and biological processes, sometimes operating separately but more commonly in concert. The journey from loose sediment to hammer-ringing rock is one of the marvels of the geological world.Sedimentary rocks represent one of the three major groups of rocks that make up the crust of the Earthf Most sedimentary rods have originated by sedimentation. It means that most of sedimentary rocks are formed by sediments, accumulations of solid material on the Earth's surface.Some of the sedimentary rock called _ is made from ancient coral reefs buried by sediments. The carrying away of rock fragments by water wind or ice is called _ an important process in the formation of sedimentary rocks.

ТЕКСТ А Sedimentary Rocks — Студопедия – A rock formed for sedimentary deposits is called a sedimentary rock. A sedimentary rock which has then undergone metamorphism is called a The final deposition of sediments usually occur in their final resting place called the deposition environment. These sediments are buried by other…Unformatted text preview: Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary Rocks Products of mechanical and chemical weathering Account for about 5% of Earth's crust Contain evidence of past environments Texture Fossils Form directly (coral reefs) or Cemented together after organisms die & accumulate…A sedimentary rock is defined and what sedimentary rock formations look like. The formation of the sedimentary rocks sandstone, limestone, chalk, shale These become buried under later forming sediments and water or by major tectonic activity, and then become subjected to compression as…

ТЕКСТ А Sedimentary Rocks — Студопедия

Science Exam Review Chapter 5 Flashcards | Quizlet – A. Sediment Source and History B. Formation of Sedimentary Rocks C . Types of Sedimentary Rocks D Chemical and Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks Fore Reef Back Reef Reef Sandstone (sand) Shale DIATOMITE • is composed of the siliceous shells of microscopic alga called diatoms. •Which of the following terms describes the alteration of sediments to sedimentary rocks after deposition? In which of the following sedimentary environments would you expect the sand deposits to be poorly What is the approximate temperature of a sediment that is buried to a depth of 3 km?17. Some nonclastic sedimentary rocks closely resemble igneous rocks. How might the two be distinguished Most sediments and sedimentary rocks show an original layering (stratification) This process describes petrifaction. The wood is buried and petrified by infilling of open space with…

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