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Copper(I) oxide

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Copper(I) oxide

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Copper(I) oxide

Names
IUPAC name
Copper(I) oxide
Other names
Cuprous oxideDicopper oxideCupriteRed copper oxide
Identifiers
CAS Number

1317-39-1 
3D model (JSmol)

Interactive imageInteractive image
ChEBI

CHEBI:81908
ChemSpider

8488659 
ECHA InfoCard

100.013.883
EC Number

215-270-7
KEGG

C18714 
PubChem CID

10313194
RTECS number

GL8050000
UNII

T8BEA5064F 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)

DTXSID0034489

InChI
InChI=1S/2Cu.O/q2*+1;-2 Key: KRFJLUBVMFXRPN-UHFFFAOYSA-N InChI=1/2Cu.O/rCu2O/c1-3-2Key: BERDEBHAJNAUOM-YQWGQOGZAFInChI=1/2Cu.O/q2*+1;-2Key: KRFJLUBVMFXRPN-UHFFFAOYAM

SMILES
[Cu]O[Cu][Cu+].[Cu+].[O-2]
Properties
Chemical formula

Cu2O
Molar mass

143.09 g/mol
Appearance

brownish-red solid
Density

6.0 g/cm3Melting point

1,232 °C (2,250 °F; 1,505 K)
Boiling point

1,800 °C (3,270 °F; 2,070 K)
Solubility in water

Insoluble
Solubility in acid

Soluble
Band gap

2.137 eV
Magnetic susceptibility (χ)

−20×10−6 cm3/mol
Structure
Crystal structure

cubic
Space group

Pn3m, #224
Lattice constant

a = 4.2696
Thermochemistry
Std molarentropy (So298)

93 J·mol−1·K−1Std enthalpy offormation (ΔfH⦵298)

−170 kJ·mol−1Hazards
Safety data sheet

SIRI.org
GHS pictograms

GHS Signal word

Danger
GHS hazard statements

H302, H318, H332, H400, H410
GHS precautionary statements

P273, P305+351+338[1]NFPA 704 (fire diamond)

2
0
1
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)

TWA 1 mg/m3 (as Cu)[2]REL (Recommended)

TWA 1 mg/m3 (as Cu)[2]IDLH (Immediate danger)

TWA 100 mg/m3 (as Cu)[2]Related compounds
Other anions

Copper(I) sulfideCopper(II) sulfideCopper(I) selenide
Other cations

Copper(II) oxideSilver(I) oxideNickel(II) oxideZinc oxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 verify (what is  ?)
Infobox references

Copper(I) oxide or cuprous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Cu2O. It is one of the principal oxides of copper, the other being or copper (II) oxide or cupric oxide (CuO). This red-coloured solid is a component of some antifouling paints. The compound can appear either yellow or red, depending on the size of the particles.[3] Copper(I) oxide is found as the reddish mineral cuprite.

Preparation

Copper(I) oxide may be produced by several methods.[4] Most straightforwardly, it arises via the oxidation of copper metal:

4 Cu + O2 → 2 Cu2O

Additives such as water and acids affect the rate of this process as well as the further oxidation to copper(II) oxides. It is also produced commercially by reduction of copper(II) solutions with sulfur dioxide. Aqueous cuprous chloride solutions react with base to give the same material. In all cases, the color is highly sensitive to the procedural details.

Pourbaix diagram for copper in uncomplexed media (anions other than OH− not considered). Ion concentration 0.001 mol/kg water. Temperature 25 °C.

Formation of copper(I) oxide is the basis of the Fehling’s test and Benedict’s test for reducing sugars. These sugars reduce an alkaline solution of a copper(II) salt, giving a bright red precipitate of Cu2O.

It forms on silver-plated copper parts exposed to moisture when the silver layer is porous or damaged. This kind of corrosion is known as red plague.

Little evidence exists for copper(I) hydroxide CuOH, which is expected to rapidly undergo dehydration. A similar situation applies to the hydroxides of gold(I) and silver(I).

Properties

The solid is diamagnetic. In terms of their coordination spheres, copper centres are 2-coordinated and the oxides are tetrahedral. The structure thus resembles in some sense the main polymorphs of SiO2, and both structures feature interpenetrated lattices.

Copper(I) oxide dissolves in concentrated ammonia solution to form the colourless complex [Cu(NH3)2]+, which is easily oxidized in air to the blue [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+. It dissolves in hydrochloric acid to give solutions of CuCl−2. Dilute sulfuric acid and nitric acid produce copper(II) sulfate and copper(II) nitrate, respectively.[5]

Cu2O degrades to copper(II) oxide in moist air.

Structure

Cu2O crystallizes in a cubic structure with a lattice constant al = 4.2696 Å. The copper atoms arrange in a fcc sublattice, the oxygen atoms in a bcc sublattice. One sublattice is shifted by a quarter of the body diagonal. The space group is Pn3m, which includes the point group with full octahedral symmetry.

Semiconducting properties

In the history of semiconductor physics, Cu2O is one of the most studied materials, and many experimental semiconductor applications have been demonstrated first in this material:

Semiconductor
Semiconductor diodes[6]
Phonoritons (“a coherent superposition of exciton, photon, and phonon”)[7][8]

The lowest excitons in Cu2O are extremely long lived; absorption lineshapes have been demonstrated with neV linewidths, which is the narrowest bulk exciton resonance ever observed.[9] The associated quadrupole polaritons have low group velocity approaching the speed of sound. Thus, light moves almost as slowly as sound in this medium, which results in high polariton densities.
Another unusual feature of the ground state excitons is that all primary scattering mechanisms are known quantitatively.[10] Cu2O was the first substance where an entirely parameter-free model of absorption linewidth broadening by temperature could be established, allowing the corresponding absorption coefficient to be deduced. It can be shown using Cu2O that the Kramers–Kronig relations do not apply to polaritons.[11]

Applications

Cuprous oxide is commonly used as a pigment, a fungicide, and an antifouling agent for marine paints. Rectifier diodes based on this material have been used industrially as early as 1924, long before silicon became the standard. Copper(I) oxide is also responsible for the pink color in a positive Benedict’s test.

Similar compounds

An example of natural copper(I,II) oxide is the mineral paramelaconite, Cu4O3 or CuI2CuII2O3.[12][13]

See also

Copper(II) oxide

References

^ https://www.nwmissouri.edu/naturalsciences/sds/c/Copper%20I%20oxide.pdf

^ a b c .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”\”””\”””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg”)right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. “#0150”. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

^ N. N. Greenwood, A. Earnshaw, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1997.

^ H. Wayne Richardson “Copper Compounds in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a07_567

^ D. Nicholls, Complexes and First-Row Transition Elements, Macmillan Press, London, 1973.

^ L. O. Grondahl, Unidirectional current carrying device, Patent, 1927

^ Hanke, L.; Fröhlich, D.; Ivanov, A. L.; Littlewood, P. B.; Stolz, H. (1999-11-22). “LA Phonoritons in Cu2O”. Physical Review Letters. 83 (21): 4365–4368. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.4365.

^ L. Brillouin: Wave Propagation and Group Velocity, Academic Press, New York City, 1960 ISBN 9781483276014.

^ J. Brandt, D. Fröhlich, C. Sandfort, M. Bayer, H. Stolz, and N. Naka, Ultranarrow absorption and two-phonon excitation spectroscopy of Cu2O paraexcitons in a high magnetic field, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 217403 (2007). doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.217403

^ J. P. Wolfe and A. Mysyrowicz: Excitonic Matter, Scientific American 250 (1984), No. 3, 98.

^ Hopfield, J. J. (1958). “Theory of the Contribution of Excitons to the Complex Dielectric Constant of Crystals”. Physical Review. 112 (5): 1555–1567. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.112.1555. ISSN 0031-899X.

^ https://www.mindat.org/min-3098.html

^ https://www.ima-mineralogy.org/Minlist.htm

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Copper(I) oxide.National Pollutant Inventory: Copper and compounds fact sheet
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Copper oxides project pagevteCopper compoundsCu(0,I)
Cu5SiCu(I)
CuBr
CuCN
CuCl
CuF
CuH
CuI
Cu2C2
Cu2Cr2O5
Cu2O
CuOH
CuNO3
Cu3P
Cu2S
CuSCNCu(I,II)
Cu3H4O8S2Cu(II)
Cu(BF4)2
CuBr2
CuC2
CuCO3
Cu(CN)2
Cu(ClO3)2
CuCl2
CuF2
Cu(NO3)2
Cu3(PO4)2
Cu(N3)2
CuO
CuO2
Cu(OH)2
CuS
CuSO4
Cu3(AsO4)2Cu(III)
K3CuF6
Cu2O3Cu(IV)
Cs2CuF6
Rb2CuF6
CuO2
vteOxidesMixed oxidation states
Antimony tetroxide (Sb2O4)
Cobalt(II,III) oxide (Co3O4)
Lead(II,IV) oxide (Pb3O4)
Manganese(II,III) oxide (Mn3O4)
Iron(II,III) oxide (Fe3O4)
Silver(I,III) oxide (Ag2O2)
Triuranium octoxide (U3O8)
Carbon suboxide (C3O2)
Mellitic anhydride (C12O9)
Praseodymium(III,IV) oxide (Pr6O11)
Terbium(III,IV) oxide (Tb4O7)
Dichlorine pentoxide (Cl2O5)+1 oxidation state
Copper(I) oxide (Cu2O)
Caesium oxide (Cs2O)
Dicarbon monoxide (C2O)
Dichlorine monoxide (Cl2O)
Gallium(I) oxide (Ga2O)
Lithium oxide (Li2O)
Potassium oxide (K2O)
Rubidium oxide (Rb2O)
Silver oxide (Ag2O)
Thallium(I) oxide (Tl2O)
Sodium oxide (Na2O)
Water (hydrogen oxide) (H2O)+2 oxidation state
Aluminium(II) oxide (AlO)
Barium oxide (BaO)
Beryllium oxide (BeO)
Cadmium oxide (CdO)
Calcium oxide (CaO)
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Chromium(II) oxide (CrO)
Cobalt(II) oxide (CoO)
Copper(II) oxide (CuO)
Dinitrogen dioxide (N2O2)
Germanium monoxide (GeO)
Iron(II) oxide (FeO)
Lead(II) oxide (PbO)
Magnesium oxide (MgO)
Manganese(II) oxide (MnO)
Mercury(II) oxide (HgO)
Nickel(II) oxide (NiO)
Nitric oxide (NO)
Palladium(II) oxide (PdO)
Silicon monoxide (SiO)
Strontium oxide (SrO)
Sulfur monoxide (SO)
Disulfur dioxide (S2O2)
Thorium monoxide (ThO)
Tin(II) oxide (SnO)
Titanium(II) oxide (TiO)
Vanadium(II) oxide (VO)
Zinc oxide (ZnO)+3 oxidation state
Actinium(III) oxide (Ac2O3)
Aluminium oxide (Al2O3)
Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3)
Arsenic trioxide (As2O3)
Bismuth(III) oxide (Bi2O3)
Boron trioxide (B2O3)
Cerium(III) oxide (Ce2O3)
Chromium(III) oxide (Cr2O3)
Cobalt(III) oxide (Co2O3)
Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3)
Dysprosium(III) oxide (Dy2O3)
Erbium(III) oxide (Er2O3)
Europium(III) oxide (Eu2O3)
Gadolinium(III) oxide (Gd2O3)
Gallium(III) oxide (Ga2O3)
Holmium(III) oxide (Ho2O3)
Indium(III) oxide (In2O3)
Iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3)
Lanthanum oxide (La2O3)
Lutetium(III) oxide (Lu2O3)
Manganese(III) oxide (Mn2O3)
Neodymium(III) oxide (Nd2O3)
Nickel(III) oxide (Ni2O3)
Phosphorus monoxide (PO)
Phosphorus trioxide (P4O6)
Praseodymium(III) oxide (Pr2O3)
Promethium(III) oxide (Pm2O3)
Rhodium(III) oxide (Rh2O3)
Samarium(III) oxide (Sm2O3)
Scandium oxide (Sc2O3)
Terbium(III) oxide (Tb2O3)
Thallium(III) oxide (Tl2O3)
Thulium(III) oxide (Tm2O3)
Titanium(III) oxide (Ti2O3)
Tungsten(III) oxide (W2O3)
Vanadium(III) oxide (V2O3)
Ytterbium(III) oxide (Yb2O3)
Yttrium(III) oxide (Y2O3)+4 oxidation state
Americium dioxide (AmO2)
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Carbon trioxide (CO3)
Cerium(IV) oxide (CeO2)
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2)
Chromium(IV) oxide (CrO2)
Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4)
Germanium dioxide (GeO2)
Hafnium(IV) oxide (HfO2)
Lead dioxide (PbO2)
Manganese dioxide (MnO2)
Neptunium(IV) oxide (NpO2)
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
Osmium dioxide (OsO2)
Plutonium(IV) oxide (PuO2)
Praseodymium(IV) oxide (PrO2)
Protactinium(IV) oxide (PaO2)
Rhodium(IV) oxide (RhO2)
Ruthenium(IV) oxide (RuO2)
Selenium dioxide (SeO2)
Silicon dioxide (SiO2)
Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
Tellurium dioxide (TeO2)
Terbium(IV) oxide (TbO2)
Thorium dioxide (ThO2)
Tin dioxide (SnO2)
Titanium dioxide (TiO2)
Tungsten(IV) oxide (WO2)
Uranium dioxide (UO2)
Vanadium(IV) oxide (VO2)
Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2)+5 oxidation state
Antimony pentoxide (Sb2O5)
Arsenic pentoxide (As2O5)
Dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5)
Niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5)
Phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5)
Protactinium(V) oxide (Pa2O5)
Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5)
Vanadium(V) oxide (V2O5)+6 oxidation state
Chromium trioxide (CrO3)
Molybdenum trioxide (MoO3)
Rhenium trioxide (ReO3)
Selenium trioxide (SeO3)
Sulfur trioxide (SO3)
Tellurium trioxide (TeO3)
Tungsten trioxide (WO3)
Uranium trioxide (UO3)
Xenon trioxide (XeO3)+7 oxidation state
Dichlorine heptoxide (Cl2O7)
Manganese heptoxide (Mn2O7)
Rhenium(VII) oxide (Re2O7)
Technetium(VII) oxide (Tc2O7)+8 oxidation state
Osmium tetroxide (OsO4)
Ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4)
Xenon tetroxide (XeO4)
Iridium tetroxide (IrO4)Related
Oxocarbon
Suboxide
Oxyanion
Ozonide
Peroxide
Superoxide
OxypnictideOxides are sorted by oxidation state.
Category:Oxides

Retrieved from “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Copper(I)_oxide&oldid=1007688563”

Copper Cu transition metal Chemistry copper(I) Cu+ copper(II) Cu2+...

Copper Cu transition metal Chemistry copper(I) Cu+ copper(II) Cu2+… – What are the principal oxidation states of copper?, redox reactions of copper, explaining the ligand substitution displacement reactions of copper complex ions, balanced equations of The electrode potential chart highlights the values for various oxidation states of copper. COPPER(II) CHEMISTRY.Calculate The Work, W, And Energy Change, ΔUrxn, When 80.42 G Of Cu2O(s) Is Oxidized At A Constant Pressure Of 1.00 Bar And A Constant Temperature Of 25 °C. Calculate the work, w, and energy change, ΔUrxn, when 80.42 g of Cu2O(s) is oxidized at a constant pressure of 1.00 bar and a…Copper(I) oxide or cuprous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Cu2O. It is one of the principal oxides of copper, the other being CuO or cupric…

Solved: The Oxidation Of Copper(I) Oxide, Cu2O(s), To… | Chegg.com – 2Cu2O(s) + O2(g) –> 4CuO(s) Delta Hrxn = -292.0 kJ/mol Calculate the energy released as heat when 42.26 g of Cu2O(s) undergo oxidation at constant pressure. Please explain how to work this problem out.The different oxidation temperatures and lengths of time ware employed in order to find which oxidation temperature and time would result in the least thickness and stability of Cu2O on Cu which is a factor of the sample resistivity Keywords: Annealing, etching, copper (I) oxide, thermal oxidation.Copper(I) Oxide Cu2O bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program. Oxide compounds are not conductive to electricity. However, certain perovskite structured oxides are electronically conductive finding application in the cathode of solid oxide fuel…

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Synthesis of copper (I) oxide – YouTube – 3 Initial stages of copper oxidation. 3.1.1 Cu(100) surface. 3.2 Oxidation in aqueous solutions. The purpose of the present review is to provide a reference guide to the most recent data on the prop-erties of copper(I) oxide as well as on the atomic processes involved in the initial stages of oxidation of…Cu2O (copper (I) oxide; cuprous oxide) is a red powder and can also be produced as nanoparticles. Locally this O-2pσ component increases dramatically on oxidation of CuII to CuIII. The change in orbital mixing represents a polarization of the oxygen atoms that decreases the……oxide, Cu2O(s), to copper(II) oxide, CuO(s), is an exothermic process, 2 Cu2O + O2 –> 4CuO The change in enthalpy upon reaction of 75.30 g of Cu2O(s) is Calculate the work, w, and energy change, ΔUrxn, when 75.30 g of Cu2O(s) is oxidized at a constant pressure of 1.00 bar and a constant…

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AQA A-Level Chemistry – Oxidation of Alcohols – .

Ossidi basici.Nomenclatura chimica. – Hello
today we talk about the oxides also called basic oxides when oxygen binds
to a metal.
In this case, oxygen
always takes on less oxidation state two in the general classical formula
we find m which is the subscript of the metal that will match the state
of oxidation of oxygen and the state of oxygen of metal oxidation. So here
we are going to do a series of examples with the crossings. Let's move on to the first one
compound that is made up of copper e oxygen here too
we will define the traditional name and the name according to the iupac nomenclature. The
copper may have been oxidative like we said +1 and +2
so since oxygen has always been of oxidation – 2
so we will put the copper under the subscript 2 so that the sum
of oxidation states is equal to zero. In this case how it will be called in
traditional nomenclature? Sara
called cuprous oxide while in the iupac nomenclature will be called oxide
didirame Consider in this case the oxygen
linked to copper with oxidation state +2. So how will it be called? Oxide
cupric while in the iupac nomenclature which will be called copper oxide. Consider another molecule in this
case we take the iron. Iron has been
oxidation +3 and more two. Qundi +2 e
+3; oxygen less and less two so how are we going to build molecule
we're going to build considering that what the sum of the states of
oxidation in this case the sum is zero. So the compound will be called
ferrous oxide. In this case we should
instead go and perform what you do call crossover, that is, put the 3
under oxygen and 2 under iron this is because the algebraic sum should
be zero; So in this case the compound will be called ferric oxide
while the iupac nomenclature will go to call in a generic and indicated way
only the subscripts therefore in this case it will be iron oxide in this case
it will be called trioxide of iron. Let's take another example
taking pond into consideration tin will have oxidation status +
2 and + 4 we always insert the number of oxidation on the pond in this
case also making the crossing will go to simplify how this will be called
compound will be called stannous oxide while in the nomenclature
traditional will be called oxide of pond this compound let's see how
execute that is we put the 2 under the tin 4 under oxygen
therefore we simplify the molecule that we are drift will be SnO2 so how do you
will call? In the traditional nomenclature
will be called stannic oxide in the iupac tin dioxide oxide
also here as you will have understood the le endings are like those that we
we have seen in the case of hydrides. Now
I want to present two exceptions e they are related to manganese and chrome
now we can technically build oxides with all those compounds that
found in nature even in the form of metals however some elements of
transition may behave either by metals that go metals. The classic
example is manganese which has many oxidation states ranging from + 7
what can I go from + 7, +6, + 4 + 3, +2. In this case if
should we find it is a bound oxygen manganese we should know how
call it then we can say that the manganese acts as an oxide with i
two lower oxidation states while it will behave like an anhydride
with the highest states oxidation. We will repeat this concept
when we analyze anhydrides. I
I recommend studying oxides and the anhydrides in sequence so
to better memorize the concepts. Now then let's build molecules
we take manganese with state of oxidation plus two
we always put in less than two we take manganese with state of
oxidation + 3 and oxygen less and less two
here too the rule of the crossing. In
this case there is no need as both have the same value as
will the molecule be called? In the first one
case with the traditional nomenclature it will be called manganous oxide and therefore
ending always ..ico and ..oso then manganous oxide
while in the IUPAC it will be called manganese oxide. In this case instead when the
manganese was the situation + 3 we will always do the famous .. we cross two
under the manganese and three below oxygen. hence the molecule that
will derive will be Mn2O3 I repeat the sum algebraic must be zero. So what will this compound be called
in the traditional nomenclature yes will call manganic oxide while in the
iupac nomenclature will be called trioxide of manganese. Now let's examine another exception which is the
chrome. Chrome may have been
oxidation +6, +3 and +2 in this case let us remember that chrome
behaves like oxide with the lowest been oxidation while behaving
like anhydride with the state of maximum oxidation. So we'll go to
define the chrome +2 and oxygen always value
– 2 and chromium with oxidation state +3. Also in this case the first is
perfectly balanced and how it will be called in traditional nomenclature? It will be referred to as chromic oxide
while in the name of nature IUPAC will come called simply chrome oxide. In this case instead with chrome with
been oxidation and +3 then we will put the 3 under the oxygen and
2 under the chrome then how they will be the clearly derived molecule is the
following Cr2O3 as it will come call? In traditional nomenclature
in this case it will be called as chromic oxide while in nomenclature
IUPAC will be called as trioxide of chrome. I hope this lesson is there
liked if you want, sign up for my channel or
crush a LIKE! .

Copper(I) oxide – Copper(I) oxide or cuprous oxide is the
inorganic compound with the formula Cu2O.
It is one of the principal oxides
of copper. This red-coloured solid is a component of some antifouling paints.
The compound can appear either yellow or red, depending on the size of the
particles. Copper(I) oxide is found as the reddish mineral cuprite.
Preparation Copper(I) oxide may be produced by
several methods. Most straightforwardly, it arises via the oxidation of copper
metal: 4 Cu + O2 → 2 Cu2O
Additives such as water and acids affect the rate of this process as well as the
further oxidation to copper(II) oxides. It is also produced commercially by
reduction of copper(II) solutions with sulfur dioxide. Aqueous cuprous chloride
solutions react with base to give the same material. In all cases, the color
is highly sensitive to the procedural details.
Formation of copper(I) oxide is the basis of the Fehling's test and
Benedict's test for reducing sugars. These sugars reduce an alkaline solution
of a copper(II) salt, giving a bright red precipitate of Cu2O.
It forms on silver-plated copper parts exposed to moisture when the silver
layer is porous or damaged. This kind of corrosion is known as red plague.
Little evidence exists for cuprous hydroxide, which is expected to rapidly
undergo dehydration. A similar situation applies to the hydroxides of gold(I) and
silver(I). Copper(I) oxide can also be prepared by
reacting a copper-ammonia complex with hydrogen peroxide.
Properties The solid is diamagnetic. In terms of
their coordination spheres, copper centres are 2-coordinated and the oxides
are tetrahedral. The structure thus resembles in some sense the main
polymorphs of SiO2, and both structures feature interpenetrated lattices.
Copper(I) oxide dissolves in concentrated ammonia solution to form
the colourless complex [Cu(NH3)2]+, which is easily oxidized in air to the
blue [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+. It dissolves in hydrochloric acid to give solutions of
CuCl2−. Dilute sulfuric acid and nitric acid produce copper(II) sulfate and
copper(II) nitrate, respectively. Cu2O degrades to copper(II) oxide in
moist air. Structure
Cu2O crystallizes in a cubic structure with a lattice constant al=4.2696 Å. The
Cu atoms arrange in a fcc sublattice, the O atoms in a bcc sublattice. One
sublattice is shifted by a quarter of the body diagonal. The space group is ,
which includes the point group with full octahedral symmetry.
Semiconducting properties In the history of semiconductor physics,
Cu2O is one of the most studied materials, and many experimental
observations and semiconductor applications have been demonstrated
first in this material: Semiconductor
Semiconductor diodes Experimental demonstration of Wannier
exciton series Polariton propagation beats in a solid
Dynamical Stark effect of excitons Phonoritons
Today, it is still under investigation in semiconductor optics. In particular,
researchers are attempting to create a Bose–Einstein condensate of excitons in
Cu2O. The lowest excitons in Cu2O are
extremely long lived; absorption lineshapes have been demonstrated with
neV linewidths, which is the narrowest bulk exciton resonance ever observed.
The associated quadrupole polaritons have low group velocity approaching the
speed of sound. Thus, light moves almost as slowly as sound in this medium, which
results in high polariton densities. Another unusual feature of the ground
state excitons is that all primary scattering mechanisms are known
quantitatively. Cu2O was the first substance where an entirely
parameter-free model of absorption linewidth broadening by temperature
could be established, allowing the corresponding absorption coefficient to
be deduced. It can be shown using Cu2O that the Kramers–Kronig relations do not
apply to polaritons. Applications
Cuprous oxide is commonly used as a pigment, a fungicide, and an antifouling
agent for marine paints. Rectifier diodes based on this material have been
used industrially as early as 1924, long before silicon became the standard.
Copper(I) oxide is also responsible for the pink color in a positive Benedict's
Test. See also
Copper(II) oxide References
^ a b c "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0150". National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health. ^ N. N. Greenwood, A. Earnshaw,
Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1997.
^ H. Wayne Richardson "Copper Compounds in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial
Chemistry 2002, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a07_567
^ D. Nicholls, Complexes and First-Row Transition Elements, Macmillan Press,
London, 1973. ^ L. O. Grondahl, Unidirectional current
carrying device, Patent, 1927 ^ a b c d e C. F. Klingshirn,
Semiconductor Optics, 3rd ed., Springer, 2006, ISBN 354038345X
^ L. Hanke, D. Fröhlich, A.L. Ivanov, P.B. Littlewood, and H. Stolz
"LA-Phonoritons in Cu2O" Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4365.
^ L. Brillouin: Wave Propagation and Group Velocity, Academic Press, New
York, 1960. ^ J. Brandt, D. Fröhlich, C. Sandfort,
M. Bayer, H. Stolz, and N. Naka, Ultranarrow absorption and two-phonon
excitation spectroscopy of Cu2O paraexcitons in a high magnetic field,
Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 217403. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.217403
^ J. P. Wolfe and A. Mysyrowicz: Excitonic Matter, Scientific American
250, No. 3, 98. External links
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