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During which change of state would the volume of a substance increase the most?

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During which change of state would the volume of a substance increase the most?

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CHEMISTRY

CHEMISTRY – He stated that equal volumes of gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules. 5.Compound is a substance that can be decomposed into two or more substances.The most important part of the red cell is its red colouring substance or hemoglobin which on an average forms about 36% of its mass. The total blood volume is divided into circulating and reservoir volumes. The circulating volume of the blood depends on the changes of the air temperature.She also states that the UN undermines the gravity of the problem of human trafficking which is estimated to be a Apart from a plethora of environmental issues that one of the most environmentally diverse For the sake of being concise, it is necessary to highlight the most crucial issues, however…

Text С . The Corpuscular Elements of Blood – During expansion and compression processes of real gases, pressure and volume are often related by PVn=C, where n and C are constants. The change in total energy of a system during a process can be expressed as the sum of the changes in its internal, kinetic, and potential energiesChanges in the state of a system are produced by interactions with the environment through heat and work During these interactions, equilibrium (a static or quasi-static process) is necessary for the Consider a simple compressible substance, for example, a gas (the system), exerting a force on the…Much like solids, liquids (most of which have a lower density than solids) are incredibly difficult to Plasma is not a common state of matter here on Earth, but it may be the most common state of When the substance reaches a certain combination of temperature and pressure, its melting point…

Text С . The Corpuscular Elements of Blood

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Capillary Exchange and Edema, Animation – الغرض الرئيسي من الدورة الدموية هو جلب الأكسجين والمواد المغذية إلى أنسجة الجسم وإزالة النفايات.
يحدث هذا التبادل في أصغر الأوعية الدموية التي تسمى الشعيرات الدموية. تتكون جدران الشعيرات الدموية من طبقة واحدة من الخلايا البطانية. تنتقل المواد بين الدم والأنسجة المحيطة بعدة طرق: – الانتشار عبر أغشية البلازما للخلايا البطانية: الطبيعة الكارهة للماء لغشاء الخلية تجعله قابل للاختراق جوهريًا للجزيئات الدهنية الصغيرة القابلة للذوبان والغازات الصغيرة. يتحرك الأكسجين لأسفل في تدرج تركيزه ، من الدم إلى الأنسجة المحيطة ، بينما ينتشر ثاني أكسيد الكربون في الاتجاه المعاكس. يتحرك الجلوكوز والجزيئات الصغيرة الأخرى القابلة للذوبان في الماء ، جزئيًا ، عن طريق الانتشار الميسر: يستخدمون قنوات خاصة ، تسمى الناقلات ، لعبور غشاء الخلية. يتحرك الماء بالتناضح. – نقل الحويصلة عبر الخلايا ، أو ترانس الخلايا: يتم تعبئة بعض البروتينات والهرمونات في حويصلات دهنية ويتم نقلها عبر الخلايا البطانية عن طريق الالتقام الخلوي والإخراج الخلوي. – في معظم الأنسجة ، يتم تبادل السوائل والمواد المذابة من خلال الفجوات الموجودة بين الخلايا البطانية ، والتي تسمى الشقوق بين الخلايا ؛ وفي بعض الأنسجة ، من خلال مسام ما يسمى بالشعيرات الدموية fenestrated. تنتقل بلازما الدم التي تحتوي على مغذيات من الشعيرات الدموية في نهاية الشرايين للأسرة الشعرية ، في عملية تسمى الترشيح ، بينما يتم امتصاص سوائل الأنسجة المحتوية على النفايات مرة أخرى في النهاية الوريدية. هذه الحركة ، التي تسمى التدفق الكتلي ، مدفوعة بالتوازن بين قوتين: – القوة الهيدروستاتيكية ، الناتجة عن اختلاف الضغوط الهيدروستاتيكية داخل وخارج الشعيرات الدموية. يُعرَّف الضغط الهيدروستاتيكي بأنه ضغط السوائل في مكان مغلق. داخل الشعيرات الدموية ، هذا هو نفس ضغط الدم الشعري. نظرًا لأن الأنسجة عمومًا تحتوي على سوائل أقل بكثير من الدم ، فإن الضغط الهيدروستاتيكي من الشعيرات الدموية الداخلية أعلى بكثير من الضغط الخارجي. وبالتالي ، تدفع القوة الهيدروستاتيكية السوائل والمذابات في الدم خارج الشعيرات الدموية. – تقاوم القوة الهيدروستاتيكية القوة التناضحية. القوة التناضحية ، وتسمى أيضًا ضغط الأورام ، تتولد أساسًا من الاختلاف في تركيزات البروتين بين الدم والأنسجة الخلالية. يحتوي الدم على نسبة عالية من البروتين بسبب الألبومين ، وهذا يسحب الماء إلى الأوعية الدموية. نظرًا لأن النهاية الشريانية للسرير الشعري أقرب نسبيًا إلى القلب من النهاية الوريدية ، فإن ضغط الدم الشعري ، وبالتالي الضغط الهيدروستاتيكي ، يكون أعلى في نهاية الشرايين. مع بقاء الضغط الاسموزي كما هو طوال الوقت ، ينتقل التوازن من صافي التدفق الخارجي في نهاية الشرايين إلى صافي التدفق الداخلي في النهاية الوريدية. لاحظ أن صافي ضغط الترشيح الخارجي أكبر من صافي ضغط إعادة الامتصاص الداخلي . وهذا يعني ترشيح المزيد من السوائل أكثر من إعادة امتصاصها مرة أخرى. في الواقع ، يترك حوالي 15٪ من السائل في الأنسجة بعد التبادل الشعري. يلتقط الجهاز اللمفاوي هذا السائل ويعود إلى الدورة الدموية في وقت لاحق . تشير الوذمة إلى تراكم غير طبيعي للسوائل الزائدة في الأنسجة. يتجلى في شكل تورم خارجي أو تضخم في الأعضاء الداخلية. هناك ثلاث مجموعات رئيسية من الأسباب: – زيادة الترشيح ، إما من زيادة ضغط الدم أو زيادة نفاذية الشعيرات الدموية ، – قلة إعادة الامتصاص بسبب انخفاض تركيزات الألبومين في الدم ، – وعرقلة التصريف اللمفاوي. تعيق السوائل الزائدة تبادل المغذيات / النفايات والغازات وقد تؤدي إلى نخر الأنسجة. قد يصاحب الوذمة الشديدة أيضًا انخفاض حاد في حجم الدم مما قد يؤدي إلى صدمة الدورة الدموية . .

Interconversion of States of Matter – Class 9 Tutorial – INTERCONVERSION OF STATES OF MATTER Matter around us exists in the solid, liquid
and gaseous state.
The state of matter changes from solid to
liquid, liquid to gas, or a combination of these.
A Solid changes its state to liquid by melting. Upon heating solids, the space between the
particles increases and the particles move freely to form liquid. When a piece of butter
is placed in a frying pan and heated, the piece of butter slowly loses its shape and
changes to liquid. Similarly, a liquid changes its state to solid
by solidification. Upon freezing liquids, the space between the particles decreases
and they solidify. When some water is poured in an ice tray and kept in a freezer, the
water solidifies and becomes ice. A liquid changes its state to gaseous form
through vapourisation: the space between particles increases when heated, thereby forming gas.
When water is heated, vapor arises from its surface and so water in a liquid state is
converted to a gaseous state. The gas formed can be converted back to liquid.
Now, close the beaker with a lid and continue heating. After some time, you will observe
droplets of water accumulated on the surface of the lid. Such a process is called condensation.
During condensation vaporized particles are accumulated and form liquid.
We have already learned melting, solidification, vaporization and condensation. Now, can a
solid be directly converted to gas and vice versa?
When dry ice is kept at -78.5 degree Celsius at one atmospheric pressure, dry ice is converted
to gas. This process is called sublimation. And when the gas so formed is trapped, the
gas is accumulated to form dry ice again. That shows that a solid can be directly converted
to gas and vice versa. EVAPORATION As we have seen earlier in vaporization, a
liquid is converted to gas before reaching its boiling point. Such a process is relatively
known as evaporation. Let's define it. Evaporation is the process by which a liquid
changes from its liquid state to gaseous state without being heated to its boiling point.
There are many factors which affect the evaporation of liquids. Temperature When droplets of water are sprayed into a
hot pan, you will observe that the droplets suddenly vaporize and the vapors escape into
the atmosphere. This shows that increase of temperature will result in a greater number
of water particles being converted to a vapor state. Surface Area When the surface area is increased, the rate
of evaporation increases. Here, the glass and the saucer contain water. Both are kept
at room temperature. You will observe that after some time, the water level in the saucer
has fallen substantially, compared to the water level in the glass. The water in the
saucer has evaporated due to the increased surface area. Wind Speed These clothes are spread out for drying. As
the wind speed increases, the particles of water vapor move away with the wind, decreasing
the amount of water vapor in the surrounding. Wind speed increases evaporation. Hence, on
a windy day clothes dry faster. Humidity Humidity is the amount of water vapour present
in air. If the amount of water in the air is high, evaporation will be less. Here, the
same volume of water is kept in both beakers. However, they are placed in different weather
conditions. Hence you will observe that under hot conditions, the water level in the beaker
drops, whereas in humid conditions there is no significant change in water level. This
shows that humidity effects evaporation. EVAPORATION CAUSES COOLING Let us now observe a thermometer, where the
mercury bulb is secured with a cotton plug. It is dipped in a bottle containing spirit.
You will observe that the mercury dips. This indicates that as the spirit evaporates, the
temperature reduces and cotton becomes cold. THINGS TO REMEMBER The state of matter changes from solid to
liquid, liquid to gas, or a combination of these.
Solid changes its state to liquid by melting and liquid changes its state to solid by solidification.
Liquid changes its state to gaseous form through vapourisation, and through condensation, gas
changes to liquid. Solid can be directly converted to gas through
the process of sublimation and gas can be converted to solid through deposition.
Evaporation is the conversion of liquid to gas before reaching the liquid's boiling point.
Factors effecting evaporation are temperature, surface area, wind speed and humidity. .

√ Density of Water | Water Distribution | Chemistry – .