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Flashcards – Management 5
1. __________ refers to the process of growing interdependence among resource supplies, product markets, and business competition on a worldwide basis.A. GlobalisationB. International managementC. The multinational economyD. Global managementE. Transnational interdependence
2. Which of the following does NOT describe the characteristics of global managers?A. Focusing on domestic market demandsB. Being competent in working with persons from different culturesC. Being informed about international developmentsD. Being aware of regional developments in a changing worldE. Being transnational in outlook
A. Focusing on domestic market demands
3. Which of the following accurately describes member countries of the forum for Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)?A. The member countries represent three quarters of the global marketplace.B. The member countries represent one third of the world’s top market for cars and telecommunications equipment.C. The member countries provide both high cost labour and a growing pool of highly skilled brainpower.D. All of the above.E. None of the above.
B. The member countries represent one third of the world’s top market for cars and telecommunications equipment.
4. The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) provides for Asia-Pacific economies to strengthen regional links andA. contribute to Australia’s securityB. deepen economic relationships with ChinaC. pursue common trade and economic goalsD. All of the aboveE. None of the above
C. pursue common trade and economic goals
5. The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) facilitates a developed-country forum in which Australia and New Zealand can meet with _______ to discuss economic, trade and social policy concerns.A. Japan, North America and Western EuropeB. Pacific Rim countriesC. Canada, US and MexicoD. Japan, Indonesia and ChinaE. North America and Britain
A. Japan, North America and Western Europe
6. Australia’s strengthening cooperation with Asia contributes toA. Australia’s securityB. promotion of international interestsC. increased trade collaborationD. All of the aboveE. None of the above
D. All of the above
7. Which of the following statements about the relationship between Australia and New Zealand is true?A. The Trans-Tasman Mutual Recognition Arrangement was disbanded in 2002.B. The gap between Australia and New Zealand’s business law regimes is widening.C. There is an increase in compliance costs for companies operating in both countries.D. The relationship between the two countries remains strong, and is evident from the progress on the progress on the continuing Trans-Tasman trade and economic agenda.E. The relationship between Australia and New Zealand is weakening economically.
D. The relationship between the two countries remains strong, and is evident from the progress on the progress on the continuing Trans-Tasman trade and economic agenda.
8. Which of the following are competitive implications for the European Union?A. Free flow of workers, goods and services, and investments across national boundariesB. Each EU country has access to a market slightly smaller than the United States.C. Unfavourable trade and customs lawsD. All of the aboveE. None of the above
A. Free flow of workers, goods and services, and investments across national boundaries
9. The European Union is composed of 27 Western European countries that haveA. decided to promote cultural exchanges.B. formed a political alliance to overthrow communism.C. signed a mutual defence treaty.D. agreed to promote mutual economic growth by removing trade barriers.E. created an international organisation to represent the rights and interests of workers.
D. agreed to promote mutual economic growth by removing trade barriers.
10. The __________ is/are comprised of 27 countries linked together through favourable trade and customs laws to facilitate the free flow of workers, products and investments across national boundaries.A. European free trade organisationsB. European countriesC. European UnionD. European International AssociationE. European foreign countries
C. European Union
11. Important business and economic agreements among the EU countries include all the following EXCEPTA. discouraging a common currency among members.B. opening government procurement to businesses from all member countries.C. creating uniform minimum technical product standards.D. unifying financial regulations.E. eliminating frontier controls and trade barriers.
A. discouraging a common currency among members.
12. The __________ is the new common currency of the European Union.A. Gold StandardB. ZlotyC. EuroD. EU Franc-MarkE. International Dollar
13. Which of the following is NOT an expected benefit of a common European currency?A. A common currency will help create steady growth.B. A common currency will have political risks.C. A common currency will eliminate economic risks.D. A common currency will produce lower inflation rates.E. A common currency will contribute to higher productivity.
C. A common currency will eliminate economic risks.
14. Countries that have joined together to form the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) includeA. Canada, the United States and MexicoB. Canada, Cuba and MexicoC. Canada and MexicoD. Mexico and the United StatesE. Canada and the United States
A. Canada, the United States and Mexico
15. One of the controversies associated with NAFTA is the operation of manufacturing plants that are allowed to import materials, components and equipment duty free. These firms are calledA. privileged.B. free trade organisations.C. Canamericos.D. government agencies.E. Maquiladoras.
16. The North American Free Trade Agreement has created a market of potential consumers larger than its rival, theA. European Foreign Countries.B. European Union.C. European Free Trade Organisation.D. European International Association.E. North American and European Association.
B. European Union.
17. Which one of the following statements does NOT accurately describe the concerns of the countries that negotiated the North American Free Trade Agreement?A. American politicians were concerned about the potential loss of jobs to Mexico.B. Mexico feared a further intrusion of US culture and values into Mexico.C. Canadians worried about a vast influx of Mexican immigrants into Canada, thereby providing a cheap source of labour.D. Americans complained that Mexican businesses had lower social standards regarding the use of child labour and protection of the environment.E. Canadian firms worried about domination by United States manufacturers.
C. Canadians worried about a vast influx of Mexican immigrants into Canada, thereby providing a cheap source of labour.
18. Trade between the Canada, Mexico and United States is characterised byA. limited flow of goods and services, workers and investments.B. restricted flow of goods and services, workers and investments.C. formulation of foreign economic controls.D. development of competitive banking barriers.E. free flow of goods and services, workers and investments.
E. free flow of goods and services, workers and investments.
19. Along with the EU, __________ is among Australia and New Zealand’s largest trading partners and sources of foreign investment.A. CanadaB. USAC. MexicoD. All of the above.E. None of the above.
20. Australia and New Zealand’s interest in high quality US engagement in the Asia-Pacific region continues, especially the importance of good US relations withA. Japan.B. China.C. Indonesia and the Republic of Korea.D. All of the above.E. None of the above.
D. All of the above.
21. Examples of successful collaborations between Australia/NZ and Latin America includeA. a tariff exemption for woolB. access for cereals and meatC. supply of coal to Mexico’s power industryD. All of the aboveE. None of the above
D. All of the above
22. Two Harvard University professors’ analysis of the foreign investment environment in Africa concluded thatA. Africa’s contextual problems are manageableB. Africa’s contextual problems should be viewed as opportunitiesC. Africa presents a promising market if a company has the necessary managerial and organisational capabilities to deal with Africa’s unique business challengesD. All of the aboveE. None of the above
D. All of the above
23. __________ is a region of ethnic turmoil and civil strife in countries struggling along the road to peace and economic development while simultaneously being a region rich with international business opportunities.A. Australia and New ZealandB. North AmericaC. Western EuropeD. Northern EuropeE. Africa
24. Africa is a continent with a growing economy that beckons international business because of itsA. natural resourcesB. ethnic turmoilC. unstable economic developmentD. All of the above.E. None of the above.
A. natural resources
25. __________ tends to discourage international business in parts of Africa.A. A low economic growth rate in sub-Saharan AfricaB. PovertyC. A continuing AIDS epidemicD. All of the aboveE. None of the above
D. All of the above
26. __________ links 14 countries of southern Africa in trade and economic development efforts.A. South African Free Trade Association (SAFTA)B. South African Community (SAC)C. South Africa Economic Cooperative (SAEC)D. South African Development Community (SADC)E. South Africa Union (SAU)
D. South African Development Community (SADC)
27. Businesses expand their operations to the international market for many reasons. Which of these is NOT a reason offered by your text?A. To have access to lower labour costsB. To draw on the financial resources of many nationsC. To take advantage of decreased governmental control in host countriesD. To increase access to needed raw materialsE. To expand profit potential
C. To take advantage of decreased governmental control in host countries
28. Conducting for-profit transactions of goods and services across national boundaries is the foundation ofA. multinational managementB. transborder entrepreneurshipC. cross-cultural intrapreneurshipD. international businessE. cross-national management
D. international business
29. The reasons for engaging in international business include all of the following EXCEPTA. seeking new markets to sell products.B. seeking profit potential.C. seeking to eliminate ethical concerns.D. seeking access to financial resources.E. seeking access to lower labour costs.
C. seeking to eliminate ethical concerns.
30. A free-market economy is one thatA. allows the government to determine allocations of raw materials.B. operates under capitalism and laws of supply and demand.C. allows the government to make all the major decisions.D. disperses national resources equitably among the corporations in the nation.E. disperses national resources equally among the citizens of a nation.
B. operates under capitalism and laws of supply and demand.
31. When the government makes decisions that determine allocations of raw materials, set product output quotas, and regulate wages and prices, the nation is operating underA. conditions of free government control.B. a central-planning economy.C. poor government conditions.D. a domestic economy.E. a free-market economy.
B. a central-planning economy.
32. Controversies emerge over rising prices, unemployment, business competition and the challenges of privatisation asA. global markets dominate transnational businessesB. as manufacturing-based economies change to knowledge-based economiesC. a free-market economies change to central-planning economiesD. as central-planning economies change to free-market economiesE. globalisation increases competitive pressures on businesses of all sizes
D. as central-planning economies change to free-market economies
33. The collapse of communism in the former Soviet Union and the nations dominated by itA. will present risks to foreign investors because of changes in political systems and governmentsB. will provide opportunities to foreign investors in Russia, and eastern and central EuropeC. have produced an atmosphere of social progress and economic growth, thereby creating opportunities for western businessesD. All of the aboveE. None of the above
D. All of the above
34. __________ is the selling of state-owned enterprises into private ownership.A. Governmental subsidyB. Foreign investmentC. PrivatisationD. Governmental auctionE. Corporate welfare
35. Political calls for tariffs and favourable treatment to help shelter domestic businesses from foreign competition is known asA. restrictive trade.B. protectionism.C. maquiladora.D. free trade.E. strategic economic bidding.
36. Common legal problems in international business involve all of the following EXCEPTA. incorporation practices and business ownership.B. protecting patents, trademarks, and copyrights.C. handling foreign exchange restrictions.D. environmental pollution restrictions.E. negotiating and implementing contracts with foreign parties.
D. environmental pollution restrictions.
37. Foreign companies operating in the Asia-PacificA. may encounter quite different laws than they are accustomed to in their home countries.B. must deal with antitrust issues that prevent competitors from regularly communicating with one another.C. must deal with special laws regarding occupational safety and health, equal employment opportunity and sexual harassment.D. All of the above.E. None of the above.
D. All of the above.
38. Because educational systems vary from country to country, business leaders around the world are concerned aboutA. actual or potential human resource deficits.B. problems of illiteracy.C. the absence of appropriate skills in the workforce.D. All of the above.E. None of the above.
D. All of the above.
39. Which of the following does NOT accurately characterise the conduct of international business?A. Joint ventures and wholly owned subsidiaries are direct investment strategies for conducting international business.B. Direct investment strategies require major capital commitments but create rights of ownership and control over foreign operations.C. Market entry strategies involve the sale of goods or services to foreign markets but do not require major capital investments.D. When a business is just getting started internationally, direct investment strategies are the usual way to begin.E. Global sourcing, exporting/importing and licensing/franchising are market entry strategies for conducting international business.
D. When a business is just getting started internationally, direct investment strategies are the usual way to begin.
40. ____________ provides a business with the opportunity to take advantage of international wage gaps and the availability of skilled labour by dispersing more and more work to foreign locations.A. Direct investmentB. LicensingC. ExportingD. Global sourcingE. Importing
D. Global sourcing
41. The exporting of products involvesA. acquiring foreign-made products and selling them in domestic markets.B. selling locally made products in foreign markets.C. contracting to provide managerial and technical service to a foreign concern.D. making direct investments in start-up operations abroad.E. making investments in a foreign operation.
B. selling locally made products in foreign markets.
42. The importing of products involvesA. acquiring foreign-made products and selling them in domestic markets.B. contracting to provide managerial and technical service to a foreign concern.C. making investments in a foreign operation.D. selling locally made products in foreign markets.E. making direct investments in start-up operations abroad.
A. acquiring foreign-made products and selling them in domestic markets.
43. __________ is a form of international business through which a company pays a fee for the rights to manufacture or sell another firm’s products.A. A management contractB. An incorporated businessC. A licensing agreementD. A joint ventureE. A multi-company operation
C. A licensing agreement
44. A __________ is an international business approach that typically grants access to unique manufacturing technology, a special patent, or trademark rights.A. management contract.B. licensing agreement.C. wholly-owned subsidiary.D. joint venture.E. franchise.
B. licensing agreement.
45. A form of licensing in which the licensee buys the complete support package needed to open the business is aA. franchiseB. wholly-owned subsidiaryC. joint ventureD. management contractE. licensing agreement
46. Joint ventures are __________ that help participants to gain things through cooperation that otherwise would be difficult to achieve independently.A. strategic alliancesB. licensing agreementsC. management contractsD. import/export arrangementsE. foreign partnering contracts
A. strategic alliances
47. A checklist for selecting joint venture partners in a foreign country should include which of the following?A. Choose a foreign partner with activities that relate closely to your firm’s major business.B. Choose a foreign partner with a strong local workforce.C. Choose a foreign partner with good profit potential and sound financial standing.D. All of the aboveE. None of the above
D. All of the above
48. In selecting joint venture partners in a foreign country, a company should do all of the following EXCEPTA. choose a partner that is a new entrant to your firm’s line of business.B. choose a partner with good profit potential.C. choose a partner with shared interests in meeting customer needs.D. choose a partner with future expansion possibilities.E. choose a partner with a strong local market for its own products.
A. choose a partner that is a new entrant to your firm’s line of business.
49. Which of the following forms of international business transactions represent investments in a local operation that is completely owned and controlled by a foreign firm?A. Management contractsB. Licensing agreementsC. Wholly owned subsidiariesD. A multinational corporationE. Joint ventures
C. Wholly owned subsidiaries
50. The best definition of a multinational corporation isA. a business that has extensive international operations in more than one foreign country.B. a business firm that has extensive operations in one foreign country.C. any joint venture with a foreign firm.D. any import/export firm.E. any firm that does business abroad.
A. a business that has extensive international operations in more than one foreign country.
51. Which of the following are mutual benefits for a multinational corporation and a host country?A. GrowthB. IncomeC. LearningD. All of the aboveE. None of the above
D. All of the above
52. A company that operates worldwide without being identified with one national home is known as a ___________.A. antidomestic corporationB. international corporationC. supernational corporationD. multinational corporationE. transnational corporation
E. transnational corporation
53. All of the following are benefits to the host country of a multinational corporation EXCEPTA. reduced tax base.B. increased employment opportunities.C. technology transfer.D. capital development.E. development of local resources.
A. reduced tax base.
54. Multinational corporations have several complaints about host countries. Which of the following is NOT one of these complaints?A. Pressure to keep local wage rates lowB. Pressure to pay high prices for servicesC. Pressure to buy raw materials at inflated pricesD. Failure to uphold contractsE. Foreign exchange restrictions
A. Pressure to keep local wage rates low
55. Multinational corporations are often criticised at home forA. diverting labour-intensive jobs from the domestic labour force to foreign labour markets.B. diverting capital investments away from the domestic market.C. allowing or encouraging corrupt practices in their foreign subsidiaries.D. All of the above.E. None of the above.
D. All of the above.
56. Which of the following statements about corruption is NOT true?A. Companies adhering to anti-corruption policies are at a competitive advantage.B. Commonwealth heads of government have a policy of ‘zero tolerance’ of corruptionC. The Council of Europe and the EU have finalised comprehensive anti-corruption policies.D. Corruption involves illegal practices to further one’s business practices.E. Critics believe that anti-corruption policies fail to recognise the reality of business in foreign nations.
A. Companies adhering to anti-corruption policies are at a competitive advantage.
57. The extent of global environmental protection is affected by all of the following concerns and practices EXCEPTA. only the highly industrialised nations are worried about industrial pollution of cities, hazardous waste disposal, and depletion of natural resources.B. the world’s citizenry is worried about the possibilities of global environmental disasters.C. the world’s citizenry increasingly expects global corporations to respect the natural environment and to pursue safe industrial practices.D. activist groups are promoting sustainable development to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.E. ISO 14000 provides guidelines for responsible environmental policies.
A. only the highly industrialised nations are worried about industrial pollution of cities, hazardous waste disposal, and depletion of natural resources.
58. A shared set of beliefs, values and patterns of behaviour common to a group of people is referred to asA. national style.B. group character.C. the economic system.D. culture.E. the legal system.
59. __________ is the confusion and discomfort a person experiences when in an unfamiliar culture.A. Culture shockB. EthnocentrismC. PolycentrismD. GroupthinkE. Jet lag
A. Culture shock
60. Which sequence accurately describes the stages that a person goes through in adjusting to a new culture?A. Confusion, irritation/anger, reality, small victories and the honeymoonB. The honeymoon, small victories, reality, confusion and irritation/angerC. Small victories, the honeymoon, reality, irritation/anger and confusionD. Confusion, small victories, the honeymoon, irritation/anger and realityE. The honeymoon, confusion, irritation/anger, small victories and reality
D. Confusion, small victories, the honeymoon, irritation/anger and reality
61. __________ cultures are those in which much communication takes place through nonverbal and situational cues in addition to the written or spoken word.A. High-contextB. Low-context.C. OrganisationalD. CorporateE. Middle-context
62. Which of the following statements provides an incorrect description of the role of interpersonal space in culture?A. Arabs prefer closer interpersonal space in terms of communication.B. Americans tend to value large and private office space.C. Interpersonal space is a silent language of culture.D. Australians and New Zealanders prefer close interpersonal space in interpersonal communications.E. In Japan, executive offices are likely to be shared even in major corporations.
D. Australians and New Zealanders prefer close interpersonal space in interpersonal communications.
63. In __________, people tend to do one thing at a time.A. ethical culturesB. monochronic culturesC. time dependent culturesD. polychronic culturesE. sensitive cultures
B. monochronic cultures
64. In __________, time is used to accomplish many things at once.A. monochronic culturesB. time dependent culturesC. sensitive culturesD. polychronic culturesE. ethical cultures
D. polychronic cultures
65. As a cultural variable, religion mayA. affect business practices regarding dress, food and interpersonal behaviour.B. provide ethical and moral guidance for personal and institutional activities.C. require business people to be sensitive to the rituals, holy days, and other expectations associated with the host nation’s religious tradition(s).D. All of the above.E. None of the above.
D. All of the above.
66. Which of the following is a true statement about the role of contracts in different cultures?A. Cultures vary in their use of contracts and agreements.B. In China a contract is viewed as a final and binding agreement.C. In low-context cultures, written contracts continue to emerge and are modified as the parties work together.D. Written contracts are viewed as a starting point in low-context cultures.E. Contracts tend to be viewed as binding agreements in high-context cultures.
A. Cultures vary in their use of contracts and agreements.
67. Geert Hofstede has developed a framework consisting of five dimensions for understanding the management implications of broad differences in national cultures. Which of the following accurately identifies these five dimensions?A. Location, certainty avoidance, individualism-collectivism, masculinity-femininity and religious traditionB. Power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism-collectivism, masculinity-femininity and time orientationC. Power distance, certainty avoidance, individualism-utilitarianism, masculinity-femininity and religious traditionD. Political distance, uncertainty avoidance, utilitarianism-collectivism, masculinity-femininity and time orientationE. Power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism-collectivism, totalitarianism-decentralisation and economic opportunities
B. Power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism-collectivism, masculinity-femininity and time orientation
68. Which of the following examples represent Hofstede’s individualism-collectivism dimension?A. All should have equal rights versus only the ones in control are entitled to privilegeB. Willingness to take risks versus concern with security in lifeC. Reliance on individual self-interest versus the collective values of the groupD. Interdependence versus independenceE. Time is free versus time is money
C. Reliance on individual self-interest versus the collective values of the group
69. Which of the following examples represent Hofstede’s masculinity-femininity dimension?A. Willingness to take risks versus concern with security in lifeB. Everyone should have equal rights versus only the ones in control entitled to privilegeC. Time is free versus time is money.D. Reliance on group decisions versus reliance on individual decisionsE. Assertiveness versus concerns for feelings
E. Assertiveness versus concerns for feelings
70. Which of the following examples represent Hofstede’s power distance dimension?A. Everybody should have equal rights versus the ones who are in control are entitled to privilege.B. Willingness to take risks versus concern with security in life.C. Interdependence versus independence.D. Reliance on group decisions versus reliance on individual decisions.E. Time is free versus time is money.
A. Everybody should have equal rights versus the ones who are in control are entitled to privilege.
71. Hofstede’s cultural framework helps identify useful managerial implications of cultural differences, including all of the following EXCEPTA. in high uncertainty avoidance cultures, employment practices that increase job security are likely to be used.B. workers from high power distance cultures can be expected to respect people in authority.C. in highly individualistic societies, workers are likely to emphasise self-interests over group loyalty.D. in long-term cultures, business strategies are oriented toward the long term.E. in more feminine societies, the workplace displays more rigid gender stereotypes.
E. in more feminine societies, the workplace displays more rigid gender stereotypes.
72. Fons Trompenaars’ framework for identifying systematic cultural differences focuses onA. the way relationships are handled among people.B. attitudes toward time.C. attitudes toward the environment.D. All of the above.E. None of the above.
D. All of the above.
73. According to Fons Trompenaars, __________ is the degree to which a culture emphasises individual freedoms and responsibilities in relationships or focuses more on group interests and openness.A. achievement versus prescriptionB. universalism versus particularismC. specific versus diffuseD. neutral versus affectiveE. individualism versus collectivism
E. individualism versus collectivism
74. According to Fons Trompenaars, __________ is the degree to which a culture emphasises objectivity and reserved detachment in relationships or allows for more emotionality and expressed feelings.A. achievement versus prescriptionB. specific versus diffuseC. universalism versus particularismD. neutral versus affectiveE. individualism versus collectivism
D. neutral versus affective
75. According to Fons Trompenaars, __________ is the degree to which a culture emphasises focused and in-depth relationships or broader and more superficial ones.A. individualism versus collectivism.B. neutral versus affective.C. specific versus diffuse.D. achievement versus prescription.E. universalism versus particularism.
C. specific versus diffuse.
76. According to Fons Trompenaars, __________ is the degree to which a culture emphasises rules and consistency in relationships or accepts flexibility and the bending of rules to fit circumstances.A. universalism versus particularismB. individualism versus collectivismC. neutral versus affectiveD. specific versus diffuseE. achievement versus prescription
A. universalism versus particularism
77. The __________ refers to a culture that views time as a continuous and passing series of events.A. synchronic viewB. polychronic viewC. time conscience viewD. sequential viewE. appreciation for time view
D. sequential view
78. The __________ refers to a culture that views time as linear with an interrelated past, present and future.A. Time conscience viewB. Polychronic viewC. Analytical view of timeD. Synchronic viewE. Sequential view
D. Synchronic view
79. Trompenaars recognises that cultures vary in their approach to the environment. In a(n) __________ culture, people tend to view themselves as separate from nature.A. outer-directedB. self-motivatingC. self-directedD. inner-directedE. distrusting
80. Fons Trompenaars’ cultural framework suggests that in a(n) __________ culture, people tend to view themselves as part of nature.A. humanistB. inner-directedC. naturalistD. outer-directedE. environmentally friendly
81. The global manager is a person who isA. comfortable with cultural diversity.B. quick to find opportunities in unfamiliar settings.C. able to utilise economic, social, technological, and other forces for the benefit of the organisation.D. All of the above.E. None of the above.
D. All of the above.
82. __________ is the study of how management practices systematically differ among countries and/or cultures.A. Political-risk analysisB. International businessC. Comparative managementD. International managementE. Theory Z
C. Comparative management
83. Which one of the following is NOT true regarding planning and controlling of global operations?A. Global planning and controlling are not especially challenging or difficult because of the availability of computer-based global networks.B. Businesses with investments in foreign countries must remain cautious about the risk of doing business across political and economic borders.C. Political risk analysis is used to forecast the probability that events – like social instabilities dues to ethnic differences, armed conflicts, and new laws and economic policies — will threaten the security of a foreign investment.D. The home office must be linked with foreign affiliates while considering different environments, cultures and needs.E. Increasingly, technology facilitates the planning and control of global communications through vastly improved communications systems.
A. Global planning and controlling are not especially challenging or difficult because of the availability of computer-based global networks.
84. __________ is the potential loss of one’s investment in or managerial control of a foreign asset due to changes in the host country’s political environment.A. Political riskB. Corporate malfeasanceC. Political instabilityD. Economic instabilityE. Sociocultural risk
A. Political risk
85. Forecasting the probability of events that may threaten the security of a foreign investment is referred to as __________ analysis.A. foreign-instabilityB. securityC. economic-securityD. political-riskE. investment-risk
86. __________ refers to potential loss due to fluctuating exchange rates.A. Social riskB. Economic riskC. Currency riskD. Political riskE. Business risk
C. Currency risk
87. The personal attributes that are considered important for employees accepting overseas assignments include all of the following EXCEPTA. a real desire to live and work abroad.B. family flexibility and support.C. a high degree of general cultural awareness.D. technical competence in one’s jobE. a strong sense of personal ethics.
E. a strong sense of personal ethics.
88. One of the concerns of multinational corporations is whether accepted US and Western European management practices and theories are appropriate for use as models abroad. Hofstede’s research in this area indicates that these theoriesA. work best within multinational corporations.B. work best within English-speaking countries.C. are still ethnocentric.D. are only valid within the country they were created in.E. are universally applicable since they are good theories.
A. work best within multinational corporations.
89. The text discusses characteristics of the Japanese approach to management. Which of the following is NOT one of these characteristics?A. Japanese workers intend to work for an organisation their entire career.B. Japanese managers like to make group decisions.C. Japanese firms emphasise quality.D. Japanese managers experience gradual career advancement.E. Japanese practice emphasises job enrichment, focusing on restructuring individual jobs to suit individual needs.
E. Japanese practice emphasises job enrichment, focusing on restructuring individual jobs to suit individual needs.
90. In Japan, __________ are long-term industry alliances or business groups that link together various businesses — manufacturers, suppliers and finance companies — to attain common interests.A. sushiB. jujitsuC. kanbanD. keiretsuE. Yokohama
91. Companies that believe in __________, realise that businesses around the world have much to share with and learn from on another.A. international tradeB. cross-cultural management of intellectual propertyC. expatriate knowledge sharingD. global organisational learningE. transnational knowledge positioning
D. global organisational learning
92. To promote global organisational learning, organisations and their members shouldA. share with and learn from one another, particularly from excellent companies, both at home and abroad.B. appreciate the constraints and opportunities of different national cultures and environments.C. be alert, open, inquiring, and cautious regarding the potential merits of management practices found in other countries and how they are affected by cultural variables.D. All of the above.E. None of the above.
D. All of the above.
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