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How did Boris Yeltsin respond to the communist coup attempt?

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The bitter legacy of Boris Yeltsin (1931-2007) - World Socialist Web Site

The bitter legacy of Boris Yeltsin (1931-2007) – World Socialist Web Site – Yeltsin, along with the last general secretary of the Communist Party Mikhail Gorbachev and the leading The fall of the USSR did not in any way signify the "end of history," the perspective advanced by Beginning work himself as a construction engineer, Yeltsin found his path to the Communist…The end of Soviet communism. Boris N. Yeltsin (centre) standing on an armoured vehicle parked in front of the White House in Moscow, with supporters holding a Russian Federation flag, August 19 Yeltsin appealed to the patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church, Aleksey II, to condemn the coup.Boris Yeltsin lied when he said that he had been looking for a successor in the person of Vladimir Putin for a long time. Declassified transcripts of Bill Clinton's phone conversations with Boris Yeltsin in 1999 show that the late Russian president says that it took him long to find the man who would be in…

collapse of the Soviet Union | Causes, Facts, Events… | Britannica – Boris Yeltsin denounces the 1991 coup. Photograph: Diane Lu-Hovasse/AFP/Getty Images. As the delegations gathered, they realised the political crisis would have Ukraine's own turn towards to the west led to Russia's annexation of Crimea and a separatist conflict in eastern Ukraine, while the rest…The 1991 presidential campaign of Boris Yeltsin, was the successful campaign by then-Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Russia in Russia's first presidential election. Yeltsin ran as an independent candidate. His runningmate was People's Deputy and former soldier Alexander Rutskoy.Boris Yeltsin was a high ranking member of the Soviet government and one of the leaders of the pro-Democratic movement. Find an answer to your question "How did Boris Yeltsin respond to the Communist coup attempt?" in History if the answers seem to be not correct or there's no…

collapse of the Soviet Union | Causes, Facts, Events... | Britannica

Why did Yeltsin lie to Clinton about Putin? – ROBERTS: So, how do you think Boris Yeltsin will be remembered? What is his legacy? I think today – for most Russians – he'll be remembered as a failed president. I think 10 to 20 years from now, depending on what happens to the future trajectory of Russia – Post-communist Russia – he could be…He did prohibit the Communist Party, but alas he did not eliminate the KGB. One of the lessons from democracy building is that a 'founding' election Anders Åslund is a senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics, Washington, D.C. He was an economic adviser to the Yeltsin…11. How did the 15 soviet Republics respond to the failed Coup? It sparked anger against the communist party. The Soviet Union started to collapse and many of the soviet Republics What was Yeltsin attempting to do by forming the CIS? What effect would it have on the traditional Soviet Union?

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🇷🇺 HISTORIA de la UNIÓN SOVIÉTICA en (casi) 18 minutos. Ft. El Baúl de los Conocimientos Inútiles🇷🇺 – There is no doubt that one of the most important events in history was the Russian revolution, since it marked the beginning of a project that had been devised decades before, the communist project.
The first to try?: The Bolsheviks after the fall of the Romanovs, kicking off the most recent extinct superpower of all, the Soviet Union. Are you interested in knowing the history, significance and consequences of this colossal state and its controversial ideology? Alright then stay until the end of the video. Today we have the collaboration of my friend Rafael from the channel "El baúl de los conocimientos inútiles" Suscribe to his channel to watch amazing content of history, politics and alternate realities. I´ll leave the link in the description. We go back to the year 1917. The Russian Empire, under the command of Nicholas II of the house of Romanov, was at that time receiving a resounding defeat on the eastern front during the First World War. It is important to highlight that Nicolás directed the most extensive state of the time, which ranged from Eastern Europe to Siberia, reaching the Pacific Ocean. Despite its colossal territory, Russia had lagged behind the European powers. Not only did its population suffer from hunger and it was dragged into a bloody war, but it did not have sufficient military power to face the central powers As you can imagine, a starving people and forced to give their lives in a complicated war, is an angry people. And this comes hand in hand with the rise of a controversial ideology that was becoming fashionable on the continent, socialism. And like any ideology, it would be welcomed in certain political parties. In the case of Russia, the Social Democratic Workers Party, later known as the Bolshevik Party whose leader was the remembered Vladimir Lenin. It is important to highlight, that these revolutionary sentiments had been growing despite the Nicholas II regime having given way by establishing the first Soviet constitution and an assembly known as the Imperial Duma after the 1905 revolution. Yes, none of this was enough. Returning to 1917, and with all of the above, the February Revolution broke out in Petrograd, present-day Saint Petersburg, in which Tsar Nicholas was overthrown and power was divided. On the one hand, a Provisional Government that wanted to establish a liberal democracy and that was made up of liberal politicians and moderate socialists who wanted to return to war with their former allies. On the other, the soviets, which were representation councils of the working class with radical socialist ideology scattered throughout the country. The most important of them, the Petrograd Soviet, whose most remembered leader was Leon Trotsky. These soviets were mostly led by members of the Bolshevik party. Yes, an ideology that boasted of looking after the interests of the vast majority of workers was gaining more power. Given the distance between the new foci of power, the revolution broke out again in October of the same year, as a confrontation between the two factions. The Petrograd Soviet led the Bolshevik party to overthrow the provisional government. Dissidents to the Bolshevik revolution are grouped into the White Army, facing the Red Army. The Russian Civil War had begun. It is important to note that the Russian Empire was divided into 36 states according to the various ethnicities of the Russian empire. These states were the predecessors of the socialist republics that have given rise to the current countries, as well as the 22 republics that still remain as general subjects of the current Russian Federation.
Anyway. This bloody war, which spread to all the territories of the former Russian Empire, claimed a balance of between 3 and 5 million deaths. Both sides had temporary allies. The red army, the soviets of each of the republics after the dissolved Russian empire and which were forming some Soviet republics, while the whites had support from the Allied intervention and from the separatist governments. Speaking of separatism, some countries tried to wage their own wars for independence, including Poland, which manages to defeat the Soviet Republic of Russia and declare the Second Polish Republic. Other countries that achieve their independence were Finland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. The Bolsheviks meanwhile, achieve victory in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, the Caucasus and Central Asia. In 1922, four of the Soviet republics, Russia, Transcaucasia, Ukraine and Belarus signed the Treaty of Creation of the USSR, conformed by the Supreme Congress of Soviets. The Soviet Union was born. The war would last until 1923, with the final defeat of the White Army. The Soviet Union consolidates and annexes all the territories that did not achieve their independence, that is, everything except the most western countries. Lenin, the leading figure in the revolution, would die in 1924 after trying to restructure industry and the economy. His legacy would transcend through various schools of thought and with the beginning of the communist project in the U.S.S.R. Since 1922 had come on the scene another key man, the Georgian Iósif Vissariónoivch Dzhugashvili, better known as Stalin, This remembered personage had escalated in politics until obtaining the position of the secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, successor of the Bolshevik Party. And it is that Stalin enjoyed such political ability, that little by little he made his own office gain more power since Lenin's death, which included the repression of his opponents within the Communist Party, as was the case of Trotski, who was sent to exile until he was assassinated in Mexico in 1940. And the fact is that the repression within the USSR was not limited to political rivals, but also to all the opposition citizens of the socialist regime, through the creation of the famous GULAG that spread throughout the country. These forced labor camps are remembered for the horrors experienced by the prisoners, who suffered serious human rights violations. The death toll between 1930 and 1956 is estimated at more than 1.5 million. As for the economic reforms, they were based on five-year plans based on the Theory of Productive Forces and that helped the development of the industry, with which the industrialization of the country was achieved, leading it to become a military power. These plans were based on socialist ideas such as a strong state intervention in the economy and the limitation of private property in favor of the state having the means of production. As for international politics, an anti-capitalist sentiment was formed, although the main rival ideology was rising Nazism, which is reflected in the Soviet support during the Spanish Civil War for the Republican side. Despite the above, the Soviet Union signs a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, Ribbentrop-Molotov (1939). Yes, we arrived at the eve of the Second World War, at a time when the sides were already armed and the tensions in the old continent reached their maximum splendor. Soviet interests?, expansion through their lost territories. The agreement with Germany, to divide Poland, while Estonia, Latvia and Finland would fall under Soviet influence. So it was. With the invasion of Poland on both fronts, the Second World War begins. After this successful occupation, the USSR attempted to occupy Finland after the Mainila Incident, initiating the Winter War. Despite the fact that with this war the USSR managed to snatch certain Finnish territory, its reputation was diminished, because a country as small as Finland was able to repel its attacks and wage war on it. This would give the confidence to Hitler, who had achieved constant victories on the western front, to break the Ribbetrop-Molotov Pact and invade the Soviet Union of Stalin, his communist rival, with the barbarous operation, begun in June 1941. The Eastern Front World War II had been activated. This front stands out for being one of the deadliest episodes of the war, with 8.5 million deaths on the Soviet side and almost 3 million on the German side. It also highlights the Battle of Stalingrad, considered the bloodiest battle in the history of humanity with more than two million deaths, in addition to signifying the turning point of Nazi Germany as it began its retreat here, after having occupied much of the Soviet territory. But the final lunge to Nazi Germany would occur with the Battle of Berlin, in which the Soviets invade the German capital in May 1945, sealing the end of World War II in Europe, the recovery of the Baltic countries, Hitler's suicide, the fall of the Third Reich and the division of the German Territory into spheres of Western and Soviet influence. With the end of World War II, and as established by Stalin with the leaders of the allied countries at the Yalta Conference, Europe would be divided by the remembered Iron Curtain, within which the countries of the East come under Soviet influence. This marks the beginning of the Cold War, with the rise of two superpowers with opposing ideologies: the United States, capitalist and the Soviet Union, socialist. The first years of the Cold War were characterized by Soviet aid to the countries of the eastern bloc for reconstruction while converting them into satellite states. This fact was embodied with the foundation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance that would be the counterpart of NATO, led by the United States. Regarding economics, the USSR founded the Council for Economic Mutual Aid, in which it incorporated various countries that were adopting communist ideology. This block would help the rise of a great ally, the Mao Zedong Chinese Communist Party with the Asian giant. Stalin died in 1953, thus beginning the mandate of Nikita Khrushchev, one of the most remembered leaders of the Cold War. The new ruler would have to face the diplomatic break with Communist China due to conflicts of interest and the interpretation of Marxism. This meant the rivalry between the two nations for communist world supremacy. Khrushchev would also face various proxy wars, a key element during the Cold War, which were indirect conflicts with the United States in foreign territories, seeking to continue expanding its influence. One of the most representative, the Vietnam War, which meant one of the worst setbacks in the United States and the expansion of communism in the region. Probably the closest moment to the outbreak of a war between the two superpowers was during the Cuban missile crisis, which occurred after the discovery of nuclear missiles in Cuban territory by the United States. Fortunately, this crisis could be resolved through diplomatic channels and both countries promised to withdraw the missiles in their allied countries, in addition to creating the red telephone for direct communication between Washington and Moscow. To the ideological, political, military, economic and even sports career, the space race is added. The USSR steps forward with the sending of the first human being to outer space, Yuri Gagarin. Despite these advances, Khrushchev's reforms in agriculture and administration were unproductive, and he would be forced to resign in 1964. The next figure in command of the USSR would be Leonid Brezhnev, with whom a period known as the Brezhnevian Stagnation began, in which a notable socioeconomic slowdown occurred in the USSR, which was being relegated to the prosperity of the capitalist countries and the continued growth of U.S influence. As much as the level of repression and censorship in general had decreased since Stalin's death, the USSR continues to seek to maintain its influence by force, such as during the invasion of Czechoslovakia who sought liberal reforms during the Prague Spring. Faced with a tremendous slowdown, Brezhnev began a period of Détente with the West, that is, a reduction of tensions with the United States through diplomatic agreements. He will also be remembered for approving the fourth and last constitution of the USSR. After Bréhznev's death in 1982, the stagnation continued during the successor governments of Yuri Andrópov and Konstantín Chernenko. As we approach the decline of the USSR, a new leader, Mikhail Gornachov, comes to power. We are in the 1980s, when the collapse of the economic and political structures of the USSR was increasingly evident. For this reason, Gorbachev implemented two well-known reforms in the political and economic spheres. With perestroika, the Soviet economy underwent a reform that encouraged price liberalization, yes, escaping something of the socialist essence. The Glasnost sought to liberalize the political system, as well as improve freedom of expression. With all this, Stalinism was beginning to be strongly questioned throughout the country, because the difference in development between the countries to the east and west of the Iron Curtain was extremely noticeable. To the misfortunes of the USSR are added both internal and external events that continued to sink it. Internal, such as the Chernobyl incident, considered the most serious nuclear accident in history and that caused much of the Soviet economy to be used to counteract the catastrophic effects of this disaster. External, such as the fall of the Berlin Wall, which meant the German reunification and the disappearance of the Iron Curtain. The cold war was ending with the capitalist bloc in command of the United States as the clear winner. Given the political instability, some republics begin to organize referendums for their independence, according to article 72 of the Soviet constitution. The first who wanted to leave are the Baltic Republics, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. As a reaction, Gorvachov calls a referendum for the preservation of the Soviet Union, which resulted in a majority that opted for its preservation, especially in the Central Asian republics. However, in the face of a secret treaty in which the USSR would be replaced by a Union of Sovereign States, an attempted coup d'etat emerged in 1991. This coup organized by the Communist Party hardliner occurs while Gorvachov was on vacation. Despite having deposed him for a short time, the then President of the Russian Soviet, Boris Yeltsin, managed to calm the spirits of the population in his memorable speech, with which he managed to thwart the coup. And of course, incidentally relegates Gorvachov in his image as leader. This fact was considered by many to be the final lunge of the Soviet Union, since without any faction to ensure its integrity, the various republics continue to declare their independence. For their part, in December 1991, the presidents of the Republics of Russia, that is, Yeltsin, Ukraine and Belarus signed the Belavezha treaty, with which the USSR was officially dissolved in favor of the Commonwealth of Independent States, which some of the former independent Soviet republics joined. With this, Gorvachov presents his resignation, while Yeltsin remains as president of the successor Russian Federation. On December 25, 1991, the Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin, the Russian imperial flag being raised the following day. And with this, the last trace of that pioneering superpower in putting the communist project into practice is gone. And what do you think? Do you think that somehow the memorable Soviet Union has left some positive legacy for humanity? Do not forget to leave your comment, and if you liked this video, support me with a like and subscribe to my channel. You can also follow me on my networks, and if you are interested in supporting this project, any donation on patreon will be welcome. Until next time. .

The Collapse of the Soviet Union – For almost 70 years during the 20th century,
Eastern Europe, Central Asia and modern-day Russia all made up one global power – the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics – also known as the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union was involved in almost every
significant historical event after its formation in 1922. After its collapse in 1991 it left behind
15 independent countries, several disputed borders as well as countless tribal conflicts. To see the full picture of how the expansionist
world power collapsed under its own weight, let’s look at how they became such a large
power in the first place. The Union’s founding dates dating back to
the Russian revolutions during the First World War. The February Revolution in the Russian Empire
in 1917 saw violent demonstrations on Petrograd and Moscow, and on March 12th much of the
Russian Army mutinied to join them. Fighting between the Monarchy’s loyalists
and the revolutionists saw Tsar Nicholas the Second overthrown and imprisoned, mostly due
to loyalist soldiers being stationed on the eastern front. A provisional government was put in place
but continued participation in the First World War, despite public opposition. The revolution in October saw the Bolsheviks
take power under the rule of Vladimir Lenin, who signed an armistice with the central powers
to focus on what was now a civil war in Russia. During the war, many nations managed to secede
from the Russian Empire, but following their victory the Red Army took most of these countries
back to install communist governments, before merging them to create the Soviet Union in
1922, consisting of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and the Transcaucasian Republic. The death of Lenin in 1924 saw Joseph Stalin
become General Secretary of the country’s only party, the Communist Party, making him
the Soviet Union’s de facto leader. Stalin would commit mass atrocities with his
dictatorial power; carrying out mass purges against political opposition, invading Soviet
neighbours, vastly increasing the use of the forced labour camps known as gulags, and committing
a genocide against millions of ethnic Ukrainians by starvation, known as the Holodomor. Stalin carved up the land in Central Asia
into five more separate soviet republics, and the Transcaucasian Republic also split
into three. Historians see this as being part of a strategy
called “Divide and Conquer”. During its first 20 years, the Soviet Union
tried to expand its influence by installing communist regimes in places like Mongolia
in 1924 as well as supporting the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War. Fearful of the rise of Nazism in Europe, the
Soviet Union signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact with Nazi Germany in August 1939, which
saw the two regimes agree a non-aggression principle. The next month the Nazis would occupy most
of Poland from the west, with the Soviets taking the remainder in the east, as well
as annexing Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, and winning some land in eastern Finland,
which along with the Baltic states was all former Russian Empire territory. They then invaded and annexed Moldova from
Romania and made it their 15th republic. The Nazi invasion of Poland started the Second
World War and they would go on to break the pact and invade the Soviet Union in June 1941,
but the Soviets would eventually push back and capture the German capital, Berlin, in
May 1945. They then started to invade Japan, annexing
their disputed territory, setting up a satellite state in the north of their colony, Korea,
and giving the Chinese Communists a foothold in the territory they’d won, helping them
eventually win the civil war. They also installed communist regimes in the
Eastern European states they had taken from the Nazis, including the east of the newly
divided state of Germany. The Soviets then began assisting communist
uprisings in places like Paraguay, British Kenya and Greece, in an attempt to continue
to spread their influence globally. The problem was that the other 2 world powers
who had helped decisively end the Second World War with nuclear weapons, were vehemently
anti-communist. The superficial alliance between the west
and the communists inevitably faded following the defeats of the Nazis and Japanese Empire,
with a rivalry growing between them. The communist uprisings that took place across
the world were swiftly ended by the western aided governments. The Soviets successfully developed their own
nuclear weapons in 1949 and created an alliance called the Warsaw Pact in response to the
west’s formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, created implicitly to stop the
Soviets invading Western Europe. These nuclear weapons and alliances were used
by the United States and the Soviet Union to deter each other from direct aggression,
for a 45 year period known as The Cold War. The Soviets successfully helped communist
regimes emerge, first in North Korea and China, then later Cuba, Angola and then Vietnam,
despite American opposition. By the 1970s, the economies of the Soviet
Union and its allies were falling further short of the west’s. The secular communist regime which took power
in Afghanistan in 1978 would soon come under threat from western backed Islamist rebel
groups, so the next year the Soviet Union invaded to fight them. With the country involved in unpopular wars
and much of its wealth being used to prop up its allies, anti-communist and nationalist
sentiment began to grow, especially in the Baltic states and Ukraine. Anti-communist sentiment was also growing
in Eastern Europe, as their economies were also stagnating. But as they had historically done, the communist
regimes with the help of the Soviet Union had used military might to stifle any dissent. Following the death of General Secretary Leonid
Brezhnev, the next two successors, Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko, both died in the
space of a year. The Communist Party in the Soviet Union was
worried that this portrayed them and the country as being weak on the international stage,
and looked for a more long term leader. The 54 year old Mikhail Gorbachev was sworn
in as General Secretary in March 1985 by the party’s decision making body, the PolitBuro. The Communist Party hoped he would stay in
power long term and strengthen the Soviets’ image on the world stage. Gorbachev was loyal to the vision of the Soviet
Union, but was also a keen reformist, and hired like-minded politicians to his cabinet. With their help he began to push his ideals
through Soviet politics like opening up relations with the west, reducing the country’s military
involvement abroad, and bringing more liberal domestic policies to the Soviet citizens. Gorbachev signed a nuclear disarmament deal
with the United States in 1986, began the process to withdraw from Afghanistan and reduced
interference in Eastern Europe. But the biggest changes were domestic. At home, Gorbachev introduced the policy known
as Perestroika, meaning ‘restructuring’, which referred to the economic change of state-run
economy to a more free market system. Gorbachev also openly criticised the previous
strategies of speech suppression within the country, promoting freedom of speech and the
press. He introduced another reform known as Glasnost,
meaning ‘openness’, which gave the public the right to speak their mind openly. Gorbachev didn’t want to take apart the
Soviet Union, rather reform it, but his policies of freedom of the press led to widespread
skepticism of the Communist Party, with the media digging deep, first into its inefficiencies,
then the atrocities that had occurred under its rule. Contempt towards Moscow escalated in Belarus
and Ukraine following the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. These events would see a growth in nationalism
amongst the republics. Gorbachev also made massive changes to the
legislative body within the country, known as the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. The members were unelected status quo politicians
and only met every few years, so Gorbachev decided to replace it with a new body known
as the Congress of People’s Deputies. He made two thirds of the seats democratically
elected by the populations of every republic so they could send their own representatives. The Soviet public became more politically
engaged with their new freedoms of open speech and elections, and used this to make their
critiques of Moscow heard. Each republic within the union sent their
own representatives to the Congress of People’s Deputies in the March 1989 election, from
unionist reformists to nationalist revolutionaries. With more freedom to speak out against Moscow,
the stage was set for further exposure of the wrongdoings, mostly under Stalin, that
the Soviet Union had covered up for so long. In November 1988 the former head of The KGB,
Viktor Chebrikov, visited Estonia to warn the recently sworn in leaders of the danger
of declaring sovereignty. The governing body, The Estonian Supreme Council,
ignored the threats and voted to declare sovereignty a few days later, but not full independence. Estonia wanted economic independence as well
in order to regain control of its monetary system and move towards a free market, which
wasn’t possible under direct communist rule. So in June 1989, a group of Estonian deputies
proposed investigations into the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, the non-aggression agreement signed
between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany in 1939. The Baltic states including Estonia had been
forcibly annexed the year after by Stalin. These republics sent their most outspoken
representatives to the Soviet Congress and began their attempts to end Moscow’s reign,
and pushed for investigations into the circumstances under which they were annexed. Keen to stick to his principles, Gorbachev
approved of setting up a committee for the investigations, as did the new Congress. A secret clause within the pact had been agreed,
giving the Nazis free reign in the majority of Poland, and the Soviets free reign in a
small part of eastern Poland, as well as Moldova, Finland, and crucially the Baltic states. After the Nazis broke the pact in 1941 before
being occupied by the four main world powers in 1945, Stalin was keen to avoid the secret
being revealed. Hitler had already commited suicide when the
Nuremberg trials were held, so Stalin reportedly offered to spare the Nazi foreign minister
Ribbentrop from prosecution if he denied the existence of the secret clause. Ribbentrop refused and was the first Nazi
official to be hanged. Nonetheless, the Soviet Union continued to
hide the truth of the pact anyway until 1989. The committee discovered the collusion with
the Nazis and in June 1989 Estonian deputy Igor Gräzin read out the full clause in front
of the Congress, exposing the 50 year old secret. In November the Supreme Soviet, another legislative
body, passed a law that granted economic independence of the Baltic states, which saw Estonia re-establish
its own bank and its own currency. The Congress then passed a resolution in December,
denouncing the Molotov Ribbentrop Pact and officially declaring it null and void. Meanwhile, Gorbachev was losing popularity
among the Soviet public as economic conditions didn’t really get any better despite his
reforms. But his non-interventionist policies made
him popular in the west, as he withdrew troops from Afghanistan and ended Soviet meddling
in Eastern Europe. Gorbachev likely hoped that Eastern Europe’s
communist governments themselves would move closer to a democratic system that could be
reformed, but instead the communist parties in Eastern Europe lost power completely, one
by one. In Poland free elections were opened by the
communist government, but it was immediately voted out with vocal encouragement from the
Polish Pope. Poland’s population voted in the right-leaning
Solidarity Party in August 1989, who changed the country’s name and constitution to steer
it westward. In November the East German government relaxed
travel restrictions to West Berlin, and hundreds of East Berliners climbed the Berlin wall
into the west, with some parts of it being knocked down. This symbolised the fall of the so called
Iron Curtain that divided Western and Eastern Europe, and catalysed the democratic transitions
in Hungary and Bulgaria from communist dictatorships to western free markets. In Czechoslovakia and Romania, the communist
governments were toppled in separate military coups. Nationalist parties were also elected the
next year throughout most of the Yugoslav Republics as well, which would eventually
lead to that country’s collapse. As Gorbachev refused to intervene, almost
all of the socialist regimes in Eastern Europe began to fall, which got the ball rolling
for the same thing to happen within the Soviet Union – and the annulment of the Nazi collusion
which brought the Baltic states into the union made it almost inevitable that they would
secede. The new role of the Presidency of the Soviet
Union was created in 1990, and was elected by the Congress of People’s Deputies. As General Secretary of the Communist Party,
Gorbachev was the only candidate to run in the March election because of Article 6 in
the Soviet Constitution stating that the Communist party was the only legal party in the country. Pressure was put on President Gorbachev to
repeal the article and allow multi party elections. At the same time, the republics were given
the opportunity to elect their own individual leaders, known as the Chairmen of the Supreme
Soviets. The new leaders of Lithuania and Latvia declared
independence from the Soviet Union in March and May respectively, which the Soviet Union
refused to recognise. Anti Communist and independence-seeking nationalist
Boris Yeltsin was elected in Russia. In July, Gorbachev repealed Article 6, ending
the Communist Party’s monopoly on power, which allowed Yeltsin to resign from the Communist
Party and still remain Chairman of The Russian Supreme Soviet, which was the head of state
in the Russian Republic. In response to their independence declarations,
Gorbachev sent Soviet forces into Vilnius and Riga, resulting in a total of 17 deaths. In response Yeltsin condemned the crackdown
and declared himself commander in chief of Russian forces, effectively telling them not
to take orders from Gorbachev, and he called on Gorbachev to resign and dissolve the union. In an attempt to legitimise the preservation
of the union, Gorbachev held a referendum in March 1991 to put the question of the union’s
future to the public. All the other republics including Russia had
declared sovereignty from the Soviet Union to bring themselves autonomy, but the other
13 remained within the union itself. Armenia, Georgia, Moldova and the Baltics
didn’t take part in the referendum, but all the republics who did voted to preserve
the union. Around the same time, the 3 Baltic states
as well as Georgia held referendums of their own, on whether or not to seek full independence
from the Soviet Union, and all four republics voted Yes and the same was later done by Armenia. Of course, Latvia and Lithuania had already
declared independence, but the leaders of each country wanted a vote to demand recognition
from the Soviet Union, who had put an economic blockade on both countries as well as Estonia. Georgia declared independence on April 9th. Voters in the Russian Republic answered another
question within their referendum – proposing to create the new position of President of
Russia, which would be democratically elected by the Russian people. Most Russians voted Yes, and again voted for
Boris Yeltsin, this time as President, in the modern country’s first election in June
1991. The Russian republic was now sovereign and
with its own non-communist President. Yeltsin was a massive Russian nationalist,
and wanted to dissolve the Union completely and declare Russia as independent, and he
encouraged the secessions of the Baltic and Caucasus countries. Fearful of the Communist Party losing power,
the party’s hardliners attempted a coup on Russia’s major cities in August 1991
while Gorbachev was on holiday to restore the party’s natural order, but the Russian
public resisted the coup. The Communist Party was banned across all
the republics the next day, then Gorbachev resigned as General Secretary of the party
that tried to overthrow him, albeit remaining President of the USSR. A few days later, Estonia’s council voted
unanimously to declare full independence from the Soviet Union. Russian President Yeltsin immediately recognised
the declaration. Declarations of independence quickly followed,
from Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. The State Council of the Soviet Union was
created on September 5th to replace the Congress of People’s Deputies, consisting of Gorbachev
and the leaders of each republic. The next day the State Council voted to recognise
the independence of the three Baltic states. The next month Tajikistan and Armenia declared
independence and in October Turkmenistan followed suit. By December, the Soviet Union only existed
in Russia and Kazakhstan, but both countries had their own elected leaders and sovereignty. The Presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus,
the remaining three founding republics of the USSR, met in Minsk to sign the Belavezha
Accords, declaring the 1922 documents that founded the Soviet Union to be null and void. Russia finally declared independence on December
12th 1991, and Kazakhstan did the same on December 16th. The Soviet Union had lost de facto jurisdiction
over all of its 15 old republics, but technically there were still doubts over its de jure jurisdiction
given that only three republics had denounced the 1922 establishment of the union. On December 21st all the remaining republics
except Georgia signed the Alma-Ata Protocols, which created the Commonwealth of Independent
States and saw all the republics formally leave the Soviet Union. Georgia already considered itself de jure
independent, but would join the CIS two years later. The three Baltic states didn’t join and
instead opened up relations with the west to eventually join the EU and NATO. On December 24th the new Russian Federation
announced to the United Nations that it was the successor to the Soviet Union, and was
granted its old permanent seat on the UN Security Council. The next day Gorbachev resigned as President
and declared the Soviet Union, which technically only had de jure authority in Georgia, to
officially be dissolved. The hammer and sickle above the Kremlin was
lowered and replaced with the old Russian tricolour dating back to the Russian Empire
that had been defeated by the Soviet Union in the civil war. The geopolitics of the last hundred years
have been heavily influenced by the Soviet Union, which was one of the largest empires
of modern times, beaten only by the British Empire and its predecessor the Russian Empire. The legacy of the Soviet Union lives on today
in the remaining communist countries that owe their existence to it, as well as in politically
tense regions in its former territories that still suffer the legacy of its policy of ethnic
cleansing. Twenty-six years on from its collapse, the
terror, chaos and tension caused by the Soviet Union is still far from over. “Although the people of Russia gained little,
its rulers gained mightily in power. They built up a giant war machine, looking
forward to the day when their flag would fly over the entire world. At the time of the revolution, Russia was
already a land of vast area. Soon after the end of World War Two, Russia
had occupied many new territories, bringing additional millions of people under communist
control. And serving notice that Soviet Russia was
now a world power to be reckoned with.” .

From spy to president: The rise of Vladimir Putin – Владимир Путин управлява Русия от 1999 г.
През това време той превръща страната в авторитарна и милитаристична нация. Той успешно напада две от съседите държави на Русия и засилва връзки със Сирия и Иран Неговите намерения да се възпротиви срещу западния световен ред, изглежда – работят… [Владимир Путин, 17 години на власт. Най-могъщият човек в света]
[ЕДИННА РУСИЯ] За да се ​​разбере как един човек може да има толкова силно влияние в страната си, трябва да се проучи хаоса и корупцията, които обхващат Русия след падането на Съветския съюз. Когато Берлинската стена пада , 40-годишният Путин работи като шпионин под прикритие в Източна Германия, за съветската агенция за сигурност – КГБ. Съветският съюз се разпада в 15 нови страни, включително новата Руска федерация. В очите на Путин, Русия е загубила два милиона квадратни мили територия. По-късно той нарича това една от най – големите геополитически катастрофи на века. Оплаква се, че десетки милиони от неговите патриоти се озовават извън Руска територия. Новото правителство е принудено да продаде почти 45 000 обществени предприятия, като енергийни, минни и комуникационни компании, които са били управлявани от комунистическия режим. Настъпва хаос. Руската икономика е в разпад. Всички тези компании се озовават в ръцете на няколко изключително богати мъже, познати днес като Руските олигарси. В същото време новата Руската държава изпитва трудности в своето установяване. Първия Руски президент, Борис Елцин губи подкрепа заради сътрудничество със Запада. И за да влоши нещата, той е алкохолик и много руснаци се срамуват от него. За да остане на власт, той разчита на подкрепата на олигарсите, като предава огромно количество власт на тях. Тази графика показва как неравенството се влошава след разпада на Съветския съюз. И тогава Владимир Путин влиза в политиката… Той напуска КГБ през 1991 г. и става заместник-кмет на Санкт Петербург. Путин използва позицията си, за да даде специални позиции на приятели и съюзници в частния сектор. Той им помага да структурират монопол и регулира техните конкуренти, бързо превръщайки се във фаворит сред олигарсите Не след дълго той сформира собствена мрежа от олигарси, престъпни босове и служители по сигурността, предимно бивши колеги, служители на КГБ като него. С тяхна помощ той бързо се изкачва до горния ешелон на новата Руска държава. През 1999 г. президентът Борис Елцин назначава Путин, все още относително неизвестен в националната политика, на поста министър председател. Свиреп националист, Путин се опасява, че Елцин е допуснал САЩ да доминират в Русия и че НАТО, който работи от десетилетия с цел да ограничи Съветското влияние ще се разшири в новите освободени страни и ще обгради Русия. Целта на Путин тогава е да изгради силна Руска държава. Вътрешно стабилна, но и способна упражнява по-голямо влияние върху нейните съседи. И скоро, той получава шанса си … По време на пост-Съветския хаос напрежението в Чечения ескалира. Регион който неформално се отделя от Русия в средата на 90-те години. Чеченските военни лидери и терористите нахлуват в Руска територия и атакуват границата. През август 1999 г. серия от смъртоносни бомбандировки убиват повече от 300 души в няколко Руски градове, включително Москва. Путин, новия премиер, веднага обвинява чеченските сепаратисти за атаката Той редовно се появява на Руската телевизията, твърдейки, че ще отмъсти за Русия. Гласоподавателите го подкрепят. Рейтингът на Путин скача от 2% преди атентатие до 45% процента след атентатите. Журналисти по-късно откриват доказателства, които предполагат че Руските служби за сигурност могли да бъдат съучастник в Московските атентати, може би знаейки, че ще подпалят подкрепа за силен човек като Путин. Но секретно държавното разследване бързо отхвърля всички подобни теории. Така Русия стартира война в Чечня. Столицата – Грозни бива изравнена със земята от Руски бомбардировки, а по някои изчисления близо 80 хиляди души загиват. За по-малко от година, Русия успешно връща Чечня под своя контрол. През декември 1999 г. Елцин подава оставка, превръщайки Путин в преходен президент. През май, по време на кървавата кампания в Чечня, Путин печели президентските избори. Той започва да оформя Руската държава по негова визия. Патронажа и корупцията остават част от ключовите му инструменти, но той бързо потиска олигарсите под негово управление. Тези, които подкрят Путин са възнаградени, тези, които не, биват елиминирани. "Някога най-богатият човек в Русия, изявлен критик на Кремъл и бивш петролен магнат Михаил Ходорковски е осъден на 14 години затвор" "Това по ново обвинение за присвояване на нефт" "Това действително е отмъщение от Владимир Путин." "Заради факта че Ходорковски
се намесва в опозиционна политика" С олигархията укротена, Путин вече е свободен да се фокусира извън границите на Русия. По това време отношенията със САЩ са сравнително добри. Путин дори почива в лятната резиденция на Джордж Буш. "Погледнах този човек в очите и го намерих за много директен и надежден!" Но нещата започват да се променят … През август 2008 г. Русия нахлува в Грузия, бивша съветска република. Това е показност на сила от името на местни про-руски сепаратисти. Русия бързо превзема две малки части от Грузия, предизвиквайки неодобрението на целия свят. Интересното тогава е че Путин не е президент по време на окупацията. Конституцията на Русия позволява президента да има до два последователни мандата. Но не ограничава общия брой мандати. Така Путин заема ролята министър-председател оново, докато избраният от него наследник, Дмитрий Медведев става президент. Когато Обама е избран за президент на САЩ през 2008 г., той прави опити за възстановяване на отношенията с Русия. И постига известен напредък. Най-вече в ограничаването на ядрените арсенали на двете страни. Но Путин остава параноичен за намеренията на САЩ и остава против тези нови отношения. Особено го притесняват интервенциите на САЩ в Близкия изток, особено в Либия през 2011 г. Той публично критикува Медведев, че не налага вето върху действията в сигурността на ООН Путин обявява кандидатурата си за президент и печели изборите през 2012 г. с нелепи резултати. "Несправедливост. Това безобразие не може да продължи. Тук съм, за да кажа "не" на Путин ". Путин започва своят трети мандат – отново в хаос. Той удвоява авторитарния си стил на управление във вътрешната политика и неговата военна стратегия в чужбина. Но и в дватаслучая, той демонстрира майсторство над информацията. Когато за първи път встъпва в длъжност през 2000 г., Путин държи на каишката на Руската телевизия. Общо взето, всички новинарски канали са държавни пропагандни машини. Режимът му решава кои истории се показват и как, винаги го изобразява като силен Руски лидер. През 2012 г. той изкава несъгласие с правата на човека, казвайки ясно че няма място за несъгласие в неговата Русия. Чрез държавната телевизия, той администрира кампания срещу подкрепяща феминизма и гей-правата музикална група 'Pussy Riot'. "Най – модерните и популярни изпълнеители на така наречения пънк в катедралата Христос Спасител, викат неща, които са по-скоро оскверняващи, да бъдат крещени в Църква." "Разбира се, трима членове на пънк групата 'Pussy Riot' бяха арестувани и осъдени на две години затвор." Путин също укрепва агресивната си външна стратегия. Използва традиционни военни методи като изпращане на оръжия и бойни самолети, за да помогнат на диктатора Башар Ал-Асад да се води кървава гражданска война в Сирия. Но режимът на Путин също развива и насърчава най-ефективната кибер армия в света, и я използва, за да сее хаус в Запада. Тези хакери придобиват класифицирана информация от САЩ, хакват електронна поща на политици. дори блокират Грузийския интернет, докато руските войски нахлуват. И разбира се, опитват да саботират Президентската кампания на Хилари Клинтън през 2016. Руските хакери също започват пропагандни кампании в подкрепа на десните кандидати в Европа. С това, Путин се надява да експлоатира и задълбочи политическото разделение в Западните демокрации. През 2014 г. визията на Путин кулминира, и се насочва към Украйна; друга бивша съветска държава. Президентът на Украйна засилва връзки с Запада и Путин се опасява че Украйна ще се присъедини към НАТО. Руските хакери започват пропагандна кампания срещу него, разпалваща протести в про-руската източна част на държавата. След това той изпраща маскирани Руски войски и не след дълго, избухва насилие. Влиза руската армия и в началото на 2014 г. Путин анексира Крим. Той продължава да подкрепя сраженията в Украйна и от 2017 г. над 9 000 души загиват. Светът избухва в знак на протест, но Путин не се поддава. Агресивна външна политика успешно отслабва съседите, докато обединява руснаците около него. Но той прави всичко това за сметка на собствения си народ. Неговите военни акции предизвикват тежки санкции от запад, забраняващи руски бизнеси да търгуват в Западни пазари Руската валута се срива и енергийната индустрия на която Русия разчита, е в колапс. Трудно е да си представим, че Русия може да продължи в тези обстоятелства. Но избора на Доналд Тръмп носи нова надежда за визията на Путин. Реториката на Тръмп е традиционно особено мека за Русия. Той може да вдигне санкциите и да отслаби НАТО, освобождавайки място за Путинова Русия отново да стане доминираща сила. .