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List of Russian monarchs

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‘List of Tsars’ redirects here. For other uses, see Tsar and Tsar (disambiguation).

Monarchy of RussiaImperial Coat of armsTree of Russian rulersDetailsStyleHis/Her Imperial MajestyFirst monarchRurik (as Prince)Last monarchNicholas II (as Emperor)Formation862Abolition15 March 1917ResidenceWinter Palace, Moscow KremlinAppointerHereditaryPretender(s)
Maria VladimirovnaAndrew RomanovPrince Karl Emich of Leiningen

This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia. It includes the titles Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev, Grand Prince of Vladimir, Grand Prince of Moscow, Tsar of All Rus’ (Russia), and Emperor of All Russia. The list begins with the semi-legendary Rurik, Prince of Novgorod, sometime in the mid 9th century (c. 862) and ends with the Emperor of All Russia Nicholas II who abdicated in 1917, and was executed with his family in 1918.

The vast territory known today as Russia covers an area that has been known historically by various names, including Rus’, Kievan Rus’,[1] the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Czardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, and the sovereigns of these many nations and throughout their histories have used likewise as wide a range of titles in their positions as chief magistrates of a country. Some of the earliest titles include Kniaz and Velikiy Kniaz, which mean “Prince” and “Great Prince” respectively but are often rendered as “Duke” and “Grand Duke” in Western literature; then the title of Tsar, meaning “Caesar”, which was disputed to be the equal of either a king or emperor; finally culminating in the title of Emperor. According to Article 59 of the 1906 Russian Constitution, the Russian Tsar held several dozen titles, each one representing a region which the monarch governed.

The Patriarchs of Moscow, who were the head of Russian Orthodox Church, also have acted as the leaders of Russia from time to time, usually in periods of political upheaval as during the Polish occupation and interregnum of 1610–13.

Rurikids, 862–1598

See also: List of early East Slavic states

Parts of the land that is today known as Russia was populated by various East Slavic peoples from before the 9th century. The first states to exert hegemony over the region were those of the Rus’ people, a branch of Nordic Varangians who entered the region occupied by modern Russia sometime in the ninth century, and set up a series of states starting with the Rus’ Khaganate circa 830. Little is known of the Rus’ Khaganate beyond its existence, including the extent of its territory or any reliable list of its Khagans (rulers).

Princes of Novgorod
Main article: Prince of Novgorod

Traditionally, Rus’ statehood is traced to Rurik, a Rus’ leader of Holmgard (later Novgorod, modern Veliky Novgorod), a different Rus’ state.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImageRurik
Рюрик830 – 879862879Founder of Rurik DynastyRurikidsOleg
the Seer
Олег Вещий855 – 912879882Relative of Rurik and regent of Rurik’s son, Prince IgorRurikids
Grand Princes of Kiev
Main article: Grand Prince of Kiev

Rurik’s successor Oleg moved his capital to Kiev (now Ukraine), founding the state of Kievan Rus’. Over the next several centuries, the most important titles were those of the Grand Prince of Kiev and Grand Prince of Novgorod whose holder (often the same person) could claim hegemony.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImageAskold and Dir
Haskuldr and DýriАскольд и Дир9th century842[2][3][note 1]882Rus’ chieftains and members of Rurik’s armyAskold: KyiOleg
the Seer
Олег Вещий855 – 912882Autumn 912Successor of Askold and Dir as a regent of Rurik’s sonRurikidsIgor I Rurikovich
Игорь Рюрикович878 – 945913Autumn 945Son of RurikRurikidsSaint Olga
Святая Ольга890 – 969945962Wife of Igor I and regent of Sviatoslav IRurikids(by marriage)Sviatoslav I Igorevich
Святослав Игоревич942 – 972Autumn 945March 972Son of Igor I and Olga of KievRurikidsYaropolk I Sviatoslavich
Ярополк Святославич950 – 980March 97211 June 980Son of Sviatoslav I and PredslavaRurikidsSaint Vladimir I Sviatoslavich
the Great, the Baptist
Владимир Святославич (Великий)958 – 101511 June 98015 July 1015Son of Sviatoslav I and MalushaYounger brother of Yaropolk IRurikidsSviatopolk I Vladimirovich
the Cursed
Святополк Владимирович (Окаянный)980 – 101915 July 1015Autumn 1016Son of Vladimir I or Yaropolk IRurikidsYaroslav I Vladimirovich
the Wise
Ярослав Владимирович (Мудрый)978 – 1054Autumn 101622 July 1018Son of Vladimir I and Rogneda of PolotskRurikidsSviatopolk I Vladimirovich
the Cursed
Святополк Владимирович (Окаянный)980 – 101914 August 101827 July 1019RestoredRurikidsYaroslav I Vladimirovich
the Wise
Ярослав Владимирович (Мудрый)978 – 105427 July 101920 February 1054RestoredCo-ruler: Mstislav of Chernigov (1024–1036)Rurikids
Feudal period

The gradual disintegration of Rus’ began in the 11th century, after the death of Yaroslav the Wise. The position of the Grand Prince was weakened by the growing influence of regional clans. In 1097, the Council of Liubech formalized the feudal nature of the Rus’ lands.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImageIziaslav I Yaroslavich
Изяслав Ярославич1024 – 107820 February 105415 September 1068First son of Yaroslav I and Ingegerd OlofsdotterRurikidsVseslav Bryachislavich
the Sorcerer
Всеслав Брячиславич (Чародей)1039 – 110115 September 106829 April 1069Great-grandson of Vladimir IUsurped the Kievan throneRurikidsIziaslav I Yaroslavich
Изяслав Ярославич1024 – 10782 May 106922 March 1073RestoredRurikidsSviatoslav II Yaroslavich
Святослав Ярославич1027 – 107622 March 107327 December 1076Third son of Yaroslav I and Ingegerd OlofsdotterRurikidsVsevolod I Yaroslavich
Всеволод Ярославич1030 – 10931 January 107715 July 1077Fourth son of Yaroslav I and Ingegerd OlofsdotterRurikidsIziaslav I Yaroslavich
Изяслав Ярославич1024 – 107815 July 10773 October 1078RestoredRurikidsVsevolod I Yaroslavich
Всеволод Ярославич1030 – 10933 October 107813 April 1093RestoredRurikidsSviatopolk II Iziaslavich
Святополк Изяславич1050 – 111324 April 109316 April 1113Son of Iziaslav IRurikidsVladimir II Vsevolodovich
Владимир Всеволодович (Мономах)1053 – 112520 April 111319 May 1125Son of Vsevolod I and Anastasia of ByzantiumRurikidsMstislav I Vladimirovich
the Great
Мстислав Владимирович (Великий)1076 – 113220 May 112515 April 1132Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of WessexRurikids

After Mstislav’s death in 1132, the Kievan Rus’ fell into recession and a rapid decline.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImageYaropolk II Vladimirovich
of PereyaslavlЯрополк Владимирович1082 – 113917 April 113218 February 1139Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of WessexYounger brother of Mstislav IRurikidsViacheslav Vladimirovich
of SmolenskВячеслав Владимирович1083–2 February 115422 February 11394 March 1139Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of WessexYounger brother of Mstislav I and Yaropolk IIRurikidsVsevolod II Olgovich
of Chernigov Всеволод Ольгович1084 – 11465 March 113930 July 1146Grandson of Sviatoslav IIRurikidsSaint Igor II Olgovich
of Novgorod-SeverskyИгорь Ольгович1096–19 September 11461 August 114613 August 1146Grandson of Sviatoslav IIRurikidsIziaslav II Mstislavich
Изяслав Мстиславич1097 – 115413 August 114623 August 1149Son of Mstislav I and Christina Ingesdotter of SwedenRurikidsYuri I Vladimirovich
the Long Hands
of Rostov and SuzdalЮрий Владимирович (Юрий Долгорукий)1099 – 115728 August 1149Summer 1150Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of WessexYounger brother of Mstislav I, Yaropolk II and Viacheslav IRurikidsViacheslav Vladimirovich
of SmolenskВячеслав Владимирович1083–2 February 1154Summer 1150Summer 1150RestoredRurikidsIziaslav II Mstislavich
Изяслав Мстиславич1097 – 1154Summer 1150Summer 1150RestoredRurikidsYuri I Vladimirovich
the Long Hands
of Rostov and SuzdalЮрий Владимирович (Юрий Долгорукий)1099 – 1157August 1150Winter 1151RestoredRurikidsIziaslav II Mstislavich
Изяслав Мстиславич1097 – 1154Winter 115113 November 1154RestoredCo-ruler: Viacheslav VladimirovichRurikidsViacheslav Vladimirovich
of SmolenskВячеслав Владимирович1083–2 February 1154Spring 11516 February 1154RestoredRurikidsRostislav Mstislavich
of SmolenskРостислав Мстиславич1110 – 11671154January 1155Son of Mstislav I and Christina Ingesdotter of SwedenYounger brother of Iziaslav IIRurikidsIziaslav III Davydovich
of ChernigovИзяслав Давыдович12th centuryJanuary 11551155Grandson of Sviatoslav IIRurikidsYuri I Vladimirovich
the Long Hands
of Rostov and SuzdalЮрий Владимирович (Юрий Долгорукий)1099 – 115720 March 115515 May 1157RestoredRurikidsIziaslav III Davydovich
of ChernigovИзяслав Давыдович12th century19 May 1157December 1158RestoredRurikidsMstislav II Iziaslavich
Мстислав Изяславич1125 – 117022 December 1158Spring 1159Son of Iziaslav IIRurikidsRostislav Mstislavich
of SmolenskРостислав Мстиславич1110 – 116712 April 11598 February 1161RestoredRurikidsIziaslav III Davydovich
of ChernigovИзяслав Давыдович12th century12 February 11616 March 1161RestoredRurikidsRostislav Mstislavich
of SmolenskРостислав Мстиславич1110 – 1167March 116114 March 1167RestoredRurikidsMstislav II Iziaslavich
Мстислав Изяславич1125 – 117019 May 116712 March 1169RestoredRurikids

In March 1169, a coalition of native princes led by Andrei of Vladimir sacked Kiev. This changed the perception of Kiev and was evidence of the fragmentation of Rus’. Andrei appointed his brother Gleb as prince of Kiev while Andrey continued to rule his realm from Suzdal. In southwest, the principality of Galicia-Volhynia had emerged as the local successor to Kiev. In the mid-14th century, Galicia-Volhynia fell under pressure from neighboring powers; Poland conquered Halych; Lithuania took Volhynia, including Kiev.

Grand Princes of Vladimir
Main article: Grand Prince of Vladimir

By the 12th century, the Grand Duchy of Vladimir became the dominant principality in Northwest Rus, adding its name to those of Novgorod and Kiev, culminating with the rule of Alexander Nevsky. In 1169 Prince Andrey I of Vladimir sacked the city of Kiev and took over the title of the grand prince to claim primacy in Rus’.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImageAndrey I Yuryevich
the Pious
Андрей Юрьевич (Боголюбский)1110 – 117415 May 115729 June 1174Son of Yuri IMurderedRurikidsMikhalko Yuryevich
Михалко Юрьевич12th century1174September 1174Son of Yuri IYounger brother of Andrey IRurikidsYaropolk III Rostislavich
Ярополк Ростиславич12th century117415 June 1175Grandson of Yuri IRurikidsMikhalko Yuryevich
Михалко Юрьевич12th century15 June 117520 June 1176RestoredRurikidsVsevolod III Yuryevich
the Big Nest
Всеволод Юрьевич (Большое Гнездо)1154 – 1212June 117615 April 1212Son of Yuri I and HeleneYounger brother of Andrey I and MikhalkoRurikidsYuri II Vsevolodovich
Юрий Всеволодович1189 – 1238121227 April 1216Son of Vselovod III and Maria ShvarnovnaRurikidsKonstantin Vsevolodovich
of RostovКонстантин Всеволодович1186 – 1218Spring 12162 February 1218Son of Vsevolod III and Maria ShvarnovnaElder brother of Yuri IIRurikidsYuri II Vsevolodovich
Юрий Всеволодович1189 – 1238February 12184 March 1238RestoredRurikids

Rus state finally disintegrated under the pressure of the Mongol invasion of 1237–1242. Its successor principalities started paying tribute to the Golden Horde (the so-called Tatar Yoke). From the mid-13th to mid-15th centuries, princes of North-Eastern Rus received a yarlyk (a special edict of Golden Horde khan). The issuing of yarlyk on governing of Rus finalized the establishment of the title of Grand Prince of Vladimir and the transfer of power from Kiev to Vladimir. As many factions strove for power, the principality rapidly disintegrated into tiny states. All of them nominally acknowledged the suzerainty of the Grand Prince, but his effective authority became progressively weaker. By the end of the century, only three cities – Moscow, Tver, and Nizhny Novgorod – still contended for the title of Grand Prince of Vladimir. Once installed, however, they chose to remain in their own cities rather than moving to Vladimir.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImageYaroslav II Vsevolodovich
Ярослав Всеволодович1191 – 1246123830 September 1246Son of Vsevolod III and Maria ShvarnovnaYounger brother of Yuri II and Konstantin of RostovAlso Grand Prince of Kiev in 1236–38 and since 1243RurikidsSviatoslav III Vsevolodovich
Святослав Всеволодович1196–3 February 125212461248Son of Vsevolod III and Maria ShvarnovnaYounger brother of Yuri II, Konstantin of Rostov and Yaroslav IIRurikidsMikhail Yaroslavich
Khorobrit (the Brave)
Михаил Ярославич (Хоробрит)1229–15 January 1248124815 January 1248Son of Yaroslav IIRurikidsSviatoslav III Vsevolodovich
Святослав Всеволодович1196–3 February 125212481249RestoredRurikidsAndrey II Yaroslavich
Андрей Ярославич1222 – 1264December 124924 July 1252Son of Yaroslav IIElder brother of Mikhail KhorobritRurikidsSaint Alexander Yaroslavich
Александр Ярославич (Невский)1221 – 1263125214 November 1263Son of Yaroslav II and Rostislava Mstislavna, daughter of Kievan Rus’ Prince Mstislav Mstislavich the BoldElder brother of Mikhail Khorobrit and Andrey IIAlso Grand Prince of Kiev since 1249RurikidsYaroslav III Yaroslavich
of TverЯрослав Ярославич1230 – 127212641271Son of Yaroslav II and Fedosia IgorevnaYounger brother of Alexander Nevsky, Andrey II and Mikhail KhorobritRurikidsVasily Yaroslavich
of KostromaВасилий Ярославич1241 – 12761272January 1277Son of Yaroslav IIRurikidsDmitry Aleksandrovich
of PereslavlДмитрий Александрович1250 – 129412771281Son of Alexander NevskyRurikidsAndrey III Aleksandrovich
of GorodetsАндрей Александрович1255 – 13041281December 1283Son of Alexander NevskyYounger brother of Dmitry of PereslavlRurikidsDmitry Aleksandrovich
of PereslavlДмитрий Александрович1250 – 1294December 12831293RestoredRurikidsAndrey III Aleksandrovich
of GorodetsАндрей Александрович1255 – 1304129327 July 1304RestoredRurikidsSaint Mikhail Yaroslavich
of TverМихаил Ярославич (Михаил Тверской)1271 – 1318Autumn 130422 November 1318Son of Yaroslav III and Xenia of TarusaMurderedRurikidsYuri III Danilovich
of MoscowЮрий Данилович1281 – 132513182 November 1322Grandson of Alexander NevskyRurikidsDmitry Mikhailovich
the Fearsome Eyes
of TverДмитрий Михайлович (Грозные Очи)1299 – 1326132215 September 1326Son of Michael of Tver and Anna of KashinMurderedRurikidsAlexander Mikhaylovich
of TverАлександр Михайлович1301 – 133913261327Son of Michael of Tver and Anna of KashinYounger brother of DmitryRurikidsAlexander Vasilyevich
of SuzdalАлександр Васильевич14th century13281331Grandson of Andrey IICo-ruler: Ivan I of MoscowRurikidsIvan I Danilovich
Kalita (the Moneybag)
of MoscowИван Данилович (Иван Калита)1288 – 1340133131 March 1340Grandson of Alexander NevskySon of Daniel of MoscowYounger brother of Yuri IIIRurikidsSimeon Ivanovich
the Proud
of MoscowСимеон Иванович (Симеон Гордый)7 November 1316–27 April 13531 October 134027 April 1353Son of Ivan I and HelenaRurikidsIvan II Ivanovich
the Fair
of MoscowИван Иванович (Иван Красный)30 March 1326–13 November 135925 March 135413 November 1359Son of Ivan I and HelenaYounger brother of SimeonRurikidsDmitry Konstantinovich
of SuzdalДмитрий Константинович1322–5 July 138322 June 1360December 1362Son of Konstantin Vasilyevich of SuzdalRurikidsSaint Dmitry Ivanovich
of MoscowДмитрий Иванович (Дмитрий Донской)12 October 1350–19 May 1389January 136319 May 1389Son of Ivan II and Alexandra VelyaminovaPrince of Moscow since 1359Rurikids

After Dmitry the throne of Vladimir was succeeded only by princes of Moscow.

Grand Princes of Moscow

The Grand Duchy of Moscow, founded by Alexander Nevsky’s youngest son Daniel, began to consolidate control over the entire Rus’ territory in the 14th century. The Russians began to exert independence from the Mongols, culminating with Ivan III ceasing tribute to the Horde, effectively declaring his independence. His son Vasili III completed the task of uniting all of Russia by annexing the last few independent states in the 1520s.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImageVasily I Dmitriyevich
Василий Дмитриевич30 December 1371–27 February 142519 May 138927 February 1425Son of Dmitry I and Eudoxia DmitriyevnaRurikidsVasily II Vasilyevich
Василий Васильевич (Василий Тёмный)10 March 1415–27 March 146227 February 142530 March 1434Son of Vasily I and Sophia of Lithuania. DeposedRegent: Sophia of Lithuania (1425–1432)RurikidsYuri Dmitriyevich
of ZvenigorodЮрий Дмитриевич26 November 1374–5 June 143431 March 14345 June 1434Son of Dmitry I and Eudoxia Dmitriyevna Younger brother of Vasily IRurikidsVasily Yuryevich
the Squint
of ZvenigorodВасилий Юрьевич (Василий Косой)1421 – 14485 June 14341435Son of Yury of Zvenigorod and Anastasia of SmolenskRurikidsVasily II Vasilyevich
the Dark
Василий Васильевич (Василий Тёмный)10 March 1415–27 March 146214351446RestoredRurikidsDmitry Yuryevich
Дмитрий Юрьевич (Дмитрий Шемяка)1400s–17 July 1453144626 March 1447Son of Yury of Zvenigorod and Anastasia of Smolensk, brother of Vasily the SquintFirst to use the title of Sovereign of all the Rus[sia]RurikidsVasily II Vasilyevich
the Dark
Василий Васильевич (Василий Тёмный)10 March 1415–27 March 146227 February 144727 March 1462RestoredCo-ruler: Ivan (since 1449)RurikidsIvan III Vasilyevich
the Great
Иван Васильевич (Иван Великий)22 January 1440–6 November 15055 April 14626 November 1505Son of Vasily II and Maria of BorovskCo-rulers: Ivan the Young (1471–1490), Dmitry the Grandson (1498–1502), Vasily (since 1502)RurikidsVasily III Ivanovich
Василий Иванович25 March 1479–13 December 15336 November 150513 December 1533Son of Ivan III and Sophia PaleologueRurikidsIvan IV Vasilyevich
Иван Васильевич25 August 1530–28 March 158413 December 153326 January 1547Son of Vasily III and Elena GlinskayaRegent: Elena Glinskaya (1533–1538)RurikidsTsars of Russia

Vasili’s son Ivan the Terrible formalized the situation by assuming the title Tsar of All Rus’ in 1547, when the state of Russia (apart from its constituent principalities) came into formal being.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImageIvan IV Vasilyevich
the Terrible
Иван Васильевич (Иван Грозный)25 August 1530–28 March 158426 January 154728 March 1584Son of Vasily III and Elena Glinskaya”Grand Prince”: Simeon Bekbulatovich (1575–1576)RurikidsFeodor I Ivanovich
the Blessed
Фёдор Иванович (Фёдор Блаженный)31 May 1557–17 January 159828 March 158417 January 1598Son of Ivan IV and Anastasia Zakharyina-YuryevaRurikids

Time of Troubles

Following the death of the Feodor I, the son of Ivan the Terrible and the last of the Rurik dynasty, Russia fell into a succession crisis known as the Time of Troubles. As Feodor left no male heirs, the Russian Zemsky Sobor (feudal parliament) elected his brother-in-law Boris Godunov to be Tsar. Devastated by famine, rule under Boris descended into anarchy. A series of impostors, known as the False Dmitriys, each claimed to be Feodor’s long deceased younger brother; however, only the first impostor ever legitimately held the title of Tsar. A distant Rurikid cousin, Vasili Shuyskiy, also took power for a time. During this period, foreign powers deeply involved themselves in Russian politics, under the leadership of the Vasa monarchs of Sweden and Poland-Lithuania, including Sigismund III Vasa and his son Władysław IV Vasa. As a child, Władysław was even chosen as Tsar by the Seven Boyars, though he was prevented by his father from formally taking the throne. The Time of Troubles is considered to have ended with the election of Michael Romanov to the throne, who established the Romanov dynasty that would rule Russia until the Russian Revolution of 1917.

Tsars of Russia
NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImageBoris Feodorovich
Борис Фёдорович Годунов1551–13 April 160521 February 159813 April 1605Brother-in-law of Feodor IElected by Zemsky SoborGodunovFeodor II Borisovich
Фёдор Борисович Годунов1589–20 June 160513 April 160510 June 1605Son of Boris Godunov and Maria Grigorievna Skuratova-BelskayaMurderedGodunovFalse Dmitriy IDmitriy Ivanovich
Лжедмитрий I1581–17 May 160610 June 160517 May 1606Claiming to be son of Ivan IV, he was the only imposter to actually sit on the throne of a major powerBacked by Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.Murdered.Rurikids(claimed)Vasily IV Ivanovich
Василий Иванович Шуйский22 September 1552–12 September 161219 May 160617 July 1610Ninth generation descendant of Andrei II in the male line. DeposedPretender: False Dmitry II (since June 1607)ShuyskyVladislav Zhigimontovich
Владислав Жигимонтович9 June 1595–20 May 16486 September 1610November 1612(resigned his claim in 1634)King of Poland since 1632Son of Sigismund III Vasa and Anne of AustriaElected by the Seven Boyars, never assumed the thronePretender: False Dmitry II (until 21 December 1610)Vasa

Romanovs, 1613–1917

Tsars of Russia

The Time of Troubles came to a close with the election of Michael Romanov as Tsar in 1613. Michael officially reigned as Tsar, though his father, the Patriarch Philaret (died 1633) initially held the real power. However, Michael’s descendants would rule Russia, first as Tsars and later as Emperors, until the Russian Revolution of 1917. Peter the Great (reigned 1682–1725), a grandson of Michael Romanov, reorganized the Russian state along more Western lines, establishing the Russian Empire in 1721.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImageMichael Feodorovich
Михаил Фёдорович12 July 1596–12 July 164526 July 161312 July 1645Founder of Romanov DynastyFirst cousin once removed of Feodor ICo-ruler: Patriarch Filaret (1619–1633)RomanovAlexis Mikhailovich
the Quiet
Алексей Михайлович (Алексей Тишайший)9 May 1629–29 January 167612 July 164529 January 1676Son of Michael and Eudoxia StreshnevaRomanovFeodor III Alexeyevich
Фёдор III Алексеевич9 June 1661–7 May 168229 January 16767 May 1682Son of Alexis and Maria MiloslavskayaRomanovPeter I Alexeyevich
Пётр I Алексеевич9 June 1672–8 February 17257 May 16822 November 1721Son of Alexis and Natalya NaryshkinaYounger half-brother of Feodor IIICo-ruler: Ivan V (26 May 1682 – 8 February 1696)Regent: tsaritsa dowager Natalia (7 May – 2 June 1682), princess Sophia (8 June 1682 – 17 September 1689)RomanovIvan V Alexeyevich
Иван V Алексеевич6 September 1666–8 February 169626 May 16828 February 1696Son of Alexis and Maria MiloslavskayaYounger brother of Feodor III and SophiaElder half-brother of Peter ICo-ruler: Peter IRegent: princess Sophia (8 June 1682 – 17 September 1689)Romanov
Emperors of Russia

(Also Grand Princes of Finland from 1809 until 1917; and Kings of Poland from 1815 until 1917)

Main article: Emperor of All Russia

The Empire of Russia was declared by Peter the Great in 1721. Officially, Russia would be ruled by the Romanov dynasty until the Russian Revolution of 1917. However, direct male descendants of Michael Romanov came to an end in 1730 with the death of Peter II of Russia, grandson of Peter the Great. The throne passed to Anna, a niece of Peter the Great, and after the brief rule of her niece’s infant son Ivan VI, the throne was seized by Elizabeth, a daughter of Peter the Great. Elizabeth would be the last of the direct Romanovs to rule Russia. Elizabeth declared her nephew, Peter, to be her heir. Peter (who would rule as Peter III) spoke little Russian, having been a German prince of the House of Holstein-Gottorp before arriving in Russia to assume the Imperial title. He and his German wife Sophia changed their name to Romanov upon inheriting the throne. Peter was ill-liked, and he was assassinated within six months of assuming the throne, in a coup orchestrated by his wife, who became Empress in her own right and ruled as Catherine the Great (both Peter and Catherine were descended from the House of Rurik). Following the confused successions of the descendants of Peter the Great, Catherine’s son Paul I established clear succession laws which governed the rules of primogeniture over the Imperial throne until the fall of the Empire in 1917.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImagePeter I Alexeyevich
the Great
Пётр I Алексеевич (Пётр Великий)9 June 1672–8 February 17252 November 17218 February 1725Son of Alexis and Natalya NaryshkinaYounger half-brother of Feodor III, Sophia and Ivan VRegarded as one of the greatest Russian monarchsRomanovCatherine I Alexeyevna
Екатерина I Алексеевна15 April 1684–17 May 17278 February 172517 May 1727Second wife of Peter ISkowroński;Romanov (by marriage)Peter II Alexeyevich
Пётр II Алексеевич23 October 1715–30 January 173018 May 172730 January 1730Grandson of Peter I via the murdered Tsesarevich AlexeiLast male of the direct Romanov lineRomanovAnna Ioannovna
Анна Иоанновна7 February 1693–28 October 174013 February 173028 October 1740Daughter of Ivan V and Praskovia SaltykovaRomanovIvan VI Antonovich
Иван VI Антонович23 August 1740–16 July 176428 October 17406 December 1741Great-grandson of Ivan VDeposed as a baby, imprisoned and later murderedRegents: E. J. von Biron (until 20 November 1740), Anna Leopoldovna (since 20 November 1740)Brunswick-BevernElizabeth Petrovna
Елизавета Петровна29 December 1709–5 January 17626 December 17415 January 1762Daughter of Peter I and Catherine IRomanovPeter III Feodorovich
Пётр III Фёдорович21 February 1728–17 July 17629 January 17629 July 1762Grandson of Peter INephew of ElizabethDeposed and later murderedHolstein-Gottorp-RomanovCatherine II Alexeyevna
the Great
Екатерина II Алексеевна (Екатерина Великая)2 May 1729–17 November 17969 July 176217 November 1796Wife of Peter IIIAscania; Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov (by marriage)Paul I Petrovich
Павел I Петрович1 October 1754–23 March 180117 November 179623 March 1801Son of Peter III and Catherine IIAssassinatedHolstein-Gottorp-RomanovAlexander I Pavlovich
the Blessed
Александр I Павлович (Александр Благословенный)23 December 1777–1 December 182523 March 18011 December 1825Son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of WürttembergFirst Romanov King of Poland and Grand Duke of FinlandHolstein-Gottorp-RomanovConstantine Pavlovich
Константин Павлович27 April 1779–27 June 18311 December 182526 December 1825Son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of WürttembergYounger brother and heir presumptive of Alexander ISecretly abdicated in 1823, proclaimed emperor in capital, abdicated again)Holstein-Gottorp-RomanovNicholas I Pavlovich
Николай I Павлович6 July 1796–2 March 185526 December 18252 March 1855Son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of WürttembergYounger brother of Alexander I and Constantine PavlovichHolstein-Gottorp-RomanovAlexander II Nikolayevich
the Liberator
Александр II Николаевич (Александр Освободитель)29 April 1818–13 March 18812 March 185513 March 1881Son of Nicholas I and Alexandra FeodrovnaNephew of Alexander IAssassinatedHolstein-Gottorp-RomanovAlexander III Alexandrovich
the Peacemaker
Александр III Александрович (Александр Миротворец)10 March 1845–1 November 189413 March 18811 November 1894Son of Alexander II and Maria AlexandrovnaHolstein-Gottorp-RomanovSaint Nicholas II Alexandrovich
Николай II Александрович18 May 1868–17 July 19181 November 189415 March 1917Son of Alexander III and Maria FeodorovnaAbdicated the throne during the February RevolutionMurdered by the BolsheviksHolstein-Gottorp-RomanovPretenders after Nicholas II
Further information: Restoration of the Russian monarchy
NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImageMichael Aleksandrovich
Михаил Александрович4 December 1878–13 June 191815 March 191716 March 1917Son of Alexander IIIAbdicated after a nominal reign of only 18 hours,ending dynastic rule in Russia[4]He is not usually recognised as a tsar, as Russian law did not allow Nicholas II to disinherit his son[5]Holstein-Gottorp-RomanovNikolai Nikolaevich
Николай Николаевич6 November 1856–5 January 19298 August 192225 October 1922Grandson of Nicholas IProclaimed Emperor of Russia by the Zemsky Sobor of the Provisional Priamurye Government while being in exileHis nominal rule came to an end when the areas controlled by the Provisional Priamurye Government were overrun by the communistsHolstein-Gottorp-RomanovKirill Vladimirovich”Cyril I”
Кирилл Владимирович30 September 1876–12 October 193831 August 192412 October 1938Grandson of Alexander IIClaimed the title Emperor of All the Russias while in exile[6]Recognised by a congress of legitimists delegates in Paris in 1926[7]Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov

Leaders after 1917

See also: List of heads of state of Russia

Timeline of monarchs

See also

Family tree of Russian monarchs
List of Russian consorts
List of heads of government of Russia
List of leaders of the Soviet Union
List of leaders of the Russian SFSR
Premier of the Soviet Union
List of presidents of Russia
Prime Minister of Russia
Grand Prince of Kiev


^ According to the Tale of Bygone Years, the date is not clearly identified.


^ .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”\”””\”””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//”)right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}Glenn E. Curtis (1996). “Kievan Rus’ and Mongol Periods”. Russia: A Country Study. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 26 November 2013.

^ Suszko, Henryk (2003). Latopis hustyński. Opracowanie, przekład i komentarze. Slavica Wratislaviensia CXXIV. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. ISBN 83-229-2412-7.

^ Tolochko, Oleksiy (2010). The Hustyn’ Chronicle. (Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature: Texts) ISBN 978-1-932650-03-7.

^ Montefiore, Simon S. (2016) The Romanovs, 1613–1918 London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, pp. 619–621

^ “The Abdication of Nicholas II: 100 Years Later”. The Russian Legitimist. Retrieved 30 January 2018.

^ Almanach de Gotha (182nd ed.). Almanach de Gotha. 1998. p. 214.

^ Shain, Yossi The Frontier of Loyalty: Political Exiles in the Age of the Nation-State University of Michigan Press (2005) p.69.

External links

Godunov to Nicholas II by Saul Zaklad
(in Russian) Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal
Timeline of Russian Emperors and Empresses
History of Russian imperial titles. Bibliography
vteSovereigns of the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Grand Principality of Moscow, Tsardom of Russia and the Russian EmpireGrand Princes
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Andrey II of Vladimir
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Vasily of Kostroma
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Andrey of Gorodets
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Yuri of Moscow
Dmitry the Terrible Eyes
Alexander of Tver
Ivan I
Simeon the Proud
Ivan II
Dmitry of Suzdal
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Vasily I
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Ivan III the Great
Vasily III
Ivan IVTsars
Ivan IV the Terrible
Feodor I
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False Dmitry I (also as Emperor)
Vasili IV
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Peter I and Ivan V (co-rulers)Emperors and Empresses
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Tsar Nicholas II - Death, Wife & Family - Biography

Tsar Nicholas II – Death, Wife & Family – Biography – Nicholas II was the last tsar of Russia under Romanov rule. His poor handling of Bloody Sunday and Russia's role in World War I led to his abdication Passionate about the military, Nicholas II rose to the rank of colonel. Although he was the crown prince of Russia, while in the military he attended few…Last Czars in Russia. Ms. Tavani March 6, 2015 Terms: – Liberal: the government believes that the rights and people should be equal and will do it legally – Radical: people who want change and will demand for it and will suggest things illegally – Conservative…Nicholas II was the last czar of Russia. His autocratic leadership played a major role in the success of the Russian Revolution and its aftermath. In 1881, Nicholas' father, Alexander III, became czar (emperor) of Russia after his father, Alexander II, was killed by an assassin's bomb.

last czars in russia | Russian Empire | Europe – A wave of nostalgia for Czar Nicholas II and his family is sweeping Russia and beyond. The "general consternation" and "great outburst of public anxiety" that June, as Foreign Minister Sergei Sazonov saw it, arose from the fear that if the czar were to take command of Russia's armies, his feeble military…russias first czar was in 1547 and its last czar was in 1917. he had 4 girls and 1 boy. his wife was alexandra and she was german. nicholas was the last czar of russia and he resigned in 1917. nicholas did not want to be the czar he wanted to care for his family.The Czar rule in Russia lasted nearly 300 years. The first Czar was put into power in 1613 and the last Russian Czar ended his reign in 1917. Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russia, died in the early morning hours of July 17, 1918. He was not killed during the Russian Revolutions in 1917.

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Biography of Czar Nicholas II, Last Czar of Russia – Netflix's 'The Last Czars' Is a Bold but Flawed Docudrama About the End of Russian Royalty. Look no further than last years' divisive Matthew Weiner Amazon anthology series, The Romanoffs , following families who bizarrely claim to be descendants of Russia's last royal family.Tzar Nicholas II or Nikolai II Alexandrovich Romanov, was the last Emperor of all Russia, ruling from November 1894 until his forced abdication in 15 March 1917 and subsequent assasination on 17 July 1918, during The most revered Czar in Imperial Russia was always the one currently on the throne .Reveal the answer to this question whenever you are ready. The Last Czar Of Russia Was _____. . Front.

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