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For the documentary film, see The Mothers of Plaza de Mayo.
Mothers of the Plaza de MayoMadres de Plaza de MayoSecond “March of Resistance” held on December 9 and 10, 1982. The flag reads “Reappearance alive of the 30.000 desaparecidos”Formation1977FounderAzucena Villaflor, Esther Ballestrino, María Ponce de Bianco, Josefina García de Noia, Hebe de Bonafini and othersFounded atBuenos Aires, ArgentinaMethodsNonviolent resistanceLeaderHebe de BonafiniKey peopleAlice Domon, Léonie Duquet, Haydeé Gastelú, María Adela Gard de Antokoletz, Mirta Acuña de Baravalle, Berta BravermanWebsitemadres.orgOperation Condor
Background histories
Argentina (1976 coup d’état)
Bolivia
Brazil (1960s)
Chile (1973 coup d’état)
Paraguay
Peru
Uruguay

Events
Dirty War
National Reorganization Process
Operation Colombo
Operation Charly
Operation Gladio
Night of the Pencils
Operativo Independencia
Ezeiza massacre
Margarita Belén massacre
Death flights
Desaparecidos
1973 Chilean coup d’état

Government leaders
Jorge Anaya
Hugo Banzer
Basilio Lami Dozo
João Figueiredo
Leopoldo Galtieri
Augusto Pinochet
Alfredo Stroessner
Jorge Rafael Videla

Targeted militias
Montoneros
Tupamaros
People’s Revolutionary Army (ERP)
Revolutionary Left Movement (MIR)

Principal operatives
Alfredo Astiz
Orlando Bosch
Hugo Campos Hermida
Manuel Contreras
Stefano Delle Chiaie
José López Rega
Virgilio Paz Romero
Luis Posada Carriles
Paul Schäfer
Michael Townley

Organizations responsible
Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional
Caravan of Death
Batallón de Inteligencia 601
Coordination of United Revolutionary Organizations
National Intelligence Service of Brazil
US Army School of the Americas
Argentine Anticommunist Alliance

Locations
Esmeralda
Estadio Nacional de Chile
Villa Grimaldi
Colonia Dignidad
Navy Petty-Officers School of Mechanics

Laws
Full stop law
Due obedience law

Archives and reports
Archives of Terror
Rettig Report
Valech Report
National Security Archive

Reactions
National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons
Trial of the Juntas
Augusto Pinochet’s arrest and trial
Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo
vte

The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo is an Argentine human rights association formed in response to the National Reorganization Process, the military dictatorship by Jorge Rafael Videla, with the goal of finding the desaparecidos, initially, and then determine the culprits of crimes against humanity to promote their trial and sentencing.

The Mothers began demonstrating in the Plaza de Mayo, the public square located in front of the Casa Rosada presidential palace, in the city of Buenos Aires, on April 30, 1977, to petition for the alive reappearance of their disappeared children. Originally, they would remain there seated, but by declaring state of emergency, police expelled them from the public square.

In September 1977, in order to provide themselves with an opportunity to share their stories with other Argentinians, the mothers decided to join the annual pilgrimage to Our Lady of Luján, located 30 miles outside Buenos Aires. In order to stand out among the crowds, the mothers decided to wear their children’s nappies as headscarves. Following the pilgrimage, the mothers decided to continue wearing these headscarves during their meetings and weekly demonstrations at the Plaza. On them, they embroidered the names of their children and wrote “Aparición con Vida” (Alive reappearance).

During the years of the Dirty war, the name used by the military junta for the period of United States-backed state terrorism in Argentina from 1976 to 1983 as a part of Operation Condor, during which military and security forces and right-wing death squads in the form of the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (AAA, or Triple A), hunted down political dissidents and anyone believed to be associated with socialism, left-wing Peronism or the Montoneros guerrillero movement, they constantly opposed the de facto government, suffering persecution, including kidnappings and forced disappearancess, most notably in the cases of founders Azucena Villaflor, Esther Ballestrino, María Ponce de Bianco, and French nun supporters Alice Domon and Léonie Duquet, perpetrated by a group led by Alfredo Astiz, a former commander, intelligence officer, and naval commando who served in the Argentine Navy during the military dictatorship. The Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team, known for having found and identified the remains of Che Guevara, would later find their bodies to have been killed on a death flight and their bodies disposed of in the sea.

On the first days of December, 1980, the first “March of Resistance” was held, consisting of marching around the public square for 24 hours.

Despite democracy being reestablished in the 1983 general election, the movement continued to hold marches and demonstrations, demanding sentences for the military personnel that participated in the government that overthrew Isabel Perón in the 1976 coup d’état. This would eventually culminate in the Trial of the Juntas of 1985.

They have received widespread support and recognition by many international organizations, including being the first organization laureated by the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, and helped several human rights groups throughout their history. The 1980 Nobel Peace Prize Adolfo Perez Esquivel was an active supporter of the association, for which he was the subject of harassment by the dictatorship.

The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo are currently divided into two factions, the majority group “Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo Association” (presided by Hebe de Bonafini) and “Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo — Founding Line”. Ceremonially, every Thursday at 3:30 p.m the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, led by Hebe de Bonafini, march around the May Pyramid at the central hub of the Plaza de Mayo, and at 4:00 p.m they give speeches from the Equestrian monument to General Manuel Belgrano, where they opine over the current national and global situation.

Purpose

Women had organized to gather, holding a vigil, while also trying to learn what had happened to their adult children during the 1970s and 1980s. They began to gather for this every Thursday, from 1977 at the Plaza de Mayo in Buenos Aires, in front of the Casa Rosada presidential palace, in public defiance of the government’s law against mass assemblies.[1] Wearing white headscarves to symbolize the diapers (nappies) of their lost children, embroidered with the names and dates of birth of their offspring, now young adults, the mothers marched in twos in solidarity to protest the denials of their children’s existence or their mistreatment by the military regime.[1] Despite personal risks, they wanted to hold the government accountable for the human rights violations which were committed in the Dirty War.[2]

Activism and reaction

The white shawl of the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, painted on the floor in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo were the first major group to organize against the Argentina regime’s human rights violations. Together, the women created a dynamic and unexpected force, which existed in opposition to traditional constraints on women in Latin America. These mothers came together to push for information on their own children and this highlighted the human rights violations and the scale of the protest drew press attention, raising awareness on a local and global scale. Their persistence to publicly remember and try to find their children, the sustained group organisation, the use of symbols and slogans, and the silent weekly protests attracted reactive measures from those in power.[1]

The military government considered these women to be politically subversive; the founder of the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, Azucena Villaflor De Vincenti, who placed the names of ‘the missing’ in a newspaper in December 1977 (on International Human Rights Day) was kidnapped, tortured and murdered (later found to have been killed on a ‘death flight’ and her body disposed of in the sea),[1] along with French nuns Alice Domon and Léonie Duquet who also supported the movement. This was done at the command of Alfredo Astiz and Jorge Rafael Videla (who was a senior commander in the Argentine Army and dictator of Argentina from 1976 to 1981), both of whom were later sentenced to life in prison for their roles in the repression of dissidents during the Dirty War.[3]

Esther Careaga and María Eugenia Bianco, two other founders of the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, also “disappeared”.

In 1983, former military officers began to reveal information about some of the regime’s human rights violations. Eventually, the military has admitted that over 9,000 of those abducted are still unaccounted for, but the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo say that the number of missing is closer to 30,000. Most are presumed dead. Many of these prisoners were high school students, young professionals, and union workers who were suspected of having opposed the government. Those ‘taken’ were generally below the age of 35, as were the members of the regime who tortured and murdered them. There were a disproportionate number of Jewish “disappeared” as the military was anti-Semitic, as documented in Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number. This documented the testimony of Jacobo Timerman and his experience being arrested and tortured during this time.[4][5].

It took until 2005 and DNA identification for many of the mass graves and human remains to be exhumed and cremated or buried, Azecuna’s ashes were interred in the Plaza de Mayo itself.[1]

Today, the Mothers are engaged in the struggle for human, political, and civil rights in Latin America and elsewhere.[3]

Graffiti on a metal plate in Plaza Montenegro, San Martín St. & San Luis St., Rosario, Argentina. (victims of forced disappearance of the last military dictatorship, 1976-1983) and the alleged assassination of Pocho Lepratti, a social activist, by the Santa Fe provincial police. The white hood on top is the symbol of the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo. The text reads “30 MIL POCHOS VIVEN” = “30,000 Pochos live”, a reference to the estimate of 30,000 “disappeared” victims of the military junta.

Origins of the movement

On April 30, 1977, Azucena Villaflor de De Vincenti and a dozen other mothers walked to the Plaza de Mayo in Argentina’s capital city.

The original founders of the group were Azucena Villaflor de De Vincenti, Berta Braverman, Haydée García Buelas; María Adela Gard de Antokoletz, Julia, María Mercedes and Cándida Gard (four sisters); Delicia González, Pepa Noia, Mirta Acuña de Baravalle,[6]Kety Neuhaus, Raquel Arcushin, and Senora De Caimi.

These women shared the experience of each having had at least one child who had been ‘taken’ by the military government. The mothers declared that between 1970 and 1980, more than 30,000 individuals became “Desaparecidos” or “the disappeared.” These people were erased from public records with no government traces of arrests or evidence of charges against them.[7]

The women decided to risk a public protest, although gatherings of more than three people were banned, by linking arms in pairs, as if on a stroll[1] just across the street from the presidential office building, the Casa Rosada (the Pink House). The mothers chose this site for its high visibility, and they were hoping for information on their whereabouts to recover imprisoned or to properly bury their children.

The “disappeared” were believed to have been abducted by agents of the Argentine government during the years known as the Dirty War (1976–1983). Those whose locations were found, often had been tortured and killed and bodies disposed of in rural areas or unmarked graves.[7]

Becoming a movement

As growing numbers joined weekly marches on Thursdays, the day the first few met,[1] the Mothers also began an international campaign to defy the propaganda distributed by the military regime. This campaign brought the attention of the world to Argentina.[8]

A policeman (Carlos Gallone[9]) and a Mother during an act of protest at Plaza de Mayo, October 1982

One year after the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo was founded, hundreds of women were participating, gathering in the Plaza for weekly demonstrations. They found strength in each other by marching in public, and attracted some press. They made signs with photos of their children and publicized their children’s names. They wore white headscarves embroidered with the names and dates of births of their lost children.[1]

The government tried to trivialize their action calling them “las locas” (the madwomen).[10]

As the number of disappeared grew, the movement grew, and the Mothers were getting international attention. They began to try to build pressure from outside governments against the Argentine dictatorship, by sharing the many stories of the “disappeared”.

On 10 December 1977, International Human Rights Day, the Mothers published a newspaper advertisement with the names of their missing children. That same night, Azucena Villaflor (one of the original founders) was kidnapped from her home in Avellaneda by a group of armed men. She is reported to have been taken to the infamous ESMA torture centre, and from there on a “death flight” over the ocean. In-flight, the abducted were drugged, stripped, and flung into the sea or killed and thrown overboard.[11][1]

Also an estimated 500 of the missing are the children who were born in concentration camps or prison to pregnant ‘disappeared’ women; many of these babies were given in illegal adoptions to military families and others associated with the regime. Their birth mothers were generally believed to have been killed. The numbers are hard to determine due to the secrecy surrounding the abductions.[12]

Global impact

Mercedes Colás de Meroño

In 1978, when Argentina hosted the World Cup, the Mothers’ demonstrations at the Plaza were covered by the international press in town for the sporting event.[10]

Later when Adolfo Scilingo spoke at the National Commission on Disappeared People, he described how many prisoners were drugged and thrown out of planes to their deaths in the Atlantic Ocean. For years following the regime, from early 1978 onwards, residents who lived along the Río de la Plata have found human remains of those abducted, murdered and dumped at sea.[12]

Some of the movement’s most prominent supporters bodies were never found, such as French national Léonie Duquet. Duquet and her sister Alice Domon, both French nuns, were taken during the Dirty War. Their disappearance attracted international attention and outrage, with demands for a United Nations investigation of human rights abuses in the country. France demanded information on the sisters, but the Argentine government denied all responsibility for them.[13]

In 2005, forensic anthropologists dug up some remains of bodies that had been buried in an unmarked grave after washing ashore (in late December 1977) near the beach resort of Santa Teresita, south of Buenos Aires. DNA testing identified among them Azucena Villaflor, Esther Careaga and María Eugenia Bianco, three pioneer Mothers of the Plaza who had “disappeared”. In December 2005, Azucena Villaflor’s ashes were buried in the Plaza de Mayo itself.[14][1]

Divisions and radicalization

The mothers with President Néstor Kirchner

Never giving up their pressure on the regime, after the military gave up its authority to a civilian government in 1983, the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo rekindled hopes that they might learn the fates of their children, pushing again for information.[15]

Beginning in 1984, teams assisted by the American geneticist Mary-Claire King began to use DNA testing to identify remains, when bodies of the “disappeared” were found.

The government then conducted a national commission to collect testimony about the “disappeared”, hearing from hundreds of witnesses. In 1985, it began prosecution of men indicted for crimes, beginning with the Trial of the Juntas, in which several high-ranking military officers were convicted and sentenced.

The military threatened a coup to prevent a widening of prosecutions. In 1986, Congress passed Ley de Punto Final, which stopped the prosecutions for some years.

But in 2003, Congress repealed the Pardon Laws, and in 2005 the Argentine Supreme Court ruled them unconstitutional. During the Kirchner’s administration, prosecution of war crimes were re-opened. Former high-ranking military and security officers have been convicted and sentenced in new cases. Among the charges is the stealing of babies of the disappeared. The first major figure, Miguel Etchecolatz, was convicted and sentenced in 2006. Most of the members of the Junta were imprisoned for crimes against humanity.[16]

With the Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo, a group set up in 1977, the Mothers have identified 256 missing children who were adopted soon after being born to mothers in prison or camps who later “disappeared”. Seven of the identified children have died. At beginning of 2018, 137 of those children, now grown adults, were found and were offered to meet their biological families.[17] Some Mothers and Grandmothers suffered disappointments when the grandchildren, now adults, did not want to know their hidden history, or refused to be tested. Parents who were judged in court to be guilty of adopting – or “appropriating” – the children of the disappeared, while knowing the truth about their origins, were susceptible to imprisonment.[18]

In 1986, the Mothers split into two factions. One group, called the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo-Founding Line, focused on legislation, the recovery of the remains of their children, and bringing ex-officials to justice. Hebe de Bonafini continued to lead a more radical faction under the name Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo Association. These mothers felt responsible for carrying on their children’s political work and assumed the agenda that originally led to the disappearance of the dissidents. Unlike the Founding Line, the association refused government help or compensation. They pledged not to recognize the deaths of their children until the government would admit its fault.[19]

A scholar of the movement, Marguerite Guzman Bouvard, wrote that the association faction wanted “a complete transformation of Argentine political culture” and “envisions a socialist system free of the domination of special interests”. The Mothers Association is now backed by younger militants who support socialism.

In the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States, Bonafini said “I was happy when I first heard the news, that for once they were the ones attacked, I’m not going to lie.” and “being the U.S.A the most terrorist of all countries, throwing bombs everywhere around the world” but “felt bad for the innocent workers dead (because of the terrorist attack)” Her remarks led to some understandable criticisms in mainstream media.[20][21]

Speaking for the Mothers, she rejected the investigations of alleged Iranian involvement in the 1994 AMIA Bombing (the terrorist attack on the AMIA Jewish community center), saying the CIA and Mossad were misleading the investigation; making a statement that they repudiate “the tragic attack, but respect for the victims and their families requires to investigate and do justice,” without being “politically manipulated in the service of US interests.”[22]

‘Final’ March of Resistance

The Madres de la Plaza de Mayo march in October 2006

On 26 January 2006, members of the Madres de la Plaza de Mayo Association faction announced what they said was their final annual March of Resistance at the Plaza de Mayo, saying “the enemy isn’t in the Government House anymore.”[23] They acknowledged the significance of President Néstor Kirchner’s success in having the Full Stop Law (Ley de Punto Final) and the Law of Due Obedience repealed and declared unconstitutional.[24] They said they would continue weekly Thursday marches in pursuit of action on other social causes.

The Founding Line faction announced that it would continue both the Thursday marches and the annual marches to commemorate the long struggle of resistance to the dictatorship.

Social involvement and political controversies

The association faction remained close to Kirchnerism. They established a newspaper (La Voz de las Madres), a radio station, and a university (Popular University of the Mothers of Plaza de Mayo).[25]

The association at one time managed a federally funded housing program, Sueños Compartidos (“Shared Dreams”), which it founded in 2008.[26] By 2011, Sueños Compartidos had completed 5,600 housing units earmarked for slum residents, and numerous other facilities in six provinces and the city of Buenos Aires.[27][28]

Its growing budgets, which totaled around US0 million allocated between 2008 and 2011 (of which 0 million had been spent), came under scrutiny. There was controversy when the chief financial officer of Sueños Compartidos, Sergio Schoklender, and his brother Pablo (the firm’s attorney) were alleged to have embezzled funds.[28] The Schoklender brothers had been convicted in 1981 for the murder of their parents and served 15 years in prison. After gaining Bonafini’s confidence, they were managing the project’s finances with little oversight from the Mothers of Plaza de Mayo or the program’s licensor, the Secretary of Public Works. Their friendship with the association ended in June 2011 after Bonafini learned of irregularities in their handling of the group’s finances.[29] Following an investigation ordered by Federal Judge Norberto Oyarbide, the Secretary of Public Works canceled the Sueños Compartidos contract in August 2011. The outstanding projects were transferred to the Undersecretary of Housing and Urban Development.[30]

Gender and motherhood

Issues of gender and motherhood were embedded in this movement.[31] From its inception, the Mothers have been a strictly women-only organization,[32] as the mothers who lost their children were asserting their existence in the embroidery scarves, posters and demands for restoration.[1] In the later political movement, the women felt it had to be women-only partly to ensure their voices and actions would not be lost in a male-dominated movement, and partly out of a belief that men would insist on a lengthy bureaucratic process rather than immediate action.[33] They also believed that women were more tireless and had more emotional strength than men.[34]

The gender separatism reaffirmed its status as a women’s movement, although it also raised the question among some scholars of whether the movement truly challenged the notion of female passivity, and whether or not it would have sent a more powerful message to have had male family members involved as well.[32]

The Mothers movement also raised questions of women in political space and the boundaries surrounding that space.[32] The socially constructed gender roles prevalent in Argentine society restricted the arena of politics, political mobilisation, and confrontation to men.[35] When the Mothers entered the Plaza de Mayo, a public space with historical significance, they politicised their role as mothers in society and redefined the values associated with both politics and motherhood itself.[31] Although they did not challenge the patriarchal structure of Argentine society, by crossing boundaries into the masculinised political sphere, they expanded spaces of representation for Argentine women and opened the way for new forms of civic participation.[35]

The Mothers were committed to child-centred politics, symbolised by the white scarves they wore on their heads.[36] The scarves were originally nappies, or to represent diapers, and were embroidered with the names of their disappeared children or relatives.[36][1] These headscarves identified the Mothers and symbolised children, and thus life, as well as hope and maternal care.[36] The colour white also symbolised their refusal to wear a black mantilla and go into mourning.[32] Children were at the heart of the movement, as the Mothers fought for a system that would respect human life and honour its preservation.[36]

Santa Fe commemoration of 2000 rounds of the Madres de Plaza de Mayo, 2016

The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo politicised and gave new value to the traditional role of mothers.[35] They used motherhood to frame their protest, demanding the rights inherent to their role: to conserve life.[35] They protested not only what had been done to their children, but also to themselves as mothers by taking them away.[35] The heart of the movement was always “women’s feelings, mother’s feelings”, according to Hebe de Bonafini.[34] She further stated that “it was the strength of women, of mothers, that kept us going.”[34] The women’s identity as mothers did not restrict them from participating or making an impact in a masculinised political space.[35]

Their public protests contradicted the traditional, private domain of motherhood, and by mobilising themselves, they politicised their consciousness as women.[35] They restricted themselves to a conservative representation of motherhood, which avoided controversy and attracted the support of international media.[32] They refuted the concept that to be taken seriously or to be successful, a movement either has to be gender-neutral, or masculine: femininity and motherhood was integral to the Mothers’ protest.[36]

Grandmothers

Main article: Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo

The Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo (Spanish: Asociación Civil Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo) is an organization which has the aim of finding the “stolen” babies, whose mothers were killed during the Junta’s dictatorship in 1977. Its president is Estela Barnes de Carlotto.[37] As of June 2019, their efforts have resulted in finding 130 grandchildren.[38]

Awards and prizes

In 1992, all members of the Mothers’ association were awarded the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought.
In 1997, María Adela Gard de Antokoletz was awarded the Gleitsman International Activist Award[39] by the Gleitsman Foundation.
In 1997, the organization was awarded the Geuzenpenning in Vlaardingen, Netherlands
In 1999, the organization was awarded the United Nations Prize for Peace Education.
On 10 December 2003, the Grandmothers’ president, Estela Barnes de Carlotto, was awarded the United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights.

Representation in other media

The Official Story is a film related to the “stolen babies” cases.
Cautiva is another film related to the “stolen babies” cases.
An opera entitled Las Madres de la Plaza (2008) premiered in Leffler Chapel at Elizabethtown College in Pennsylvania. It was written in a collaboration of students, staff, and faculty of the school, headed up by James Haines and John Rohrkemper.
In an episode of Destinos set in Argentina, protagonist Raquel is told about the Mothers of the Plaza and sees a portion of a march.
On “Little Steven” Van Zandt’s 1984 release, “Voice of America”, he pays tribute to Las Madres de Plaza de Mayo with his song, “Los Desaparecidos.”
Rock band U2 wrote a song, “Mothers of the Disappeared”, inspired by, and in tribute to, their cause. The song appeared on their 1987 album The Joshua Tree.
The Mothers of Plaza de Mayo (Spanish: Las Madres de la Plaza de Mayo) is a 1985 Argentine documentary film directed by Susana Blaustein Muñoz and Lourdes Portillo about the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo. It was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature.

See also

Black Sash
Films depicting Latin American military dictatorships
Ladies in White
Maria Eugenia Sampallo
Mourning Mothers
Saturday Mothers
Tiananmen Mothers
Women in Black
Jorge Rafael Videla
Estela de Carlotto
Laura Carlotto
Alice Domon
Léonie Duquet
Alfredo Astiz

References

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”\”””\”””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg”)right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg”)right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}Hunter, Clare (2019). Threads of life : a history of the world through the eye of a needle. London: Sceptre (Hodder & Stoughton). pp. 157–159. ISBN 9781473687912. OCLC 1079199690.

^ 1948-, Meade, Teresa A. (2016-01-19). A history of modern Latin America : 1800 to the present (Second ed.). Chichester, West Sussex. ISBN 9781118772485. OCLC 915135785.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)

^ a b [1]. University of Denver, Case Specific Briefing Paper, “Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo: First Responders for Human Rights”, 2011. Accessed: May 4, 2015.

^ Stover, Eric; Timerman, Jacobo; Talbot, Tolby (1982). “Prisoner without a Name, Cell without a Number”. Human Rights Quarterly. 4 (2): 299. doi:10.2307/762134. ISSN 0275-0392. JSTOR 762134.

^ 1948-, Meade, Teresa A. (2016-01-19). A history of modern Latin America : 1800 to the present (Second ed.). Chichester, West Sussex. ISBN 9781118772485. OCLC 915135785.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)

^ “Testimonio de Mirta Acuña de Baravalle / 09 de mayo 2012”. Biblioteca Nacional Mariano Moreno (in Spanish). 2012-05-09. Retrieved 2020-02-11.

^ a b 1948-, Meade, Teresa A. (2016-01-19). A history of modern Latin America : 1800 to the present (Second ed.). Chichester, West Sussex. ISBN 9781118772485. OCLC 915135785.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)

^ [2]. “Purdue University Press”, article, “Textual Strategies to Resist Disappearance and the Mothers of Plaza de Mayo”, 2007. Accessed: May 4, 2015.

^ “Página/12 :: El país :: Gallone le echó la culpa a la foto”. www.pagina12.com.ar (in Spanish). Retrieved 2019-12-05.

^ a b Lester Kurtz. “Movements and Campaigns”, Nonviolent Conflict website, N.p., n.d. Web. 16 December 2012

^ [3]. “Gariwo”, article, “Azucena Villaflor: A Mother of the Plaza de Mayo”. Accessed: May 4, 2015.

^ a b 1948-, Meade, Teresa A. (2016-01-19). A history of modern Latin America : 1800 to the present (Second ed.). Chichester, West Sussex. ISBN 9781118772485. OCLC 915135785.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)

^ Durham, Robert B. (2014). False Flags, Covert Operations, & Propaganda. lulu.com. p. 96. ISBN 978-1312462885.

^ [4]. Los Angeles Times, article, “Argentines Remember a Mother Who Joined the ‘Disappeared’ “, 24 March 2006. Accessed: May 4, 2015.

^ [5]. “JSTOR”, article, “Argentina’s Mothers of Plaza de Mayo: The Mourning Process from Junta to Democracy”, 1987. Accessed: May 4, 2015.

^ [6]. “comisionjuiciocampodemayo.wordpress.com”, article, “Listado de condenados por delitos de lesa humanidad”, March 19, 2012. Accessed: February 7, 2018.

^ [7]. “[8]”, article, “La nieta recuperada 127 es la hija de la mendocina María del Carmen Moyano”, December 28, 2017. Accessed: February 7, 2018.

^ [9]. “The New Yorker”, article, “Children of the Dirty Way”, March 19, 2012. Accessed: May 4, 2015.

^ [10]. “The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace”, Volume 2, “Early Christianity and Antimilitarism – Mass Violence and Trends”, 2010. Accessed: May 4, 2015.

^ “nacionpro.com: “El día que Bonafini se alegró por los atentados a las torres gemelas””. nacionpro.com. Archived from the original on 2018-08-02. Retrieved 2018-02-07.

^ “Aldo Marchesi: Old Ideas in New Discourses”. Ssrc.org. 2001-11-26. Archived from the original on 2009-03-02. Retrieved 2012-03-01.

^ “Página/12 :: El país :: “Se escucha sólo a una parte””. Pagina12.com.ar. Retrieved 2012-03-01.

^ DyN, EFE (news agencies) (26 January 2006). “Las Madres de Plaza de Mayo realizaron la última Marcha de la Resistencia”. Clarin. Retrieved March 28, 2011.

^ “Bonafini anunció que las Madres harán la última Marcha de la Resistencia”. El Pais. Edant. 14 January 2006. Retrieved 2012-03-01.

^ “Hebe de Bonafini S.A.: Cuando el dolor sirve para ganar dinero y poder”. Patagones Noticias.

^ “Página/12 – Las Madres y su construcción de sueños”. Pagina12.com.ar. Retrieved 2012-03-01.

^ “Podrían denunciar plan de viviendas de Madres de Plaza de Mayo”. El Intransigente.

^ a b “Les quitan a las madres el manejo del plan de viviendas”. La Nación. Archived from the original on 2011-10-09.

^ “Bonafini says Schoklenders are ‘scammers, traitors'”. Buenos Aires Herald.

^ “Bonafini says Schoklenders are ‘scammers, traitors”. Buenos Aires Herald.

^ a b Bosco, Fernando J. (2006). “The Madres De Plaza De Mayo and Three Decades of Human Rights’ Activism: Embeddedness, Emotions, and Social Movements”. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 96 (2): 342–65. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.2006.00481.x.

^ a b c d e Shepherd, Laura J. (2015). Gender matters in global politics: a feminist introduction to international relations (2 ed.). London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. pp. 29–31.

^ Krause, Wanda C. (2004). “The Role and Example of Chilean and Argentinian Mothers in Democratisation”. Development in Practice. 14 (3): 366–380. doi:10.1080/0961452042000191204.

^ a b c Sternbach, Nancy Saporta; et al. (1987). “Interview with Hebe De Bonafini: President of Las Madres De Plaza De Mayo”. Feminist Teacher. 3 (1): 16–21.

^ a b c d e f g Bellucci, Mabel (1999). “Childless Motherhood: Interview with Nora Cortiñas, a Mother of the Plaza De Mayo, Argentina”. Reproductive Health Matters. 7 (13): 83–88. doi:10.1016/s0968-8080(99)90116-7.

^ a b c d e Krause, Wanda C. “The Role and Example of Chilean and Argentinian Mothers in Democratisation.” Development in Practice, vol. 14, no. 3, 2004, pp. 366–380. JSTOR.

^ http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2012/03/20123281047161699. Retrieved April 2, 2012. Missing or empty |title= (help)

^ “Buenos Aires Times | Grandmothers of Plaza de Mayo identify 130th missing grandchild of long search”. www.batimes.com.ar. Retrieved 2019-06-13.

^ “Gleitsman International Activist Award”. Center for Public Leadership. Archived from the original on 2012-03-01. Retrieved 2012-03-01.

Further reading

Mothers of the Disappeared, by Jo Fisher (1989).
Revolutionizing Motherhood: The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, by Marguerite Guzman Bouvard (1994).
Circle of Love Over Death: Testimonies of the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, by Matilde Mellibovsky, trans. by Maria & Matthew Proser (1997).
Searching for Life: The Grandmothers of the Plaza De Mayo and the Disappeared Children of Argentina, by Rita Arditti (1999).
A Lexicon of Terror: Argentina and the Legacies of Torture, by Marguerite Feitlowitz (1998)
“Las cenizas de Azucena, junto a la Pirámide”, Página/12, 9 December 2005 (in Spanish).
“Claiming the Public Space: The Mothers of Plaza de Mayo.” by Susan Torre. In The Sex of Architecture, edited by Diana Agrest, Patricia Conway, and Lesile Weisman, 241–250. New York: Harry N. Adams, 1996.

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Mothers of Plaza de Mayo | Did you find this document useful?

Mothers of Plaza de Mayo | Did you find this document useful? – Description: A webquest about Mothers of Plaza de Mayo in Argentina and the Dirty War. Copyright: Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC). .. 11. When did they first march in front of the presidential palace? .. 12. What do their white scarves symbolize? .. Created by Eleni Tsagari.In many cases, their relatives did not declare such kidnappings, either due to ignorance of the ability to do so or because they did not know that the mothers The disappeared children were deprived of their identity, their religion, and their right to live with their family, in order words, all of the rights that…Who are the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo? Published byGervais Phelps Modified over 5 years Who are the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo? How did they form into a world wide organization? Objective I can define the different types of governments and apply each to…

History | Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo – …de Mayo is discussed: Dirty War: The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo, an association of women who had lost children and grandchildren to the Dirty War to the plight of the desaparecidos ("disappeared persons") through weekly Thursday afternoon vigils in the Plaza de Mayo, fronting the presidential…Free Essay: The Mothers of the Plaza De Mayo were direct victims of oppression. These women, known as the Madres de Plaza de Mayo, became a powerful source of resistance to the Process of National Reorganization commissioned by the military junta which controlled Argentina between 1976…In response, the mothers of the disappeared came together and marched in Buenos Aires at the Plaza de Mayo, demanding week after week that their children be Sixty years later, a nonlocalizable electronic agent that calls itself the Daughters of the Plaza de Mayo emerges on the global Network.

History | Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo

Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo Andrew Dua. Questions Discussed in… – The correct answers are C, D and E. The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo campaigned for human rights, challenged In spite of the arrival of democracy in the country, in 1983, they continued with their marches and acts, asking for condemnation for the military that participated in the government.Which did the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo do? Check all that apply. campaign for human rights challenge government power fight for truth and democracy. In what year did Chile become a democracy again? 1988. Which explains how the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo affected Argentina?The Mothers of Plaza de Mayo – aware that their watch is drawing to a close – are deeply concerned by efforts to whitewash history – in Argentina and Robbed of their original leaders, the mothers fell under the sway of Hebe de Bonafini, an energetic and highly politicized woman who had lost two sons…

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Pregnancy and COVID-19: Novant Health doctors answer questions from expecting mothers – – Thank you for joining us
for today's conversation on COVID-19 pregnancy.
Here at Novant Health, our goal is to deliver the
most remarkable patient experience in every dimension every time. We recognize with the
recent news of COVID-19 in our communities and around the world, many expectant mothers have lots of fears and wanted to know what
was fact or fictionist. And so our goal today
is really to be able to talk to all mums as they
come in to our facilities to know that here at Novant Health, we are taking every
precaution to keep both you and your baby safe. I'm so excited today to
be joined on this zoom conversation as we're
practicing social distancing by [Video Freeze] As well as
one of our Novant Health patient who also is an expectant mom. Our first expert is Doctor Jaleema Speaks. Doctor Jaleema Speaks
is currently an OGBYN and is located here in Winston
Salem in Northern Carolina at Novant Health Women She was born in New York but
has lived in Winston Salem since 1994. She went to Wake Forest
University School of Medicine for medical school and stayed
there for her residency which she completed in 2012. When she's not caring for patients, Doctor Speaks enjoys spending
time with her husband and two children. Thank you Doctor Speaks
for joining us today. – Thank you Ashley. – Our next expert is also an expected mom, Doctor Froelich. Doctor Stephanie Froelich
received her medical degree from the Philadelphia College
of Osteopathic medicine and completed her residency
in Philadelphia Pennsylvania. She's been living in North
Carolina for several years and also opened a new
OBGYN clinic in Noda, the north Davidson area of Charlotte. Noda OBGYN. She has a special interest
in high risk pregnancies and acrotic management and
minimal invasive surgery. She lives in the Elizabeth
area in Charlotte with her husband and almost
4 year old son Robbie and her two rescue pet bulls. She and her family are
excited to welcome their baby girl in July of this year. So thank you Doctor Froelich
for joining our call today. – Thank you Ashley. – Then we have Molly Cruise. Molly is one of our
Novant Health patients. Molly is also on the way to
having a baby girl in May. She and her husband both
met while they were both working for a local text
startup called Passport. They got married in 2018
and moved to Belmont North Carolina almost
a year and a half ago where they bought their first home. And they are excited to be
welcoming their baby girl soon. So Molly thank you for joining us today. – Thank you. – So I'm so excited to
have all of you with us and we really just gonna
talk today just about the conversations that woman are having, woman are calling their OBGYN
and their wanting to know what should I do or what shouldn't I do? And so to kick off the conversation, Molly as an expectant mom, I know you have several questions and we talked earlier today. I'll let you go ahead and get started. – Yeah so my first question is Are pregnant woman at higher risk? – Molly that's a great question and I know that's something
that's been on our pregnant mums lately. Current available data on
the COVID-19 suggests that pregnant woman are not
at an increased risk, however, in the past pregnant woman have been at greater risk
for these kind of infections like influenza and SARS, which is why the CDC is still
classifying pregnant woman as a high risk group. Just because as this continues to evolve, we just wanna be cautious
about the data we receive. But currently from the
limited data we have, it doesn't look like
pregnant woman are showing any increased risk as far as we can tell. – Okay. – And I think that's
another great question 'coz I've heard my friends
and other patients have asked like, does it matter
what trimester I'm in? Doctor Speaks and Doctor Froelick, I know you all see woman at all trimesters and all stages amongst pregnancies, but is that a key factor as well? – Well for recommendations
for taking precautions to trying our best to avoid infection, they're the same in pregnancy as well as those who are not pregnant. Specifically washing our
hands correctly and well and frequently, avoiding people who may have
signs or symptoms of illness and practicing social
distancing and other guidelines that are bought forth by the
CDC and our local officials. And those recommendations
are regardless of where you are in your pregnancy or
what trimester you're in. – I think you bring up an excellent point, Molly we were talking
earlier about COVID-19 in pregnancy and I know you
had a question specifically about that. – Yeah so what would
happen if I got COVID-19 while pregnant? – Great question Molly, so with our recommendations
we use both the CDC and Accords guidance. Accords kinda like the
OBGYN's governing body. There's this really great alga
rhythm that we would follow to kind of assess your symptoms, assess for your severity and see whether you can
be managed safety at home or if you could be managed as a as a outpatient. Sorry (laughing) And so, we'd use those guidelines
in accordance with that and then if it was at
the time of delivery, all of our hospital systems
in the Novant systems has been doing great care
to make sure that we have specialized delivery
rooms for our patients and allowing them to safety
deliver in our setting. So that way we can make sure that the
safety of you and your infant during that delivery
process and most important process as well. – Yeah so if the mum were to
test positive for COVID-19, couldn't that be transmitted
to her unborn child? – So currently our
understanding about COVID-19 regarding it's transmission
from mother to child while the mums pregnant or ne utero suggests that that doesn't happen. There's ongoing studies
to determine exactly if that is the case, but there's been small
numbers of pregnant woman that have been studied who've had COVID-19 during pregnancy or at delivery and it is not felt that it was transmitted through the mum's blood, through the placenta to baby. – Okay, so let's talk about
a little bit after delivery. So we've had our delivery
and mum's probably have questions and Molly I know, we were talking just about
making sure that the baby is safe but you had a specific
question around breastfeeding. – Yeah, well will it still
be safe to breastfeed? – So our current data suggests that not transmitted in breast milk, but more so the risk would be if you were COVID positive, the respiratory drop was
transmitting to the infant. So it would be kind of
the same recommendations we would use, as far as mum would be
wearing a face mask, making sure that she's washing her hands, ideally you know it is
challenging in the beginning but considering possibly doing a pumping, you know, and having another
care giver feed the infant. But that would, you know,
again would be a personal discussion we would have between the mum and with pediatricians as well. To see what the best plan
going forward would be given the current data. – Right, one of the things
you touched on earlier Doctor Froelich were the precautions
that were utilizing here at Novant to reduce the exposure. Can you go into a little
bit more about that and how that would affect
the delivery process or if all woman that are coming to deliver at Novant Health? – Yeah, so with Novant
care we've been having we still value that it's
really important to have a support member present for delivery, we think bringing life into the world or anything that you have
to go through or be it, it really matters to have someone there to kinda share with you. Our staff take wonderful care, our nurses, our physicians, our midwives take really good care of our patients but it's nice for you too to have that personal level of support. So we still are allowing one
support person with patients. That one support person
will have to be the same throughout their entire stay. And it has to be a healthy adult. In the end, we're trying
to avoid obviously more people coming into the hospital. Also as well, during, you
know with our visitors you know, adhering to the
new CDC guidelines of masks you know having them with masks, and during labor we'll have the mum will be pushing with the mask on. And all of the staff in
the room are now downing masks, that's specific N95 masks as well. So it sounds like you're
a little bit under water but we are, you know,
it's good to at least you know, have that
protection so you know that we as providers who see
the patients were not transmitting to, you know, people as well that are in laboring
delivery and in elsewhere. – Right, and we're so grateful just, for our clinical staff
and then last week was National Doctor Appreciation
day and so I just wanna say thank you to you
Doctor Froelich as well as Doctor Speaks for all you're
doing for our patients during this time. As well as taking care
of your own families. I mean this this is something we've
never been a part of non of us has experienced it and so just as colleagues and as a
team member we say thank you for all your doing. – Thank you. – Thank you. – And something that you
touched on [Inaudible] what procedures should woman adhere to when they come home from
being in the hospital to decrease the risk of well
family being susceptible to COVID-19? – Sure Ashley, that's a great question and
we would want you to take the same precautions coming
home from the hospital as you would from other
essential visits that you have whether that be a doctors office
or even the grocery store. So washing your hands immediately, avoid touching your face and
if you do wash your hands after doing so. Using cleanex if you sneeze
or need to blow your nose and discarding that right away. Keeping surfaces in your home clean and disinfected frequently. And practicing social distancing, avoiding, you know, outside
visitors to your home which we know is very hard
with a new baby coming home. But just really keeping up to date with your local recommendations as far as keeping, keeping social
distancing and practices up. – Yeah I would say, I know
when you have those little bundles of joy, everyone wants to come and see but for now it's probably
best to do some Zoom or Skype videos with visitors. And Molly I know we were talking, I know you had another
question you wanted to ask our doctors as well. – Yeah, so what can pregnant
woman do to stay as healthy as possible during this time? – So, you know, doing your
normal recommendations as pregnancy would be, you know, as far as eating healthy, you know we all, I myself right now love the carbohydrates (laughing) trying to take that in
moderation as best you can we all kinda joked about
the quarantine breaking [Inaudible] You're stuck in the house that you're trying to
just to snack healthy. And also, you know, it
is really still important just for pregnancy mood and everything to get out of the house in a safe way. You know, walks around you know, we're fortunate
to be in North Carolina the weather is really pretty, you know, you can get
out do some daily walks. Again while trying to keep that 6 feet of distancing from people passing by. And just trying to
sustain exercise as well. You know that's another issue too. Pregnant woman are already, we kinda slack a little
bit on the exercise, but exercise has shown to be
really helpful in pregnancy, so trying to find a new normal routine, we can, I know a lot of
yoga studios are doing like online yoga's that you can logon to. So still try to make some
time to kinda keep some routine as best as you can. While trying to, you know,
adhere to the current guidelines – I thank you both for that. Are there any closing as
we get to our closing? Just Doctor Speaks and Doctor Froelick. Any other advice that
you would give to mums? Are people better even trying to conceive during this time? And just a way kinda stay calm as well as just being informed. Any other advice that you would share? – I would say feel free
to reach out to your OBGYN providers, to your office where you receive care. Not just for questions pertaining
to your physical health but we know that all of
the social changes we're experiencing and being disconnected from physically at least from our loved ones. Our support systems can
be quiet challenging. So let's not forget the emotional aspect that is being deeply
affected by all this change. And just reaching out
for help if you're having difficulty with coping with some of these very new and unprecedented changes. – I feel like I know as a new mum, well as the second baby
that's coming to the house, anything that you've been
practicing that you would share? – Yeah, I completely
agree with Doctor Speaks, it was great. Doctor Speaks and I got to chitchat over the weekend and kinda, you know, it was nice to just talk to people, you know, especially both female OBGYN's with young children at home, kinda going through the same situation, you know going into the hospital still and staying safe, so, you know, it's always
important as OBGYN's we are always here for you. You know, we know that
there's so much you can get on social media nowadays, and especially everything that's going on, we too, most OBGYN's are
have the similar situations are, you know, can relate with you so if you're getting
anxious about anything especially, you know,
what are you gonna do when you come back to the hospital and telling grandparents no
you can't come visit or things like that. You know, reaching out
and not staying isolated despite the social
distancing is really really important. Doctor Speaks and I talked to , I didn't think about, you know, if this is still going on in July, you know, whose gonna watch my child and you know, it's things like this that I think we're all
starting to kinda figure out what the best is for each family. And so I think that's always
a great discussion to see. You know, what you can do to kind of, just start to kind of plan ahead and see what works best for you and your family. – Thank you so much and
Molly thank you joining us as a Novant Health patient. We're so excited for you
and your new bundle of joy and your family that's gonna come. So we're just glad that you
were able to join us today and get some of your questions answered. – Thank you. Thanks for having me. – And so I wanna thank
all of our panelists today for our conversation about
COVID-19 and pregnancy. As always please feel
free to reach out to your health care professional
with specific questions. And for questions about Novant Health, please visit our website. Novanthealth.org. You could find out more information about COVID-19 and what
we're doing to keep all of our community as well as
patients, providers and staff safe. Thank you for joining us today. .

I DIY'd Joana Ceddia's new merch – *doodoodoo* Excuse you?! magnificent.
This morning my private investigator pigeon arrived with the news that the world's worst Youtuber Joana Ceddia made merch. Obviously doing God's work, I'm here to leak this news to her audience because this is unacceptable. I hate Joana. She deserves to burn alive in a pit of fire. Okay, Johanna Kreddia, If you're watching this, I have arrived and I'm here to rain on your parade with the fire and fervor of a massive stampede. this is the sweater in question *hmmm* It's ugly, horrendous, and I can't believe that she had the aUdAcItY to release it to her insolent fans. I spent money, Yes, actual money THAT I HAVE A LOT OF!!! *totally* on supplies for this terrible video. The grotesque people at Fabric Land sold me this overpriced felt and I am salty about it. You will be hearing from my attorney. It's the devil himself *DUN DUN DUNNNN*. Now, do I know how to make a sweater? No, but I don't care what you have to tell me because I will literally and figuratively sew circles around you. *Avengers EndGame right here* *Sorry SpOiLeR* Now to get in the shape of the sweater, I'm gonna use this sweater that is actually my co-workers Ex-boyfriends uncle's sister who is a quarter removed because she ate the disowning papers *WHAT?!* I know her poor pancreas :,( Aunt's Pet ants babysitter's father AAH eH Ew. If you're wondering why I hate Joana Ceddia with all my heart, Let me explain. One: Her hair looks like a paintbrush. It probably has rats living in it. Oh, and to compliment it she has a massive forehead. I mean you could literally land a plane on that thing. And finally, she eats like a rabbit. *yumm* Have you seen the food she eats? No normal human being can ingest that much squash and not have at least one session of explosive diarrhea after that. I don't know what her parents are feeding her, but it's definitely not FDA approved *FBI OPEN UP* *The face of someone who realised the fat shade she threw at her legal tutors* *What the hell am I making* o h g o d You know, I wonder to myself: what is Joanne Cheddar doing right now? Actually, why should I care? All she's capable of doing is putting on pink cloak glasses and eating cookies. Why do you guys even like her? Do you have wind between your ears or something? {maybe} I swear am I the only one rational here? {maybe} I knew it! All those times in grade school when I was hearing things from the cubbies, it was just my subconscious feeding me the secrets of the world. I'm an artist don't tell me otherwise or else I will sue you. Why are you wasting your time watching this video? There are so many better things you could be doing right now. Why don't you go watch actually good YouTubers like Jake Paul, or Logan Paul? SO much more respect. ಥ ͜ʖಥ Where are my scissors? Is anyone else getting really hot in here? This is such a waste of felt. There's old ladies that could have sewn stuff with this felt, and kids in Africa that could have eaten this felt *how inspiring* *stomp stomp stomp* stAy strAaAaight !! *eH eH eH* These Scissors: they SUCK. I wanna know who bought them, because it definitely wasn't me. I want a refund for the scissors that I didn't buy. You know my other issue with Jane Chrysanthemum is? The fact that she bought her subscribers. It's impossible. Of course she bought her subscribers. No one who looks and sounds *like that* deserves 2 million subs. Are you kidding me? You guys, you guys are all robots. {( ಥ Ĺ̯ ಥ )} Okay, and I'm sorry I'm the one who had to tell you this, but unfortunately, this is just the way the cards fell. Honestly, your parents should've just broke the news to you when you were younger. *fans cry in terror* S L A M AHHH Where do I put this? How is this sweater looking? It's looking fantastic. I don't know why you doubted my skills in the first place. I knew I could do this. I'm good at everything I touch! *Spook* I aM YoUr BiggEsT NiGhTmArE. aaaAAAAAAAHHH It's perfect! AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAHH AAAAH This stupid thread is NOT cooperating AAAAAAH EHHHHH I am really sweating in here.*wonder why?* AAAAAAAH Fantastic, it's beautiful. It's perfect. It's everything I would have ever wanted in a child. Now for the SLEEEEEEEVES!! Now all that we have left is to sew sleeves on to the vest. I'll see you on the flip side, everybody. *She's beauty, she's grace and she's wearing a handmade sweater* I feel like a sim. So now everybody we have one final thing to do: We have to draw the little rendition of John Centipede right on the center of this sweater. *SLAPP* EHH Only the hands of a true artist can draw this. *viOLeNt ScRibbLiNg* *voilà* *confusion* eH- It's abstract don't talk to me. *pat pat pat* SMACC SMACC SMACC What? If you're angry at me, I don't care. Haters are my motivators *Instant regret gag* *eWwW* I think what I'm trying to get at here is the fact that Jane centaur is a disease that needs to be eradicated. Gosh, why is it so hard to understand? Excuse me while I go burn this. Okay, I can explain. Everyone, I would like to introduce the Joana Ceddia sweater. It's the first item in my merch store and there will be more coming soon, and no it's probably not gonna be clothing, but we'll get to that further down the line. I've been wanting to make merch for a while now, I mean, I practically get screamed at by you guys in every video to make merch. So I'm elated to finally be giving you guys something. I've also been absolutely *twins* petrified to release merch because it seems like every time a youtuber releases merch they get absolutely devoured by every gossip and tea channel So I'm already going to preemptively apologize for whatever it is that offended you or upset you with this launch. You can't be too careful nowadays. The next thing I wanted to talk about was the design on the sweater now I've been going back and forth on designs for a good four months now until we finally settled on this one. This design does mean a lot to me because a fan actually drew it for me. And I'm eternally grateful that she let me use it for the sweater. ( ✧≖ ͜ʖ≖) I'll link her Instagram down below so you can check her out. She's a really sweet and talented young lady, so definitely go shower her in compliments now. I need to make you all aware of one thing about this launch: It's a pre-order. So shipping will only begin mid-may, we're doing this because we want to avoid selling out of product and all the stress involved with that. So, don't be worried if your order is taking a while to arrive. There's more information on the website, which is also linked in the description box below. And finally, I need to say a huge fat Thank you to all of you whether you are a hardcore fan or just watch my videos once in a while. I'm grateful for all of you, and it's because of your presence that I can even make merch so thank you again. I still can't fathom that I can do this and have an audience. So I'm thankful for this platform. Basically what I'm trying to get at is that I love you. So, thanks again. I'm sorry this is the video you guys are getting this week But I'll put something better together next week and I'll see you guys in the next one. <3 .

EASY No Paper Mache DIY Piñata | Dollar Tree Party Decorations – hey guys welcome back is me yes think of
the my room love it don't you love this I am your eternal day I have a baby picture I don't know the song oh boy
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of this craziness no seriously today I am obviously ready to celebrate
for Cinco de Mayo but before that let me show you how to make a very easy pinata
here we go all right so I'm going to start off by
drawing a circle here on these cardboard and I got this cake stand so I can do
that no paper mache here this is only going to last a few minutes anyway
because they're going to bust it open it's time to cut he's going fun so when I went to Lhasa
Fiesta I saw how they did it there and they do it with paper mache and it was
so easy so so easily this way you know so I say you know what let me
make one and show everyone how to make an easy pinata I'm a little easy right
now by the way my face looks but he's probably less time-consuming than doing
it with paper mache so here are my cut out circles and they are perfect perfect
circle now I'm going to use the rest of the cardboard to be more specific I'm
going to be using the flip side of the color board I'm going to cut here and
then I'm going to put it in half so I can use as the size a box cutter will definitely help with
this but I'm so afraid of scratching my eye then hear that I'm just too lazy to
look at it that's what it is let me stop mine so I also didn't think
it was gonna be that hard with this scissors so that's the real truth I like
to be honest this is the definition of making your life harder than what it
should be I could've just got the box cutter and
that would have been so much easier this is just around the corner for years my
husband's tools alright so once you cut these just you know open it up
Esso or bent it peso so you can fit all right sir perfect because I need a hole
put the candy in perfecto perfecto now I'm going to be gluing all the parts
together with my hot glue gun and gorilla glue I'm doing this because
although a pinata is made to be destroyed I don't want it to fall apart
so easily either so here we have so these sides worked out perfect
because now I have an opening here or I can pour the candy and so now I'm just
going to secure it way more hot glue inside and out
and then you're going to put the really little for that as well pretty sturdy
and then I'm just going to do the same with the top part here is the skeleton
of leaping up nice right I secure it over and over and over with the hot glue
gun I did try a little bit of the gorilla glue but I don't think it's
going to make a much difference but I did it anyway just a little bit I dabbed
it all around on both sides but this is it now all I have to do is decorate now
it's time to decorate I'm going to start by cutting this tissue paper gift tissue
paper in two squares I'm going to make a large square and a smaller square so I
can make them into flowers so so here's the stack of the bigger
squares and the stack of these smaller ones but I'm going to put these to the
side for now because I want to add some tissue paper
almost like wrapping it here on the pinata so I can have some color in the
background I finish up in my box into three
different colors I have pink yellow and blue around these sides this is optional
you don't have to wrap your pinata you can just go ahead and start decorating
but for me since I'm putting flowers and it's not going to be flat I want it a
background so now to make my flowers I'm going to grab one of the big squares and
a different color for the middle so big square little square and all you're
going to do is just push it in the middle and then do the same with the
little line make a bit of shape and then add some loop turn it over it out some
blue and then put it in the middle of the bigger one and so and then you have a little flower and
then you just apply it all around d-box I'm going to work my way from the inside
to the outside so this is what I have so far these are
the flowers that I put on the pinata now I'm going to add some pompons to the
middle of the flowers so they can look more like flowers now here's the pinata
with the pompons it has more of a flower shake now with them so now I'm going to
go ahead and finish it up and show you the finished product so this is what I
have so far I added the party hat so it looks more like a flower Sun I guess and
a little more traditional for the Mexican culture this is also optional if
you just want to stop at the flowers or you want to add some Disney characters
or whatever you like is totally up to you so so far like I said I've done my
flowers I added the party hat and here on this side
I added some pom-poms as well but if you look closely it's a little messy because
of the hot glue gun or because of the glue from the hot glue gun so I'm going
to clean that up by adding some streamers to the side of it so it can
look more nicer or more cleaned up I'll be back
alright guys so here's my finished pinata and I love it it turned out so
pretty I added these streamers to the tops of the hat so it can look even more
faster it's not nice and the back of it I left it as it was all I did was add a
couple of compounds to it because I'm not going to lie making all of this
takes a whole lot of time and you know what if you just keep the simple the box
on takes half an hour and just making it
simple you can probably do it in about an hour so I'm going to give an example
of that when we were at the plaza last week or earlier this week my friend
bought this pinata but she didn't like it because let me show you this side she
didn't you know she didn't want to buy it at first because he had a Disney
character here so I told her you know what I'll make it work I'll fix it for
you don't even bother so what I did I added a plastic tablecloth over the
Disney character and I went to Party City and got this you know where can you
hang those from the ceiling and I just cut the strings and I just hot glued it
to here I'm still working on it I'm going to add some white to the sides but
you know you can make something very simple like this and those that have to
be as complicated as mine I just like what I like so oh yeah it can be as
simple as this and it will take you about an hour to finish a pinata no
paper mache necessary so all right so I did buy some paper shred to put inside
the Hangout out along with the candy so you know what don't need it I had all
these paper left over if you can see it here when I was cutting on the paper
this can serve as confetti you know so what I'm going to do is have it inside and then I will add the candy on top of
it so when it's broken open hole that comes up with the candy and it's even
more fun I hope you enjoyed this video and I will see you on the next one bye .