source : wikipedia.org
Jump to navigation
Jump to search
Marine habitatsThe oceanic zone is the deep open ocean water that lies off the continental slopes
vte The oceanic zone is the deep ocean (blue) that lies beyond the relative shallows of the continental shelves (light green)
The oceanic zone is typically defined as the area of the ocean lying beyond the continental shelf (such as the Neritic zone), but operationally is often referred to as beginning where the water depths drop to below 200 meters (660 feet), seaward from the coast into the open ocean with its Pelagic zone.
It is the region of open sea beyond the edge of the continental shelf and includes 65% of the ocean’s completely open water. The oceanic zone has a wide array of undersea terrain, including crevices that are often deeper than Mount Everest is tall, as well as deep-sea volcanoes and ocean basins. While it is often difficult for life to sustain itself in this type of environment, many species have adapted and do thrive in the oceanic zone.
There are four ocean zones: the Sunlight zone, the Twilight zone, the Midnight zone, and the Abyssal zone.
The Mesopelagic (disphotic) zone, which is where only small amounts of light penetrate, lies below the Epipelagic zone. This zone is often referred to as the “Twilight Zone” due to its scarce amount of light. Temperatures in the Mesopelagic zone range from 5 to 4 °C (41 to 39 °F). The pressure is higher here, it can be up to 1,470 pounds per square inch (10,100,000 Pa) and increases with depth.
54% of the ocean lies in the Bathypelagic (aphotic) zone into which no light penetrates. This is also called the midnight zone and the deep ocean. Due to the complete lack of sunlight, photosynthesis cannot occur and the only light source is bioluminescence. Water pressure is very intense and the temperatures are near freezing (range 0 to 6 °C (32 to 43 °F)).
Main article: Marine Life
Oceanographers have divided the ocean into zones based on how far light reaches. All of the light zones can be found in the oceanic zone. The epipelagic zone is the one closest to the surface and is the best lit. It extends to 100 meters and contains both phytoplankton and zooplankton that can support larger organisms like marine mammals and some types of fish. Past 100 meters, not enough light penetrates the water to support life, and no plant life exists.
There are creatures, however, which thrive around hydrothermal vents, or geysers located on the ocean floor that expel superheated water that is rich in minerals. These organisms feed off of chemosynthetic bacteria, which use the superheated water and chemicals from the hydrothermal vents to create energy in place of photosynthesis. The existence of these bacteria allow creatures like squids, hatchet fish, octopuses, tube worms, giant clams, spider crabs and other organisms to survive.
Due to the total darkness in the zones past the epipelagic zone, many organisms that survive in the deep oceans do not have eyes, and other organisms make their own light with bioluminescence. Often the light is blue-green in color, because many marine organisms are sensitive to blue light. Two chemicals, luciferin, and luciferase that react with one another to create a soft glow. The process by which bioluminescence is created is very similar to what happens when a glow stick is broken. Deep-sea organisms use bioluminescence for everything from luring prey to navigation.
Animals such as fish, whales, and sharks are found in the oceanic zone.
^ a b “NatureWorks.” New Hampshire Public Television – Engage. Connect. Celebrate. Web. 27 Oct. 2009
^ The University of Delaware Marine Graduate School. “Hydrothermal Vents.” Voyage to the Deep. The University of Delaware, 2000. Web. 27 Oct. 2009.
^ a b Knight, J.D. (1997) Sea and Sky 25 Oct. 2009.
Airy wave theory
Luke’s variational principle
Significant wave height
Stokes boundary layer
Waves and shallow water
one-dimensional Saint-Venant equations
shallow water equations
Craik–Leibovich vortex force
El Niño–Southern Oscillation
General circulation model
Geochemical Ocean Sections Study
Global Ocean Data Analysis Project
Modular Ocean Model
Princeton ocean model
Wind generated current
World Ocean Circulation ExperimentTides
Head of tide
Perigean spring tide
Rule of twelfths
Theory of tidesLandforms
Outer trench swell
Volcanic arcOcean zones
Deep ocean water
Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis
Future sea level
Global Sea Level Observing System
North West Shelf Operational Oceanographic System
Sea level rise
World Geodetic SystemAcoustics
Deep scattering layer
Ocean acoustic tomography
Jason-2 (Ocean Surface Topography Mission)
Color of water
National Oceanographic Data Center
Ocean surface topography
Ocean thermal energy conversion
Outline of oceanography
Sea surface microlayer
Sea surface temperature
Science On a Sphere
World Ocean Atlas
Retrieved from “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oceanic_zone&oldid=1010375554”
Find an answer to your question the oceanic zone is – Brainly.com – The oceanic zone is the region of open sea beyond Continental shelf.The oceanic zone begins in the area off shore where the water measures 200 meters (656 feet) deep or deeper. It is the region of open sea beyond the edge of the The oceanic zone is subdivided into the epipelagic, mesopelagic, and bathypelagic zones. The epipelagic (euphotic) zone, also called the…Oceanic Zone What about it? The oceanic zone is the beyond of the continental shelf which is really after the. This zone contains all other so whatever happens top can impact everything below causing a huge change in the tempertures and the food chain.
Oceanic zone – Start studying Ocean Zones. Learn vocabulary, terms and more with flashcards, games and other study tools. The ocean is divided into 3 horizontal zones and 5 vertical/depth zones. what are the 4 horizontal (left to right) ocean zones. intertidal zone, neritic zone, oceanic zone, Benthic zone.The oceanic zone reaches from 200 meters deep… The Rio Convention (1992) and the Manila Declaration which supplements it (1992), do not seem to take account of the oceanic zones without sovereignty, such as Antarctica or the abyssal hydrothermal zones located outside any exclusive…The oceanic zone is the entire rest of the ocean from the bottom edge of the neritic zone, where sunlight does not reach the bottom. Do you think that the line between the photic and aphotic zones is solid and that life is either in one or the other, or do you think the divisions are more gradational?
Oceanic Zone by – The bathyal zone extends from the bottom of the euphotic zone to a depth of about 1800 m. It does not receive light. The term hadal zone is used to designate the perpetually cold and dark supreme depths of the oceanic trenches. These lower regions have been explored very little, although we…The benthic zone for an ocean consists of the ocean floor, the layer containing sediments, and its sub layers. The animals living in this zone are referred to as benthos. Earth's Ocean is divided into major oceanic divisions. They are described in the descending order of their size as followsOceanic Zone is an area of open water ecosystem which its depth cannot be penetrated by sunrays until the seabeds, so the seabed is very dark. The water from sea surface cannot mix with the water from below, because of difference of temperature. The border of the two water layers is called…