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Policy plans created to address a societal problem can be adopted by the __________.

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Policy plans created to address a societal problem can be adopted by the __________.

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Policy plans created to address a societal problem can be adopted by the __________.

Policy plans created to address a societal problem can be adopted by the Legislature.

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Policy plans created to address a societal problem can be

Policy plans created to address a societal problem can be – Question: Policy plans created to address a societal problem can be adopted by the whatBy definition, security policy refers to clear, comprehensive, and well-defined plans, rules, and practices that regulate access to an organization's system and the information included in it. Good policy protects not only information and systems, but also individual employees and the organization as a whole. It also serves as a prominentDeveloping a Plan for Advocacy When influencing the adoption of a policy or how it will be implemented: Identify precedents (or analogs) for policy option (s) that have been adopted and implemented in other similar situations. Describe how the policy option (s) met the interests of potential targets, agents, and opponents.

Chapter 3-Security Policy: Development and Implementation – Policy plans created to address a societal problem can be adopted by the _____ Governments create public policy to address issues in what three main areas? c. task force. The primary way officials identify problems that public policy can address is by. c.Policy plans created to address a societal problem can be adopted by the _____ The three steps governments follow to create public policy are identifying a problem, publicizing a plan, and implementing policy. identifying a problem, developing a plan, and referring it to Congress.The policy plans created to address a social problem are adopted by the legislative branch, which is in charge of addressing social problems such as the problems and demands of society.

Chapter 3-Security Policy: Development and Implementation

11. Influencing Policy Development | Community Tool Box – "Policy Implementation can be defined as the stage where government executes an adopted policy as specified by the legislation or policy action. At this stage, various government agencies and departments, responsible for the respective area of policy, are formally made responsible for implementation." (Theodoulou & Kofinis, 2004).Public policy is any rule, plan, or action pertaining to issues of domestic national importance.Public policy solves internal problems, such as how to protect citizens from toxic waste or how to ensure that all children get equal access to education.Policy plans created to address a societal problem can be adopted by the. Weegy: Policy plans created to address a societal problem can be adopted by the legislature.

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The Unpopular Truth About Socializing Your Dog.. – It seems like the role of dogs
in our families has shifted.
We've put so much emphasis on dog to dog
play that it's almost changed the way that dogs interact. In today's video, I'm going to talk to you about the not
so popular opinion of dog socialization, but I am going to tell you like it or not, how you can give your dog the
best information possible. I'm Ken Steepe and welcome
back to McCann Dogs. [inaudible]. When we talk about socialization, the problem itself isn't
with the dog to dog play, but more so in the way that
we indiscriminately allow
our dogs to play with one another. I hate using a
human reference. I, you know, but sometimes it's the easiest way
to communicate the topics like this. So imagine if we were to have to hug or
shake hands with every stranger that we met, especially when we didn't want
to do that. For sure we didn't, we didn't get the opportunity to
say no, no thank you. Not Today. That seems to be what
we're doing with our dogs. There are so many situations where I
hear about, you know on leash issues, aggression, fear, things that come up because we've
forced our dogs into these situations. The other thing is that if you give your
dog all of these opportunities to go and be rewarded, play with other dogs, have lots of fun and you never insist
that they come back or you wait until they're tired, completely
tired out to call them back. They're really learning that though those
other dogs that these other things are more valuable than you.
And that's something that I
wanted to talk about today. We've created all these
scenarios where, you know, we've built dog parks and we've created
all of these places that our dogs can interact with one another, but we really haven't focused on
the fact that we got a dog for us. We want to have a great
relationship with our dog. We want to give our dog all the
opportunities possible for them. We didn't get our dog so that our neighbor
down the street who has a dog has a play thing. You know, we get our dogs
so that we can do more with them. And that's really where some of the, the discussion comes up that people
think that our dogs needs to go and greet other dogs, need to meet lots of
dogs to develop good social skills. But that's really not the case. You need to be really careful when you
are figuring out how to socialize your dog with other dogs. Now we've talked a little bit about
setting your dog up to really see you as a leader and we want you to think about
introducing your dog to other dogs that you know a lot about or to, you know, a lot about their handler
or their own or you know, someone who's really on the ball. The worst case scenario is that people
take their dogs to the dog park and just see what happens. You roll
the dice or don't even care. I mean there are probably lots of Doggie
daycares out there that are really careful, but there are lots that aren't and just
sort of allow dogs to play together. So I really want you to keep in mind that
once you start to introduce your dog, to socialize with other dogs, that you're very much
aware of what to expect. And there's a couple of tricks that we
use when we're introducing our dogs to other dogs that you can use as well. A lot of it has to do with matching
that personality dog with your own because a couple of things could happen
if you have a dog that's a little bit maybe more worried, it
needs to build confidence. If they're just getting rolled in, in,
you know, body slammed by big burly dogs, that's gonna break your dog's confidence.
And it might cause things like fear, aggression or you know, just not good behaviors or maybe your
is on the other side of the, the post, you know, they're the
one that's, you know, learning to be a bully or push other dogs
around and they're learning that when they act, you know, like that way the other dogs are going
to back off and they get what they want. So, um, you know, when we're deciding
that we're going to let our Ho high, they're greedy, had a let our
dogs play with other dogs. I tried to pick and choose my dogs friends
wisely so that the dog that she plays with is going to, um, allow her to be confident and to make
good choices and to treat other dogs respectfully. And, and, um, I can often teach my dog that value by
lacking valuable lesson by picking the dog that she socializes
with very, very carefully. Once we have chosen that new playmate,
that dog that we're going to work with, uh, to socialize with our dog, there's a few steps that we take to make
sure that the process goes smoothly. Number one, have a line, a long line or a leash on your dog so
that if [inaudible] on the other dog and on the other dog for sure, so
that if something were to happen, you're able to interrupt that
behavior. Separate the dogs. Now getting into this, we're hoping that you know enough about
that dog at that that doesn't happen, but you never know. You want
to be able to, um, you know, interrupt anything that
isn't going that well. Now this doesn't mean that
you're holding your dog on leash. And this is one of the issues
we have with, uh, you know, as you're walking down the street with
your dog on leash and you meet someone who's also walking a dog, allowing those dogs to interact or meet
on leash can be a really dangerous thing because sometimes those dogs
feel like they can't go anywhere. They can't make the choice to leave if
they feel like they need to. So, uh, you know, have you gone to socialize with another
dog while you're walking down the street with them? Both on a tight leash is
a bad idea to avoid that situation. Dog Bites start with dogs on leash. And the reason why is often as
if a dog is pulling on a leash, their body language is very tense. And even though the dog itself
might not be feeling, you know, aggressive or anything like that, the dog that is interacting with it maybe
can perceive the body language a bit differently because they see a dog that's
stiff and pulling and that can often, you know, just lend to their
interactions being, you know, not really getting started off on the
right par right off on the right foot. So, right. Um, yeah, it's very dangerous to
let dogs meet on greet, meet on leash, especially if they don't know each other. For sure. And this is often why
we hear people say, Oh yeah, my dog only barks at other, the other
dogs when they're on leash or you know, my dog is kind of aggressive
when they're on leash. A lot of these things
lead up to that point. So we need to be really
aware of that. Now, one skill that we make sure our dogs have
before we allow them to socialize with other dogs is a great response
to name a or even a great recall, making sure that we can call
our dogs away from this. A new situation could
be super exciting, maybe a little worrisome. We need to make sure that they have a
100% reliable recall on our hands before we will allow them to play or
engage with other dogs. Yeah, because the problem is
people will say, okay, well I won't let my dog greet on
leash. They dropped the lease, they let the dog go and then they call
the dog back and the dog just ignores them and then they get to play with
other dogs while they're ignoring the handler or the owner and unfortunately
that teaches you drug pretty quickly. Then in that particular scenario, they don't need to come when they're
called because they can self reward by continuing to play. So it is important
to figure out. Speaking of play, there's a small poodle doing a
puppy burned around us right now. It's very important that before you're
going to give your dog the luxury of having freedom that you feel confident
that when you want to ask for their control back that you'll be able to
get that without having to have a big battle. Another mistake that people will make is
introducing their dog to a new dog in a confined space. So for
example, your kitchen, although it might be the one of the
largest kitchens around it may seem like a pretty confining space for your dog. So give your dog a nice wide open area
to introduce them for the first time. And that way they'll feel a little bit
less pressure that they need to have a good social interaction. It allows them, gives them some freedom
to choose their response. Socializing your dog with other dogs
doesn't necessarily have to be restricted to playing as well. Um, often when we have a new puppy
or we have a new dog with us, we will socialize them with our other
dogs in a more controlled manner, like kicking them for a walk.
For example, they're, you know, they're close together. There may
be walking, they're under control. Or one of our favorite things
to do and we have a young puppy, is to practice doing some basic obedient
skills with the puppy while the other dogs are just sort of hanging around. So the puppy is learning to listen
when the other dogs are around and even though they're not playing,
they're still being socialized. They're still learning how to be
respectful and how to act around the other dogs. And we try to sort of do those things
first before we really let them get into the whole play thing. Because
again, at the end of the day, we want the dog to be more bonded
and listened to listening to us than, than we do, you know, forgetting who
we are and playing with other dogs, playing with other dogs
is not what we're against. It's what do we have from the dog or
what can we get from the dog first before using that particular resource,
which is a ton of fun for dogs. Um, as more of a reward for the fact
that we have great control first. Here's the other great part about that
is that you're using these other dogs as a bit of a distraction. So you're
actually making that skill, whether it's a sit or a
walking, unleash, whatever. It is stronger because it forces your
dog to make that choice to check in with you or to be distracted by the other
dog. So I mean that's a double whammy. If you can do some of that, some of that
controlling those control exercises, a little bit of obedience training with
that other dog around in a non pressure situation that can really, you know, make great leaps and bounds for
your relationship with your dog. I think that that's one of the most
beneficial thing of going to a dog cost is as well. Especially our dog
classes. We do, you know, some dog to dog socialization
when the puppies are very, very small and it's extremely monitored.
But once we get into, you know, the six month and older range, um, the socialization that the
dog gets is more controlled. So they might be practicing their sit, stay beside another dog that's
also doing the same thing. Or maybe one dogs practicing some walking
around other dogs that are practicing as sit, stay or a down stay. So they're learning how to listen
around other dogs. And, um, you know, a lot of people say, oh my dog so well
trained or my dog listens so well, but they're in the backyard all by
themselves or they're in the kitchen while they're cutting food for dinner. And of
course the Donna's going to be perfect. What's really cool is when you get to
the point where your dog can learn to listen really well, uh, do you
when there's other dogs around, because in my opinion, that's one of
the hardest distractions there are. Absolutely. And I think it really reinforces the
fact that we don't disagree with allowing your dogs to play with or socialize
and interact with other dogs, but you, we insist that you have expectations for
them because they deserve that because you will have expectations of them
in other scenarios and you need to be consistent about those. So
really keep that in mind. You're looking for some exercises
to get more control of your dog. Then make sure you click
that card right there. If this is your first time on the channel, make sure you hit that subscribe button. We've published new videos
every single week up. You'd have a well behaved four legged
family member. On that note, I'm Ken. I'm Kale. I be training. .

Electric Cars: Why should government intervene to stimulate EVs? – MARGOT WEIJNEN: In this module, we
will address electric cars in a policy perspective, more
specifically, the public policy perspective, the perspective of
government and public administration.
Why does public policy
matter, you may wonder. Should a technological innovation,
like electric vehicles, not find its own way into the market? Why are government
interventions needed at all? And how should these be shaped? In this section, we will
focus on the first question– why should government intervene
to stimulate electric mobility? In a democratic society, government
intervention must be justified. It is not enough to specify
the problem to be solved and the goal to be reached. We must also ascertain the
public interests at stake. Public interests are, for example,
concerned with public health and safety, safeguarding
the rule of law, ensuring equal treatment
of all citizens, and protecting the weakest
members of society. Government is in place to protect public
interests and safeguard public values. Let us start now with the problem to
be solved and the goal to be achieved. Poor air and water quality,
climate change, energy security, renewable energy usage, sustainable
mobility, and social welfare are amongst the key
issues to be addressed. We see governments around
the world embracing electric mobility as a solution,
or part of the solution, to a wide range of problems where
the public interest is at stake. Which problems, then, are electric
vehicles supposed to solve? I will briefly review the
various policy challenges where electric vehicles
are providing solutions. The first one is public health policy. Air quality is a serious
challenge in many cities today. We all know the pictures of severe smoke
in megacities, like Beijing and Delhi. But even in cases where air pollution
is not visible to the naked eye, it poses a clear and present
danger to public health. Road traffic is a major
cause of urban air pollution, as the car exhaust fumes of
conventional cars, trucks, and buses contain many compounds
that affect our health, including NOx and particulate emissions. NOx refers to both
nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, which contribute to the
formation of smoke and acid rain. NOx reacts with ammonia,
moisture, and other compounds in the atmosphere to form nitric
acid vapor and related particles. Internal combustion engines
on diesel and gasoline also emit fine particulate
matter in the form of soot. The European Joint Research Center, the
JRC, and the World Health Organization have identified the main categories
of particulate matter in urban air in 51 different cities around the world. In these studies, PM 2.5 and PM 10 are
used as indicators for air quality. PM 2.5 stands for all particles
smaller than 2.5 micrometers, and similarly, PM 10 for all
particles smaller than 10 micrometers. And as you can see in this slide, the
sources of particulates in ambient air vary around the world, depending
on the type and intensity of industrial activity, depending
on the intensity of traffic and the quality of transport fuels used,
depending on the fuels used for heating and cooking, but also depending
on natural conditions, such as salt particles in the
air in coastal regions and dust particles in desert areas. Chronic exposure to
particulates in ambient air leads to a number of health risks. All types of very fine
particulate matter can penetrate deeply into
sensitive lung tissue and damage it, not only causing
or worsening respiratory diseases, such as emphysema or
bronchitis, but also affecting the cardiovascular system
and aggravating existing heart disease. As you can see in the next
slide, the various sources of particulate matter in the PM
10, the 10 micrometer fraction, show a different distribution than
in the 2.5 micrometer fraction. But on average, the research of the
Joint Research Center and the World Health Organization shows
that traffic is the biggest source of air pollution worldwide in
cities, responsible for roughly 1/4 of particulate matter in the air. So now you understand why
governments around the world are embracing electric vehicles. Electric vehicles are emission free. And moreover, they are silent. And hence, bring major
improvement to the ambient air quality and the livability
of the urban environment. The importance of this improvement
cannot be underestimated when you realize that already more than 50% of
the world's population lives in cities, and that between today and 2050,
the population in urban regions will increase with 2.5 billion people. Let us now move to climate change
policy as the second policy domain. Conventional vehicles not only
emit NOx and particulates, the combustion of hydrocarbons also
results in carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide may not be the
most potent greenhouse gas, but the massive volumes of
carbon dioxide emissions worldwide make it by far the biggest
contributor to the phenomenon of man-made global warming. In December 2015, the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the UNFCCC, adopted
the so-called Paris Climate Agreement, which entails a commitment to
keeping the global temperature rise this century well below 2 degrees
Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the
temperature increase even further to not more than 1.5 degrees centigrade. As of November 2017, 195 UNFCCC
members have signed the agreement. The threat of global
warming is another reason why governments are interested in
emission-free electric mobility. So within the framework of
the Paris Climate Agreement, many countries also signed
the Paris Declaration on Electro-Mobility and Climate Change
and the corresponding Call to Action. These countries strive to have at
least 20% of all vehicles on the road to be electrically powered by
2030, which is not very far away. Now you may object that
electric vehicles may cause indirect emissions at the
site where electricity is produced, and you're right. You should realize, however, that it is
a lot more cost efficient to remove CO2 from the flue gas of a large power
plant than to handle the distributed emissions of millions
of vehicles on the road. And by the way, even if
electricity is made from coal, the well-to-wheel emissions
of fully electric vehicles are still lower than those of vehicles
using fossil fuels internal combustion engines. Moreover, as more and
more electricity is being generated from renewable
energy resources, the carbon footprint of the electric power system
itself should gradually be decreasing, which brings us to the next policy
perspective, the energy policy perspective. All societies are powered
by energy, and the share of electricity in energy
and use is increasing. Besides the environmental quality
of the electricity production mixed with the risk of adverse public
health and climate change effects, governments are also concerned about
the long term security of energy supply. And these concerns combined
explain why governments stimulate the exploitation of renewable energy
resources, especially hydro, solar, and wind. Electricity from these sources is
emission-free in both generation and end use. But unfortunately, the supply of most
renewable energy sources is variable. Hydro power is subject
to seasonal fluctuations and may suffer from years of drought. Solar and wind energy do
not only vary by season, but also show strong daily fluctuations,
and even shorter fluctuations. In other words, a power system with
a large share of variable renewable sources needs a lot of flexible standby
capacity to cover for periods when sun, wind, and hydro cannot deliver. However, standby generation
capacity is often gas-powered, which is not only expensive,
it also eliminates part of the environmental benefit
of the renewable power system. What's the alternative then? The alternative is to still
solicit demand response from the electricity and users. The concept here is that variations
in the supply of electricity from renewable sources are matched
by flexibility in electricity demand. This strategy requires substantial
demand elasticity from the end users. The average household
in Western economies, however, has very limited
demand elasticity. And the trend is that the elasticity
is decreasing rather than increasing, as more and more household
functions rely on electricity. And now, this is where
electric vehicles come in. A huge flexibility potential on
the demand side can, in the future, be unleashed by controlled
charging of their batteries– that is, in response to
the fluctuating supply of electricity from renewable sources. This strategy is also known as
grid-to-vehicle theory, more smart charging. And at the same time, the combined
van batteries of electric vehicles represent the substantial
storage potential, so that– the other way around– vehicle-to-grid services
are also possible. The batteries can
supply power to the grid during times when renewable
sources fall short. In this vision of the future,
which obviously requires a lot of ICT support,
electric vehicles are seen as active components
of the power system. This would entail a revolution,
both for the power system and the transport system, which
are, with ICT infrastructure, merging into one new infrastructure
system, which brings us to the transport and mobility system,
the domain of transport and mobility policy, as the next policy domain. Transport of persons and goods is a
key factor of economic value creation in any society. The transport policymaker
will want to know if electric vehicles will be
able to perform the same duties as conventional vehicles do. Will electric vehicles change
mobility patterns, and how? What refueling infrastructure
will be required? Just battery re-charging for battery
electric vehicles, or also hydrogen fueling for fuel cell electric vehicles? Will it be one of the two, or both? In modern societies,
car use is considered a key element of individual freedom,
and any interference with this freedom is politically sensitive. Yet, policymakers are challenged to
accommodate future mobility needs in a responsible way that is efficient,
clean, affordable, inclusive, et cetera. But using a car does not
necessarily imply owning a car. In Western societies, the
young urban generation is more and more inclined
to car sharing and to using Uber-type services, if
they are not walking, biking, or using public transport. And this trend may, in the future,
even be reinforced by autonomous– that is, self-driving–
electric vehicles. In that case, cities
may be able to reduce the space reserved for automotive
mobility, including parking space. Anyway, the future of mobility with
electric cars holds a lot of promise for the livability of
the urban environment. Livability and accessibility
in turn are important factors for businesses in deciding on a
favorable location, which brings us to the next and final policy
perspective on electric vehicles, which is the economic policy perspective. Economic growth is probably the most
important objective of economic policy in order to create more
welfare for society. It is, amongst others, accomplished
through stimulating knowledge development, innovation,
and entrepreneurship, which can trigger productivity improvements
and the establishment of new firms that create new
employment opportunities. Industry policy aimed at enhancing the
performance of established industry sectors and creating
new growth opportunities may be another component
of economic policy. In view of the challenges posed
by climate change and a transition to a sustainable energy system, the new
economic policy mantra is green growth. It is in this perspective that
policies to support electric mobility may be designed. Just as an example, in its
research and development programs, the European Commission
has, for years, been striving to establish a
strong European technology position in battery technology. And recently, in October 2017, the
European Commissioner for Energy, Maros Sefcovic, announced
he is making billions of euros available to support the
establishment of large scale battery manufacturing facilities
in Europe, with which he aims to create 4 to 5 million new jobs. It's time to wrap up. Electric cars seem to solve
a great variety of problems where public interests
are clearly at stake, such as public health, climate change
mitigation, energy security, mobility, and a prospering economy. The table here gives a
summary of the policy domains and the corresponding
policy goals, which we have just discussed, and indicates
some of the specific policy targets to be reached. It is, however, difficult to design
policy instruments in support of more than one specific policy goal. Another challenge is that government
is not a monolithic institution. In the introduction
of electric vehicles, not only different policy domains
are involved, but also different levels of government– at the national level, at the
local, and at supranational levels. And this situation, as we
will see, results in a variety of policy instruments being applied. I hope to see you in the next module. .

The Policy Making Process – .