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Sardinian Expeditionary Corps in the Crimean War

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Sardinian Expeditionary Corps in the Crimean War

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Bersaglieri halt the Russians during the Battle of the Chernaya.

During the Crimean War (October 1853 – February 1856) between Russia and the alliance of France, the United Kingdom, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia, the latter sent an expeditionary force to the Crimean peninsula in the Black Sea.

The prime minister of the Kingdom of Sardinia Count Camillo di Cavour and the king Victor Emmanuel II decided to side with France and the United Kingdom to strengthen the French-Sardinian alliance. A total of 18,000 Sardinian troops under Lieutenant General Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora were committed to the Crimean Campaign.[1]:111–12 This was an attempt at gaining the favour of the French, regarding the issue of uniting Italy in a war against the Austrian Empire. The deployment of Italian troops to the Crimea, and the gallantry shown by them in the Battle of the Chernaya (16 August 1855) and in the siege of Sevastopol, allowed the Kingdom of Sardinia to be among the participants at the peace conference at the end of the war, where it could address the issue of the Risorgimento to other European powers.

Order of Battle of the Expeditionary Corps

A total of 18,061 men and 3,963 horses and mules embarked in April 1855 on British and Sardinian ships in the harbor of Genoa. While the infantry of the line and cavalry units were drawn from soldiers, who had volunteered for the expedition, the Bersaglieri, artillery and sapper troops were dispatched from their regular units. I.e. each of the army’s 10 regular Bersaglieri battalions dispatched its first two companies for the expedition, while i.e. the 1st Battalion of the 2nd Provisional Regiment consisted of volunteers from the army’s 3rd Line Infantry Regiment. The corps disembarked at Balaklava between 9 May and 14 May 1855.

Staff
Expeditionary Corps Commander in Chief: Lieutenant General Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora[2][3]Chief of Staff: Lieutenant Colonel Petiti Di Roreto
Staff Major: Major Govone
Artillery Staff Major: Major Della Rovere
Commander, Artillery: Colonel Valfre Di Bonzo
Commander, Engineers: Major Staglieno
Commander, Bersaglieri: Lieutenant Colonel De Saint Pierre
Commander, Support Services: Major General De Cavero (until 17 August 1855, then handled by Major Della Rovere after, De Cavero took over the Reserve Brigade when its commander Major General Ansaldi died)
Commander, Medical Services: Dr. Comisetti
Garrison Commander Balaklava: Lieutenant Colonel Della Chiesa Della Torre
Garrison Commander Constantinople: Lieutenant Colonel Paolucci
British Liaison officer: Colonel George Cadogan
French Liaison officer: Capitaine le Duc de Dino Talleyrand-PérigordStaff Units
Provisional Light Cavalry Regiment (Colonel De Savoiroux)
1st Squadron with troops from the “Cavalleggeri di Novara” Regiment
2nd Squadron with troops from the “Cavalleggeri di Aosta” Regiment
3rd Squadron with troops from the “Cavalleggeri di Saluzzo” Regiment
4th Squadron with troops from the “Cavalleggeri di Monferrato” Regiment
5th Squadron with troops from the “Cavalleggeri di Alessandria” Regiment
Provisional Fortress (Coastal) Artillery Battalion (Major Marabotto)
1st Fortress Artillery Battery from the 1st Fortress Artillery Brigade
2nd Fortress Artillery Battery from the 1st Fortress Artillery Brigade
7th Fortress Artillery Battery from the 2nd Fortress Artillery Brigade
8th Fortress Artillery Battery from the 2nd Fortress Artillery Brigade
Mixed Artillery Workers Company, providing maintenance support for the corps’ artillery guns (Captain Maraldi)
Provisional Sapper Battalion (Major Serra) with troops from the Army’s Sapper Regiment
1st Sapper Company
2nd Sapper Company
6th Sapper Company
7th Sapper Company
Army Train, providing logistic support to the corps (Captain Raimondi)
1st Army Train Company
2nd Army Train Company
Carabinieri Detachment, 50 men providing headquarters securityCombat Forces
1st Division (Lieutenant General Giovanni Durando)
II Brigade (Major General Manfredo Fanti)
2nd Provisional Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel Beretta)
1st Battalion with troops from the 3rd Infantry Regiment, of the “Piemonte” Brigade (Major Gibbone)
2nd Battalion with troops from the 4th Infantry Regiment, of the “Piemonte” Brigade (Major Garavelli)
3rd Battalion with troops from the 5th Infantry Regiment, of the “Aosta” Brigade (Major Brignone)
4th Battalion with troops from the 6th Infantry Regiment, of the “Aosta” Brigade (Major Regis)
II Bersaglieri Battalion (Major Bonardelli)
9th Bersaglieri Company from the III Bersaglieri Battalion
10th Bersaglieri Company from the III Bersaglieri Battalion
13th Bersaglieri Company from the IV Bersaglieri Battalion
14th Bersaglieri Company from the IV Bersaglieri Battalion
7th Field Artillery Battery with 6x guns (Captain Melli)
III Brigade (Major General Enrico Cialdini)
3rd Provisional Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel DeRossi)
1st Battalion with troops from the 7th Infantry Regiment, of the “Cuneo” Brigade (Major Longoni)
2nd Battalion with troops from the 8th Infantry Regiment, of the “Cuneo” Brigade (Major Corte)
3rd Battalion with troops from the 13th Infantry Regiment, of the “Pinerolo” Brigade (Major Baleno)
4th Battalion with troops from the 14th Infantry Regiment, of the “Pinerolo” Brigade (Major Berberis)
III Bersaglieri Battalion (Major Bertaldi)
17th Bersaglieri Company from the V Bersaglieri Battalion
18th Bersaglieri Company from the V Bersaglieri Battalion
21st Bersaglieri Company from the VI Bersaglieri Battalion
22nd Bersaglieri Company from the VI Bersaglieri Battalion
10th Field Artillery Battery with 6x guns (Captain Quaglia)
2nd Division (Lieutenant General Ardigo Trotti, after the division’s first commander Lieutenant General Alessandro Ferrero La Marmora had died on 7 June 1855)
IV Brigade (Major General di Montevecchio)
4th Provisional Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel Caminati)
1st Battalion with troops from the 9th Infantry Regiment, of the “Regina” Brigade (Major Durandi)
2nd Battalion with troops from the 10th Infantry Regiment, of the “Regina” Brigade (Major Solaro)
3rd Battalion with troops from the 15th Infantry Regiment, of the “Savona” Brigade (Major Valacca)
4th Battalion with troops from the 16th Infantry Regiment, of the “Savona” Brigade (Major Corporandi)
IV Bersaglieri Battalion (Major Della Chiesa)
25th Bersaglieri Company from the VII Bersaglieri Battalion
26th Bersaglieri Company from the VII Bersaglieri Battalion
29th Bersaglieri Company from the VIII Bersaglieri Battalion
30th Bersaglieri Company from the VIII Bersaglieri Battalion
13th Field Artillery Battery with 6x guns (Captain Ricotti-Magnan)
V Brigade (Major General Mollard)
5th Provisional Regiment (Lieutenant Colonel Leotardi)
1st Battalion with troops from the 11th Infantry Regiment, of the “Casale” Brigade (Major Alberti)
2nd Battalion with troops from the 12th Infantry Regiment, of the “Casale” Brigade (Major Bigaro Di Vische)
3rd Battalion with troops from the 17th Infantry Regiment, of the “Acqui” Brigade (Major Ferrero)
4th Battalion with troops from the 18th Infantry Regiment, of the “Acqui” Brigade (Major Cadorna)
V Bersaglieri Battalion (Major Cassinis)
33rd Bersaglieri Company from the IX Bersaglieri Battalion
34th Bersaglieri Company from the IX Bersaglieri Battalion
37th Bersaglieri Company from the X Bersaglieri Battalion
38th Bersaglieri Company from the X Bersaglieri Battalion
16th Field Artillery Battery with 6x guns (Major Baudi di Vesme)Reserve Forces
Reserve Brigade (Major General Di Cavero)
1st Provisional Regiment (Colonel Giustiniani)
1st Battalion with troops from the 1st Grenadier Regiment, of the “Granatieri di Sardegna” Brigade (Major Gozani Di Treville)
2nd Battalion with troops from the 2nd Grenadier Regiment, of the “Granatieri di Sardegna” Brigade (Major Incisa Di San Stefano)
3rd Battalion with troops from the 1st Infantry Regiment, of the “Savoia” Brigade (Major De Faverges)
4th Battalion with troops from the 2nd Infantry Regiment, of the “Savoia” Brigade (Major De Courten)
I Bersaglieri Battalion (Major Ricadati Di Primeglio)
1st Bersaglieri Company from the I Bersaglieri Battalion
2nd Bersaglieri Company from the I Bersaglieri Battalion
5th Bersaglieri Company from the II Bersaglieri Battalion
6th Bersaglieri Company from the II Bersaglieri Battalion
Reserve Artillery Brigade (Major Campana)
1st Field Artillery Battery with 6x guns (Captain Celesia)
4th Field Artillery Battery with 6x guns (Captain Avogadro Di Valdengo)

Naval Division

The naval division consisted of 11 warships and 7 transport ships, with 2,574 men and 126 naval guns.[4]

Staff
Naval Division Commander: 1st rank Ship-of-the-line Captain Orazio Di Negro
Chief of Staff: Corvette Captain Boyl di Putifigari
Flag Adjutant: 1st rank Ship-of-the-line Lieutenant Pagliacciu Suni
Harbour Commander Balaklava, 1st rank Ship-of-the-line Lieutenant Ferrero La Marmora,
Harbour Commander Constantinople Major De ReyCombat ships

Combat ships:

“Carlo Alberto” steam frigate of the 1st rank and flagship (1st rank Ship-of-the-line Captain Ceva di Nuceto)
“Governolo” steam frigate of the 2nd rank (1st rank Ship-of-the-line Captain Albini)
“Costituzione” steam frigate of the 2nd rank (2nd rank Ship-of-the-line Captain Ineisa di Camerano)
“Tripoli” steam corvette of the 2nd rank (Corvette Captain Lomaglio)
“Monzambano” steam corvette of the 2nd rank (Corvette Captain De Viry)
“Malfatano” steam corvette of the 2nd rank (Corvette Captain Provana del Sabbione)
“Authion” steam aviso (1st rank Ship-of-the-line Lieutenant Giraud)
“Gulnara” steam avisio (1st rank Ship-of-the-line Lieutenant Sartorio)
“Varo” armed transport ship (Ship-of-the-line Lieutenant Isola)
“Dora” armed transport ship (Ship-of-the-line Lieutenant Riboty)
“Tanaro” armed transport ship (Ship-of-the-line Lieutenant ?)Transport ships

Transport ships:

“San Michele” (Frigate Captain Riccardi di Netro)
“Beroldo” (Frigate Captain Michelotti)
“De Geneys” (Frigate Captain Galli della Mantica)
“Euridice” (Frigate Captain Teulada)
“San Giovanni” (Corvette Captain Wright)
“Aurora” (Ship-of-the-line Lieutenant Lampo)
“Azzardoso” transport brigantine (Chief 1st Class Brun)

References

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^ http://www.cgsc.edu/CARL/nafziger/854XAF.pdf

^ “la spedizione di Crimea: gli organici – le perdite, le immagini di Bossoli”. libero.it. Retrieved 29 January 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)

^ http://www.sardegnadigitallibrary.it/mmt/fullsize/2009042212370900050.pdf Page 38

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8 Facts About the Crimean War - HISTORY

8 Facts About the Crimean War – HISTORY – Its name notwithstanding, the Crimean War was a global conflict that featured several different theaters of battle. Early clashes occurred in the Balkans and in Turkey, and the focus only shifted to Crimea after the Allies launched an invasion of the peninsula in September 1854.Turkish crimean war uniforms book. The sardinian army and navy in 1854. Sardinian infantry uniforms, 1843-1860. Home of ottoman uniforms.But, why did the Austrians want Russia to surrender? I don't think that Russia ever expected Austria to side with them in the Crimean war. The best that the Tsar hoped was that Austria would remain neutral during the conflict.

Ottoman Uniforms – THE SARDINIAN ARMY IN THE CRIMEAN WAR – The Crimean War (1853-56) was fought mainly on the Crimean Peninsula between Russia and Britain, France, and the Ottoman Empire. It arose from the conflict of great powers in the Middle East and was more directly caused by Russian demands to exercise protection over the Orthodox subjects…The Crimean War is an evisceration of war, a celebration of scholarship." ―Boston Globe. This was a major reason why France declared war on Russia and fought in the Crimean War. Well written and engaging do not begin to cover what this book offers readers who sense that events today are…They wanted to win support from britain and france for a united italy. they wanted to protect christian interests in the ottoman empire. My sources.

Ottoman Uniforms - THE SARDINIAN ARMY IN THE CRIMEAN WAR

Why did the Austrians threaten to enter the Crimean War if Russia… – During the Crimean War between Russia and the alliance of France, the United Kingdom, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia, the latter sent an expeditionary force to the A total of 18,061 men and 3,963 horses and mules embarked in April 1855 on British and Sardinian ships in the harbor of Genoa .Most of the conflict in the Crimean War occurred on the Crimean Peninsula, which lies on the southern tip of Ukraine, and projects into the Black Sea. The Crimea was an important military position for the Russians, because their naval fleet could access the Mediterranean Sea from the region.The Crimean war was fought between Russia and the alliance of Turkey, Sardinia, France and Britain. The regions were then under the control of Turkey. This made Turkey wage a war against Russia in the year 1853. Britain too joined the war against Russia, being fearful of Russian expansion…

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