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The Gothic Cathedral: Height, Light, and Color

source : encyclopedia.com

The Gothic Cathedral: Height, Light, and Color

Overview

The Gothic cathedral was one of the most aweinspiring achievements of medieval technology. Architects and engineers built churches from skeletal stone ribs composed of pointed arches, ribbed vaults, and flying buttresses to create soaring vertical interiors, colorful windows, and an environment celebrating the mystery and sacred nature of light. Based on empirical technology, the medieval cathedral provided the Middle Ages with an impressive house of worship, a community center, a symbol of religious and civic pride, and a constant reminder of the power and presence of God and the church.

Background

The growing impact and power of the Christian church in western Europe after the fall of Rome in 400 influenced church architecture. In Mediterranean Europe where sunny skies and hot summer days mandated buildings with small window space and thick walls, the Romanesque style dominated church architecture. However, in the
northern and western regions of the continent, cloudy days and less intense summer heat were common so designers developed a style that attempted to maximize interior light and uninterrupted interior heights. Architects sought a style that would provide larger windows to illuminate the buildings’ interiors. Because a cathedral nave flooded with light would have a dramatic effect on the faithful, vast window space became a necessary characteristic of the Gothic style and responded to one of the goals of a growing and dominant religion in the medieval era.

The Crusades also affected the development of the Gothic style. Crusaders returning from the Holy Land brought with them many relics, and church fathers wanted to display these holy objects prominently. Devout Christians often undertook several pilgrimages in a lifetime; because hordes of pilgrims paid homage to these relics the numbers of worshipers entering those churches increased intensifying the need for a greater amount of interior light and space.

The use of light as a factor in worship and in understanding the mystical paralleled another chief goal of the medieval cathedral builder: the pursuit of greater and greater interior heights. At a time when religion dominated everyday life and when the faithful spent an average of three days a week at a worship service, church leaders sought an architectural style which created a sense of awe, a sense of the majesty and power of God for anyone who entered the church. Waging a constant battle against gravity, master masons, who both designed and built these cathedrals, wanted to create as much uninterrupted vertical space as possible in their stone structures. These soaring heights provided a dramatic interior which served to reinforce the power of the church.

Medieval master masons used three architectural devices to create the Gothic style: the pointed arch, the ribbed vault, and the flying buttress. The pointed arch, a style that diffused to the West from the Arabic world, permitted the use of slender columns and high, large open archways. These stone arches were essential in the resultant stone bays that provided the basic support system for a Gothic cathedral freeing the area between arches from supporting the building. For the church’s interior, these “curtain walls” added to the delicacy, openness, light and verticality of the space. The curtain walls on the building’s exterior were filled with glass, often stained or colored glass, conveying some Biblical or other sacred tales.

The use of ribbed vaults for cathedral ceilings complemented the pointed arch as an architectural element. By carrying the theme of slender stone members from the floor through the ceiling, ribbed vaults reinforced the sense of height and lightness in the building. In a visual and structural sense, these vaults connected several stone columns throughout the building, emphasizing the interconnected stone elements which produced a skeletal frame that was both visually dramatic and structurally elegant.

The flying buttress completed the trio of unique Gothic design elements. In essence, this kind of buttress, typically used on the exterior of a church, supplemented the structural strength of the building by transferring the weight of the roof away from the walls onto these exterior elements surrounding the edifice. Often added as a means of addressing a problem of cracking walls in an existing building, these buttresses were incorporated so artfully into the exterior design of the cathedral that they became a hallmark of the Gothic style. By freeing the walls from supporting much of the weight of the cathedral roof, the flying buttress allowed medieval architects to pursue their goal of reaching ever greater interior heights.

The combination of these new architectural elements, which defined the Gothic style, along with the Church’s interest in increased interior light, space, and height, resulted in a new technology heavily influenced by religion. Religion’s goals provided the impetus for a daring empirical technology; at the same time, technological methods allowed the church to achieve an innovative awe-inspiring space within a new architectural style.

Impact

The Abbot Suger of St.-Denis near Paris first promoted the Gothic style in medieval France. As the leading French cleric of his time, Suger headed the mother church of St.-Denis with its strong ties to the French crown. When he sought to transform that church into an impressive center for pilgrimages and royal worship, he turned to the emerging Gothic style. Gothic elements would allow him to create a building with soaring heights, with curtain walls to fill with stories and lessons in glass, and with a display of light used to represent mystery and divinity. For Suger, the Gothic style created a transcendental aura, a theology of light and he hailed it as “[the]ecclesiastical architecture for the Medieval world.” Suger’s architectural preferences spread
throughout France so effectively that the country became home to the most impressive and successful Gothic cathedrals. His notion that architecture could serve as theology appealed to the Church with its great influence over a mass of illiterate believers. The Gothic cathedral became a huge edifice of stories, signs, and symbols filled with church teachings and lessons for any who passed by or entered these churches. For many people of the Middle Ages, the cathedral became the poor man’s Bible.

The cathedral itself was a citadel of symbols. The orientation of the building usually positioned the altar facing east toward the Holy Land with the floor plan in the shape of a cross. Exteriors contained sculptural elements representing both sacred and secular themes. A depiction of the Last Judgment often adorned the west portal so all who entered were reminded of their ultimate fate. Usually, the west portal also consisted of three entry-ways to mirror the doctrine of the Trinity. Interiors contained rose and other stained glass windows with the same mix of the sacred and the secular scenes present on the exterior. Rose windows themselves served as representations of infinity, unity, perfection, and the central role of Christ and the Virgin Mary in the life of the Church. The interplay of geometry and light in rose windows and the special qualities of changing color tones and glowing window glass in all of the stained glass windows created a visual experience with mystical and magical qualities that transported a viewer into a world far different from his or her mundane medieval surroundings. Sculptures within, along with paintings, tapestries, and geometric patterns in columns and walls, added to the teaching environment; inside a cathedral one could not escape being exposed to lessons or stories. Add to these the awe one felt by the great interior heights and the cathedral’s impact was overwhelming, reinforcing the church’s power and influence in the medieval world.

In addition to its role as a center of church lessons, the cathedral served as a source of community pride. Often the largest structure in a city or town, the church served as community center, theater, concert hall, circus ring, and meeting place. The cathedral at Amiens in northern France, for example, could house the entire population of the city. Often sited on the highest point in a city or in the city center, the cathedral dominated the cityscape. With its soaring towers and spires it could be seen for miles around and became a symbol of a city much as skyscrapers or tall monuments define cities in modern society. Because the cathedral was a source of civic as well as religious pride, cities vied with each other to build the largest or the tallest churches. As a multi-purpose structure, the cathedral served as much more than a house of worship.

Anyone who visits an extant Gothic cathedral today quickly understands the impact it had on medieval life, religion, and technology. Just as religion dominated the era, the cathedrals themselves dominated, and continue to dominate, much of the landscape of western Europe leaving no question regarding the major force in people’s lives.

For example, Gothic cathedrals commanded the physical landscape with interior and exterior heights not matched until the late nineteenth century. External central cathedral towers rising as high as 450 feet (137 m) and uninterrupted interior space of 130-160 feet (40-49 m) from floor to ceiling overwhelm modern visitors much as they did medieval worshipers centuries ago.

Because Christianity reigned over every aspect of medieval society, the sacred and the secular became intertwined so that a cathedral played, and continues to play, both ecclesiastical and civic roles. With so much interior space, it remains the center for many special occasions as well as regular church activities.

Likewise, the cathedral as a marvel of an empirical technology, using relatively simple tools and skilled craftsmen aided by a large labor force, remains an impressive example of the interaction of technology and religion. That linkage has had an impact so strong in the Western world that the Gothic style has become synonymous with church architecture. The neo-Gothic style appears in many churches, and even skyscrapers, built in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Standing today as reminders of a historical era, the Gothic cathedrals provide insights into the power of religion, the achievements of technology, and the role of civic pride and responsibility. Their impact has endured over the centuries and continues to inspire awe in both the sacred and the secular worlds just as they did when these magnificent stone structures were first built in the Western world several centuries ago.

H. J. EISENMAN

Further Reading

Courtenay, Lynn T. The Engineering of Gothic Cathedrals. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 1997.

Favier, Jean. The World of Chartres. NY: Harry N. Abrams Incorporated, 1990.

Gimpel, Jean. The Cathedral Builders. NY: Grove Press, 1983.

Johnson, Paul. British Cathedrals. NY: William Morrow & Company, 1980.

Morris, Richard. Cathedrals and Abbeys of England and Wales: The Building Church, 600-1540. NY: W.W. Norton & Company, 1979.

von Simson, Otto. The Gothic Cathedral: Origins of Gothic Architecture and the Medieval Concept of Order. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1974.

Swaan, Wim. The Gothic Cathedral. NY: Parklane, 1981.

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The Cathedral And The Icon: The Theology Of Light - The

The Cathedral And The Icon: The Theology Of Light – The – The stress on allegory in the Gothic cathedral allowed for the presence of God to be felt. It was the mystical place where the divine manifested itself to the worshipper. Thus, the cathedral became a liturgy in stone, glass and light, which the faithful minutely and piously heeded for instruction and guidance.What was the philosophy behind the Gothic use of light and color in cathedral design? Question Serial Number:1228380005­htyz73 Question 7 Which of the following is a purpose of church mosaics? Egypt Germany France the dome the altar the narthex Light and color were seen as a means of illuminating the soul and reuniting with God.Metaphysics of Light One of the major characteristics of the Gothic cathedral is its soaring height which, compared to the Romanesque church, is flooded with light, often mediated by beautiful stained glass windows aglow with colour.

PDF PLATO Course Art History and Appreciation > Pretest ­ Unit 3 – The Gothic architecture style found in churches, synagogues, and cathedrals built between approximately 1100 to 1450 CE, stirred the imagination of painters, poets, and religious thinkers in Europe and Great Britain.. From the remarkable great abbey of Saint-Denis in France to the Altneuschul ("Old-New") Synagogue in Prague, Gothic churches were designed to humble man and glorify God.What was the philosophy behind the gothic use of light and color in cathedral design? Light and color were seen as a means of illuminating the soul and reuniting with god. How does the renaissancesupport. As a result the walls of a Gothic cathedral could be built a lot higher (which made the building even more awesome), they could be a lot thinner (which created more interior space); they could contain more windows (which led to brighter interiors and, where stained glass

PDF  PLATO Course Art History and Appreciation > Pretest ­ Unit 3

The Theology and Metaphysics of the Gothic Cathedral – part 3 – Gothic architecture gave birth to a new way of allowing more light to enter buildings. Gothic style windows were first documented in the 12th century and were popular until the 16th century.A. He added beauty and fine craftsmanship to functional household objects. B. He added complex patterns to objects like upholstery, tapestry, and wallpaper. C. His designs often feature curved, intertwining foliage inspired by nature and medieval art. D. He preferred the rich color of chemical dyes for his fabrics and tapestries. E.Yes, contrary to popular belief, gothic didn't mean dark and grim. Gothic architecture actually strived for more light, more color from stained glass windows, more space, lifting the human spirit. The dead giveaway of a gothic cathedral is the pointed arch, but there are other architectural elements.

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A Story in Every Stained Glass Window – .

Gothic Chapel Design in France & England – Hey Everybody! Professor Wills here, Pasadena City 
College.
Well we're continuing our examination   of Gothic architecture and I've got two 
extraordinary examples of chapel architecture   that really show the possibilities 
when these Gothic innovations that we've   talked about… that allow this incredible soaring 
verticality to take place, this transcendent   light, this heavenly light, thanks to their
mastery of stained glass artistry but also   just the ability to create something structurally 
strong but skeletal like that dissolves the walls   allowing more of those beautiful colorful windows 
to replace them, essentially giving you the   experience of standing inside a kaleidoscope 
in terms of light and color. This is what I want   to share with you today. So our first stop is  
in France of course where so much of the Gothic   innovations took place and then we'll pop over to 
England to see what's happening there… but back in   the 14th century there was a king by the name of 
Louis IX who built a chapel by the name of Sainte-Chapelle and it was right next to his palace and 
it was built to house a real coup in terms of   relics. Now we've talked a lot about relics in the 
Romanesque period, how those were what   attracted people to all those pilgrimage churches…were the best of the best relics from   various saints and holy figures that people 
wanted to connect with, some kind of physical   remnant of their existence. And so king Louis 
happened to get supposedly–although many   people believe this to be true– 
the crown of thorns worn by Jesus and other    relics associated with this period associated 
with Christ's passion–so really iconic stuff– and so this chapel was built in the Gothic world 
of France to house these relics. Now Louis is   pretty interesting–he was, not surprisingly, a 
crusader. He had two unfortunately failed Crusades   the latter of which in North Africa, Tunisia, 
where he lost his life… but he was a generous   king: he contributed a lot to monastic orders, he 
respected piety and self-sacrifice and deprivation   to honor God; he established foundations 
and charities; and was able to kind of settle   a lot of disputes between the feudal barons of 
France and even his arch enemy, the former arch   enemy of France–England– at least for a while…
and so it allowed a real economic boom in France   um that of course where there's a good economy 
the arts flourish and this is what we see with   Sainte-Chapelle. So without further ado, I'm going 
to minimize myself, get that powerpoint up for you   and let's take a look at what i'm talking about. So here's an exterior image of Sainte-   Chappelle in present-day Paris dating from 1243 
(oops typo) to 1248 (that's what it should read here)   but you can see again that sense of very 
Gothic verticality– it's got an enormous   rose window but we're not focusing so much on 
the architectural elements like we did with   Notre Dame and even Chartres Cathedral… of course 
in Chartres we really examined their beautiful…   the examples of incredible massive 
stained glass windows especially rose windows.   Here in the this view of the upper chapel of the 
interior of Sainte-Chapelle you can see what i'm   talking about in terms of this sort of kaleidoscope-like experience. So despite the damage   to poor Sainte-Chapelle during the French 
Revolution most of the glass is original   to the 13th century which is astounding 
the amount of time it has survived because   for those of you who've lived in any home 
usually there's a window that gets cracked   by a ball or something along the way but um yes, we 
know that even France has had tumultuous history   and yet this place and its incredible 
stained glass endures. So we're looking at   windows that are 49 feet in height, 
some of them 15 feet in width– just absolutely very large in scale– the largest 
stained glass windows ever made   up to this point in art history. So these enormous panes of glass   are housed within a veritable 
skeleton of structure, essentially mullions which form the sort 
of long stone framing for   these windows. You can see some mullions right 
here… overall this aesthetic is part of a sub-style   that you find in France associated with this 
period of the 13th century Gothic world called   the "Rayonnant" and i'll put that term up on Canvas 
for you (it'll be here in the subtitles as well).   So Rayonnant Style means "radiant," and so 
that seems very appropriate to the luminosity   and light that bring that these stained glass 
windows bring into this particular sanctuary   It's a style– the Rayonnant Style–associated 
with King Louis; it's also characterized   by an elegance, a refinement–we're not seeing any 
of that bulky structural look that we might have   seen at Durham Cathedral in England for instance–
remember those big enormous thick columns? Decorative for sure with their use of pattern, 
but we don't see that kind of bulkiness   described or integrated into Sainte-Chapelle; it's more known for its lightness,   its delicacy, and of course these surround 
of windows really convey that as well.   But the Rayonnant Style can also 
translate not only to the windows but to   later churches or concurrent churches of the 
Gothic world where you find perhaps elegant Gothic   stone work like gables, buttresses, window tracery 
on the exterior… so it's not just limited to   the interior as well. Here's another shot here of 
Sainte-Chapelle with some tourists taking pictures…   but again you can see that surround of incredible 
windows bringing in this sort of beautiful radiant   violet colored light into that space and 
again just like we talked about in some of   our early Christian and Byzantine examples, 
light is so so important to give you that   transcendental spiritual experience and 
connection to heaven along with soaring   verticality. Here's another shot for you to 
appreciate the beauty of Sainte-Chapelle, the little   string quartet playing down below 
to give you a sense of scale. It's on to the Chapel of
Henry VII. This is a chapel that's   part of Westminster Abbey over in England 
in London and it too reflects   many of the soaring verticality 
and innovations of the Gothic architectural   age, but what it has in common with Sainte-Chapelle is a love of stained glass as well   so let me show you a little bit or explain to you 
a little bit more what i'm talking about here um   in tandem with a surprise element that that 
sweeping verticality takes your eye to… that   is a wholly Anglo innovation that you find at 
this really kind of late period 16th century   example of Gothic architecture. So there's our 
exterior view– boom!– this is our interior view   here. So not only do we have incredible stained 
glass windows of enormous size and scale and again   because of the innovations of the pointed arch and 
the gothic rib vaults and buttressing, this soaring verticality is possible 
and allowing them to dissolve the walls, insert   the beautiful stained glass etc., we've talked 
about that a lot before. But what you find also   is something called "fan vaults." Fan vaults– that's 
another element you find at the Chapel of Henry VII,  part of the complex of 
Westminster Abbey in London; and So what's interesting about King Henry vii– 
if you're interested in the royal trivia–he was   the father of the inimitable Henry the eighth– 
you know the guy, the king, who was famous for   being dissatisfied with his wives and chopping off 
their heads and replacing them in short order….   but his dad henry vii um is the king associated 
with this Gothic gem. So yes, sure, the stained   glass is phenomenal seen inside this chapel  
but again it takes your eye to something perhaps   even more extraordinary, and it's this delicate 
array of fan vaults that seemingly blossom   above our heads in a lacy, lace pattern like 
design that's made… you know even rivals   perhaps… the abstract designs we studied from the 
Hiberno-Saxon and illuminated manuscript tradition.   So this is not an example of the Rayonnant Style that's associated with   France; it is something called English 
"Perpendicular Style." Perpendicular Style   …so again sort of a sub-style of the overall uh 
Gothic world where architectural design has an   emphasis on the verticality of decorative elements–
so essentially vertical details, especially   long linear ones dominate over horizontal 
ones, sending our eyes upward and that's exactly   the idea with Henry's chapel. So again you see 
these compound piers supporting something   very English: these English fan vaults; which 
are vaults that spring from these radiating ribs   and they form again this sort of fan-like 
pattern that decorate the ceiling of this   particular chapel. So gazing upward, one wonders 
if we're looking at a series of you know open   umbrellas that have only their kind of support framing left and the canopies   gone away, or are they umbrellas made 
of pure lace… is it some kind of…    have we been transported to some kind of ancient 
underwater coral forest that we're looking up at,  a canopy of incredible coral– organic design? It's 
got this porous quality; it's multi-dimensional   as these cone-like pendants project downward 
almost like hanging lanterns or stalactites in   you know caves and you talk about a throwback to 
our first unit on the Stone Age, on the cave art at   Lascaux and the stalactites among the cave 
galleries of bulls and other animals right? But   i mean look how far we've come in the 
arc the innovation of mankind in artistic   expression–how you take certain elements, certain 
possibilities because of the Gothic world the   real skyscraper-like, heavenly 
palaces of these Gothic cathedrals   and in a very small chapel compared to 
you know the big mega churches of the Gothic world,   you have something quite extraordinary with
this sense of the Perpendicular Style, the emphasis   on verticality emphasized by it, but in such a 
very delicate way and of course expressed in this   incredibly complex vaulting called the English 
fan vault. I know we thought those six and   seven part vaults and eight-part vaults were 
complex, now we have something all together   blasting that out of the water in 
terms of a wondrous architectural achievement.  So there you have it! Next up, we're going to 
move on to take a look at Gothic architecture [sculpture]   so stay tuned for Gothic sculpture and that lecture coming up next as   we see the return of naturalism thanks to the 
Greco-Roman world. Alright, thanks for joining me! .

25 projects to rebuild Notre Dame de Paris – Hello Everybody, I'm Gerard Vidal and this is Art is Life.
Ten days after the fire of the cathedral of Notre Dame, today we are going to analyse the first ideas and projects that appears on this international tender of reconstruction. We start our list with a project from another church who inevitability will influence on this building. On 1991, the Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava, won the project to finish the Saint-John the Divine cathedral's on New York. Finally the plan was abandoned for the high costs. We can see a biosphere garden, planted on the top of the nave, and protected by a giant glass greenhouse, created with the Calatrava's arches. But what is more interesting, is the Spire. Obviously, the first reference for Calatrava, at the moment to create this project for New York, was the Spire of Viollet-le-duc, who was destroyed the last week. On 2016, the french government and the city hall of Paris approved a plan to reorganise all the Ile-de-la-Cité, the central island of the city. The most interesting thing that we can see is the creation of two new bridges. On plus, we can see the interest to create a new green spaces. On the frontal square of Notre Dame we find a transparent floor who shows the archaeological crypt of the city, and who offers access to the new fluvial port. The objectives of this new spatial organisation are the reduction of the car influx, and the optimisation of the island. Of course, this project things how to optimise the financial revenues where Notre Dame is the centre. Few hours after the fire, the first idea appears on internet. Attributed to the Parisian architect, Alexander Chassang, this image propose a really chocking reconstruction. They propose to reconstruct the rooftop like it was, but predominated by a different colour glass spire. The spire presents two asymmetrical sides One with only one line, and the other with multiples volumes. Booth are on different colours, predominating the blues, whites and greys. On this firs idea, we can see the 16 sculptures of the Apostles and Evangelists, placed on the same place designed by Viollet-le-duc. All this copper sculptures, were miraculous saved because they were pulled out of the structure just few days before the fire to be cleaned for the first time ever. The next day after the fire, the Italian architect Fuksas propose a rooftop all made with Baccarat crystal. This project use the aesthetic of the spire designed by Viollet-le-Duc, but all created with this historical french glass. This company is known for their objects, that normal arrives to the Royal Families. A similar structure was presented by the Italian architect Stefano Licciotti. On this case, disappears the triangular form of the rooftop to be changed for a rectangular one. The Spire have a little futuristic aesthetic following the profile of the Viollet-le-Duc. On Thursday, the day after of the official proposal of the french state, it was a moved day where we saw a multiples proposals The first one, made by the french engineer Robert Cossette, propose a green rooftop who allows the access to the visitors. The biggest innovation of this project, is the disappearance of the spire going back to the appearance that the cathedral had before the restoration of the XIXth century. The big majorities of the journals show an image where we can see the church without a roof. Instead of this, there are a wood plane terrace with a small garden on the centre. This new structure allows the access to the visitors. The only constructions that we can see, are a few glass structures who hold up the coronations of the transept façades. On the centre of this terrace, a small spire on white is suggested. I'm sure that one of the most surprising proposals that we will see on this international contest, is the one designed by the user DirtbikerCZ. He propose an absolutely change of use designing a skate park on the rooftop of Notre Dame. Thinking to accommodate the Olympic events of the skate board, that for the first time will participate on the Olympic games of 2024. This same day, we find for the first time the idea of the Memorial. The french user Vrambault propose a perfect reconstruction of the Neo-Gothic spire of Viollet-le-Duc. The only difference is that on the top of this structure he propose a giant tray with a vegetable decorations where it burns an eternal flame. On the same line, we can find one image where all the spire is supplanted by a light structure. Crowned with a potent laser, who shows a light to the sky. On this image, we can see how all the rooftop is exactly the same like it was before. Even the copper sculptures, are on the same place. The young architects Godart and Roussel based on Dijon, were the first one on France who really open the social discussion on internet and on the news about the future of Notre Dame. It must be reconstructed like it was or the architects can take a poetic licenses? The outside of the building is all made by glass and we can observe a metallic structure separated on different levels, inspired on the Gothic arches and proportions. The spire is just a geometrical volume made with a golden material giving it a shinning appearance. Inside, we can find this covered terrace. We can see the beautiful landscape of Paris. They propose a suspended passage, accessible for the visitors and for the first time, propose to use the hole created by the collapsing of the old spire who offers a natural light inside of the temple. On the top of this circular hole, and just under the spire, they design a giant cross. This same day, on a British journal appears an interview to the architect Norman Foster. He said that this is a great opportunity for the modern architecture and the new generation of designers. He affirms that probably this project will have a crystal and stainless steel rooftop. The journal illustrates this interview, with an image where we can see all this ideas on paper. The Russian architect Alexander Nerovnya, propose a different ideas. We can see on this project how he is thinking on an entire reconstruction of Viollet-le-duc's Spire, like it was before the fire. He propose a shocking rooftop, created with blue crystals. His project is playing with different volumes and layers to create a diversification of the colours. The Parisians architects of the Studio Nab presents an interesting project with a green rooftop. The exterior is preserving the old skyline of the building but the interesting things are inside of this glass structure. Following the philosophy of this company, "To improve the world that surround us" they propose an educational garden on the top of the cathedral. On the middle of this gardens, they present the sixteen sculptures on copper. On the spire, they propose to create a giant apiary. We can see inside of the transparent structure 48 moderns apiaries. Some artists and designers starts to propose his owns projects. Is the case of the french Mathieu Lehaunner, one of the most famous influencers of the moment. When we look his artworks we can see his interest to recreate the ephemeral movement of the water and the fire, in hard materials. On this line, he propose to reconstruct the spire of Notre Dame just like it was during the fire. We can see a bronze structure, shinning on the top of the building. The Cyprus studio KTA, Kiss The Architect, did the same. They are followers of the tendency of the Crazy Architecture with the objective to disfigure the landscape. Here, they renew their project Foolish Folly, never realised, to put it on the top of the Cathedral. We can see a metallic structure with eclectically arches and vaults rapped around a central stair case. Notice that the sixteen sculptures of copper are on their original place. David Deroo is a french artist based on London, who likes to works on different textures and shapes. The objective of his proposal, is to find an equilibrium between the old tradition and the new architecture. He propose a modernised white rooftop, where the forms are more circular and disappears the Viollet-le-duc's sculptures. Is presided by a white crystal reconstruction who remembers a lot to the original spire. The american artist and designer John Brevard, is known by his designs inspired by the natural geometries. Is so interesting his jewellery collection. He takes all this lines to propose an interesting spire placed on the top of the old rooftop. Is much massive than the Viollet-le-duc's design and here there are no place to take the sculptures of the Apostels and Evangelists. Made with an octagonal base we can see a different levels created with glass triangles on different colours. The architecture of Vasily Klyukin is always interested on the reflection of the light. It's a combination of the old sculpture and the new architecture. This Russian architect, imagine a cathedral all covered with reflecting plaques. We can see the combination of this blue mirrors contrasting with the white of the Parisian stone. The most interesting contribution, is the construction of two news spires who culminate the two frontal towers following the aesthetic of the last Gothic style. The Brazilian studio of AJ6 Studio presents a project that they define with the religious objectives. They propose a restoration following the forms of the old rooftop but only using a Stained Glass. This technic was used during all the medieval times and her theological conception was one of the best innovations who characterised the Gothic style. During the day, this light is projected inside of the building. And on the night, they propose a system of LED to illuminate all the city. On a similar line, the american artist Elain Springer, propose to create a rooftop with stained glasses. On this case, she propose to create a giant image with a Peace Angel on blue and transparent stain glasses, following the style of Picasso. This artwork could be illuminated on the night. Notice that on this project the spire disappears. From Bratislava, arrive the proposal of the architect Vizum Atelier. They propose rebuild the rooftop like it was, but with a modern and white spire on the middle. This structure is absolutely futuristic, made with curved forms. But the most spectacular element, appears on the night. They propose a white light ray who wants to arrive to the sky, following the tradition of the old constructors. For this architects, this light is a way to connect the Heaven with the Earth. Wybo concept, based on Nice, is an architect cabinet specialised on the mix between the design and the architecture. They propose a crystal rooftop, but on this project stand out all the metallic structure, creating irregular polygons of iron. On the night all this structure could be illuminated using different colours. The spire don't recover the sculptures of copper but it creates interior volumes that can remind us the project presented by Santiago Calatrava on New York. The architects of Se7en Thailand, they propose an ecologist project who take cares and protect the seas of Thailand. They propose a blue plastic rooftop, that takes all the aesthetic of the old rooftop. Is interesting to notice the goodwill of this project to promote and collaborate with companies who recovers the plastic of the seas. The young student of architecture Vaes Arq propose a spire with 10 different stainless steel spikes painted on different tonalities of grey. Is so interested to adapt this colours with the Haussmann style tonalities of the city. He thinks that all the rest of the rooftop must be like it was before to preserve all this 800 years of tradition. And you? What do you think? We need to recreate the cathedral like it was or do you prefer to create something absolutely new? Please, explain your opinion on the commentaries below! Thank you very much to see this video. On this channel you will find everything about ART and PARIS, my two passions. You can subscribe or if you prefer you can do a like! Have a nice day!!! .