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The term “Gothic” applied to?

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A Study of Gothic Subculture - Definitions - Terms and Phrases

A Study of Gothic Subculture – Definitions – Terms and Phrases – alternateen: This term is meant to designate those teenybopper kids who listen to alternative music and try to be different by looking identical to other However people tend to fling this label at anyone they don't like. A lot of people prefer not to use the label because it implies a "more gothic than thou"…But Gothic is a term applied also to castles, palaces and houses, as well as sculpture, painting and the minor arts (the word is here loosely used to mean 'of the later Middle Ages'). In France, England and Germany, Gothic can be seen mingled with Romanesque or merging into the later Flamboyant style.Gothic was essentially the style of the Catholic countries of Europe. It was also carried to Cyprus, Malta, Syria, and Palestine by the Crusaders and their successors in the Mediterranean. The forms that were developed within the style on a regional basis were often of great beauty and complexity.

What exactly does the term "gothic" mean? | Science Fiction and… – Gothic-seeming terms are found in manuscripts subsequent to this date, but these may or may not Lacking certain sound changes characteristic of Gothic, however, Crimean Gothic cannot be a The translation was apparently done in the Balkans region by people in close contact with Greek Christian…Gothic art is a form of medieval art and architecture that evolved from Romanesque art, and it is characterized by the use of the rib-vault and Originally the word made reference to a "barbaric" form of representation or art. This is because barbaric tribes, called Gothic tribes, invaded Rome during…The term Gothic was applied contemptuously to this architectural style by writers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, who regarded everything I know nothing which more shows the essential and inherent perfection of simplicity of thought, above that which I call the Gothic manner in writing, than…

What exactly does the term "gothic" mean? | Science Fiction and...

Read the text and tell about the phases of English Gothic. – The term "Gothic", when applied to architecture, has nothing to do with the historical Goths which was a term that came to be used as early as the 1530s to The term "Jewish gaberdine" was originally used by Shakespeare. It was then used to refer to an overcoat type garment worn by some Jews…East Germanic languages no longer exist, as they are dead. Only one language belonging to this group is known, Gothic, as a written document came down to us in this language. It is a translation of the Bible made in the 4th century A.D. by the Gothic Bishop Ulfilas from the Greek language.The term "Gothic" was first used in conjunction with a Medieval style of ornate and intricate architecture that originated in France around the 12th It wasn't until the Romantic era in the late 18th century that the word was applied to literature. The first mention of Gothic literature appeared in…

03.06 No Hyding From Fear Quiz.docx - 03.06 No Hyding From ...

Fraktur | Wikipedia audio article – Fraktur (German: [fʁakˈtuːɐ̯] (listen))
is a calligraphic hand of the Latin alphabet and any of several blackletter typefaces derived
from this hand.
The blackletter lines are broken up; that is, their forms contain many
angles when compared to the smooth curves of the Antiqua (common) typefaces modeled
after antique Roman square capitals and Carolingian minuscule. From this, Fraktur is sometimes
contrasted with the "Latin alphabet" in northern European texts, which is sometimes called
the "German alphabet", simply being a typeface of the Latin alphabet. Similarly, the term
"Fraktur" or "Gothic" is sometimes applied to all of the blackletter typefaces (known
in German as Gebrochene Schrift, "Broken Script"). Here is the English alphabet in Fraktur: 𝕬 𝕭 𝕮 𝕯 𝕰 𝕱 𝕲 𝕳 𝕴
𝖆 𝖇 𝖈 𝖉 𝖊 𝖋 𝖌 𝖍 𝖎 𝖏 𝖐 𝖑 𝖒 𝖓 𝖔 𝖕 𝖖 𝖗
𝖘 𝖙 𝖚 𝖛 𝖜 𝖝 𝖞 𝖟The word derives from Latin fractūra ("a break"),
built from fractus, passive participle of frangere ("to break"), the same root as the
English word "fracture". == Characteristics ==
Besides the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet, Fraktur includes the ß (Eszett
[ɛsˈtsɛt]), vowels with umlauts, and the ſ (long s). Some Fraktur typefaces also include
a variant form of the letter r known as the r rotunda, and many a variety of ligatures
which are left over from cursive handwriting and have rules for their use. Most older Fraktur
typefaces make no distinction between the majuscules "I" and "J" (where the common shape
is more suggestive of a "J"), even though the minuscules "i" and "j" are differentiated.
One difference between the Fraktur and other blackletter scripts is that in the lower case
o, the left part of the bow is broken, but the right part is not. In Danish texts composed
in Fraktur, the letter ø was already preferred to the German and Swedish ö in the 16th century. == Origin ==
The first Fraktur typeface arose in the early 16th century, when Emperor Maximilian I commissioned
the design of the Triumphal Arch woodcut by Albrecht Dürer and had a new typeface created
specifically for this purpose, designed by Hieronymus Andreae. Fraktur types for printing
were established by the Augsburg publisher Johann Schönsperger at the issuance of a
series of Maximilian's works such as his Prayer Book (Gebetbuch, 1513) or the illustrated
Theuerdank poem (1517).Fraktur quickly overtook the earlier Schwabacher and Textualis typefaces
in popularity, and a wide variety of Fraktur fonts were carved and became common in the
German-speaking world and areas under German influence (Scandinavia, the Baltic states,
Central Europe). In the 18th century, the German Theuerdank Fraktur was further developed
by the Leipzig typographer Johann Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf to create the typeset Breitkopf
Fraktur. While over the succeeding centuries, most Central Europeans switched to Antiqua,
German-speakers remained a notable holdout. == Use == Typesetting in Fraktur was still very common
in the early 20th century in all German-speaking countries and areas, as well as in Norway,
Estonia, and Latvia, and was still used to a very small extent in Sweden, Finland and
Denmark, while other countries typeset in Antiqua in the early 20th century. Some books
at that time used related blackletter fonts such as Schwabacher; however, the predominant
typeface was the Normalfraktur, which came in slight variations. From the late 18th century to the late 19th
century, Fraktur was progressively replaced by Antiqua as a symbol of the classicist age
and emerging cosmopolitanism in most of the countries in Europe that had previously used
Fraktur. This move was hotly debated in Germany, where it was known as the Antiqua–Fraktur
dispute. The shift affected mostly scientific writing in Germany, whereas most belletristic
literature and newspapers continued to be printed in broken fonts.
The Fraktur typefaces remained in use in Nazi Germany, when they were initially represented
as true German script; official Nazi documents and letterheads employed the font, and the
cover of Hitler's Mein Kampf used a hand-drawn version of it. However, more modernized fonts
of the Gebrochene Grotesk type such as Tannenberg were in fact the most popular typefaces in
Nazi Germany, especially for running text as opposed to decorative uses such as in titles.
These fonts were designed in the early 20th century, mainly the 1930s, as grotesque versions
of blackletter typefaces. The Nazis heavily used these fonts themselves, though the shift
remained controversial and the press was at times scolded for its frequent use of "Roman
characters" under "Jewish influence" and German émigrés were urged to use only "German script".
On January 3, 1941, the Nazi Party ended this controversy in favour of the modern scripts
including Antiqua. Martin Bormann issued a circular to all public offices which declared
Fraktur (and its corollary, the Sütterlin-based handwriting) to be Judenlettern (Jewish letters)
and prohibited their further use. German historian Albert Kapr has speculated that the régime
had realized that Fraktur would inhibit communication in the territories occupied during World War
II. == Fraktur traditions after 1941 ==
Even with the abolition of Fraktur, some publications include elements of it in headlines. Very
occasionally, academic works still used Fraktur in the text itself. Notably, Joachim Jeremias's
work "Die Briefe an Timotheus und Titus" ("The Letters of Timothy and Titus") was published
in 1963 using Fraktur. More often, some ligatures ch, ck from Fraktur were used in antiqua-typed
editions. That continued mostly up to the offset type period. Fraktur saw a brief resurgence
after the war, but quickly disappeared in a Germany keen on modernising its appearance.
Fraktur is today used mostly for decorative typesetting: for example, a number of traditional
German newspapers such as the Frankfurter Allgemeine, as well as the Norwegian Aftenposten,
still print their name in Fraktur on the masthead (as indeed do some newspapers in other European
countries and the U.S.) and it is also popular for pub signs and the like. In this modern
decorative use, the traditional rules about the use of long s and short s and of ligatures
are often disregarded. Individual Fraktur letters are sometimes used
in mathematics, which often denotes associated or parallel concepts by the same letter in
different fonts. For example, a Lie group is often denoted by G, while its associated
Lie algebra is g {\displaystyle {\mathfrak {g}}}
. A ring ideal might be denoted by a {\displaystyle {\mathfrak {a}}}
(or p {\displaystyle {\mathfrak {p}}}
if a prime ideal) while an element is a
∈ a {\displaystyle a\in {\mathfrak {a}}}
. The Fraktur c {\displaystyle {\mathfrak {c}}}
is also sometimes used to denote the cardinality of the continuum, that is, the cardinality
of the real line. In model theory, A {\displaystyle {\mathfrak {A}}}
is used to denote an arbitrary model, with A as its universe. Fraktur is also used in
other ways at the discretion of the author. Fraktur is still used among traditional Anabaptists
to print German texts, while Kurrent is used as hand writing for German texts. Groups that
use both form of traditional German script are the Amish, Old Order Mennonites, Hutterites
and traditional German-speaking Mennonites from Russia who live today mostly in Latin
America. == Fraktur in Unicode ==
In Unicode, Fraktur is treated as a font of the Latin alphabet, and is not encoded separately.
The additional ligatures that are required for Fraktur fonts will not be encoded in Unicode.
Instead, Unicode proposes to deal with these ligatures using smart-font technologies such
as OpenType, AAT or Graphite. There are many Fraktur fonts that do not use smart-font technologies,
but use their own legacy encoding instead that is not compliant with Unicode.
There are Fraktur symbols in the Unicode blocks of mathematical alphanumeric symbols, letterlike
symbols, and Latin E. However, these are meant to be used only in mathematics. Therefore,
letters such as long s, ä, ö, ü, and ß, which are not used in mathematics, are excluded. 𝔄𝔅ℭ𝔇𝔈𝔉𝔊ℌℑ𝔍𝔎𝔏𝔐𝔑𝔒𝔓𝔔ℜ𝔖𝔗𝔘𝔙𝔚𝔛𝔜ℨ
𝔞𝔟𝔠𝔡𝔢𝔣𝔤𝔥𝔦𝔧𝔨𝔩𝔪𝔫𝔬𝔭𝔮𝔯𝔰𝔱𝔲𝔳𝔴𝔵𝔶𝔷 == Typeface samples == In the figures below, the German sentence
that appears after the names of the fonts (Walbaum-Fraktur in Fig. 1 and Humboldtfraktur
in Fig. 2) reads, "Victor jagt zwölf Boxkämpfer quer über den Sylter Deich". It means "Victor
chases twelve boxers across the Sylt dike" and contains all 26 letters of the alphabet
plus the umlauted glyphs used in German, making it an example of a pangram. == See also .

3ds Max Spline Tools – The Basics – Starting in 3ds Max 2018.2 update, you can enjoy a series of Spline Tools improvements that you will find quite rewarding.
For starters, there is a new Freehand tool in the Splines Creation Panel that enables you to create splines in – wait for it – Freehand mode. As you draw strokes in the viewport, 3ds Max adds the necessary vertex points or knots to create a spline that follows your handstroke. The properties seen in the Modify panel enable you to see those knots, among other parameters that you can adjust. For example, you can adjust the Sampling value to change the number of knots. Still, this option doesn't necessarily give the best control over topology and shape. This is where a series of new spline modifiers become handy. Let's start with the Spline Relax modifier, not to be confused with the Relax modifier that does no good when applied to a spline. Instead, make sure you use the Spline Relax modifier which, as the name implies is specifically written for Spline objects. Keep that in mind as the new Spline Modifier tools all start or end with the word Spline, such as Spline Relax or Normalize Spline. With Spline Relax, again you have the option of showing the knots. In some cases, you may need a viewport refresh. Simply slide the animation slider bar to that effect. As the name implies, Spline Relax relaxes the spline without changing the topology. This is done by editing the Amount and Iterations values. It keeps the same number of knots but changes their placements in order to smooth the spline. This can be particular useful with Freehand splines. If you need to reduce the number of knots, you may want to look at the Optimize Spline modifier. As with Spline Relax, you can show the knots but now, you can strip down their numbers in a variety of methods. The default method works in percentage mode and you can see the effect on the number of knots on the spline as you raise this value. In this case, we are able to reduce the number of knots by 90% percent, down to 11 knots instead of the original 112, without deforming the shape. Sometimes, you need to do the opposite. In some cases, you need to add knots instead of deleting them. The Normalize Spline helps in that regard. Here, you have many options to work with. Start by disabling and enabling the modifier to compare with what's below in the stack. Normalize Spline is adding vertices or knots based on a default Segment Length of 20. This means the knots are now equidistant from one another. By changing the Distance value, you can have more or less knots, depending on what the project needs. Another method of normalizing is to simply specify a Knot Count. This can be useful for Morphing where vertex count is crucial. There is one additional option that you may find useful: the Insert option. Enable it first, and for the time being disable the Weighted option. I'll explain about this one in just a moment. Disable and enable the modifier so that you can appreciate what this method of work does for you. In fact, what this procedure does is very similar to the Divide option in Editable Splines. It adds a vertex between two others, in effect dividing segments by a number that you choose, the default being 1. This may be useful in its own right but typically, the concept of normalizing is to make vertices a bit more equidistant. This is where the Weighted option comes in; without it, note in this case the middle part of the ampersand. Initially, it has two knots placed quite far from each other. Using Normalize Insert mode without the weighted option adds one knot but the distance is still too great. With Weighted enabled, this method will add more knots only where needed. It will adapt to divide those edges more or less, to provide better topology that you can work with. Next, I'll discuss Spline Overlap but to be able to appreciate that feature, you'll need a more detailed spline, so make sure you add a few more knots first. Add a Spline Overlap modifier. Its Thickness value is of most interest as it enables you to "raise" a spline where segments overlap. You may want to enable the geometry on the base spline level in order to see the overlap effect better. Adjust the Thickness and Drape values to your liking. This could be a cool effect to use on ropes. I'll end this lesson with one last useful modifier: Spline Mirror. Spline Mirror is for Splines what the Symmetry modifier is for geometry. It lets you easily create some interesting shapes like this arabesque that would take significantly longer to create using other methods. Let's try it… Create a Rectangle in the Front view of about 100 in Length and 50 in Width. Place it in the center of the scene above the ground. You will use it to create the Star-like effect of the arabesque. You could use a star shape but the method you're about to use will make it easier to introduce changes should you need them. Convert the rectangle to an editable spline and chamfer its upper vertices. Exit sub-object mode when done. Next add a Spline Mirror modifier. Like with the Symmetry modifier, you need to relocate the mirror line. Move the Mirror line to the base of the rectangle and rotate -15 degrees using Angle Snap (A on the keyboard). Use the Flip option to see the result stretching to the right. Copy the Spline Mirror modifier and paste it to the top of the stack. Rotate the Mirror line an additional 30 degrees. Repeat the procedure two more times to complete the star. As mentioned, this method of working makes it easy to go back and edit the original spline to affect the star as a whole. Ultimately, you can add a Sweep modifier to give the shape depth and geometry. The rest of the Arabesque can be built similarly. If you look closely, you can see a pattern developing with a rotating square. Create a square in the Front view that's about 100×100 in size. Place it in the top-left corner at -70 in X and +70 in Z Apply a Spline Mirror modifier and place the mirror line in the center as earlier, at 0,0,0 As earlier, you will need to enable the Flip option to see the end result. Rotate the mirror line 30 degrees. Note that by default, the result is trimmed based on the mirror line. This option worked when we created the star earlier but does not work here. Disable the option "Slice Along Mirror" to fix that problem. Copy/Paste the modifier as you did before and rotate the mirror line by -30 degrees. Before you repeat the procedure, there is a bit of warning to be made here: Because you disabled Slice Along Mirror, you have to be careful of overlapping splines. If you rotate the mirror line and end up with overlapping shapes, then these overlapping segments would remain at the end and add to the resulting geometry. So you may need to plan this a bit better as you're building your components. In this case, you could add an Edit Spline modifier, and at the Spline level, you can select and delete the last rectangle. Now if you copy and paste the last Spline Mirror modifier, you can rotate the mirror line another 30 degrees to go from three shapes to six without any overlapping edges. You can then copy/paste a final Spline Mirror Modifier, and give it a 90-degree rotation to finalize the shape. From this point on, you can finalize the design by having a little fun. You could add an Edit Spline modifier to the original square and adjust it. You could also potentially add a frame as a finishing touch, or collapse the splines altogether for further editing. In the case of the arabesques shown here, they were collapsed to a spline object before applying the sweep modifier. This allowed them to be trimmed to fit inside a square frame. In the example of the metal design, a Normalize Spline and a Spline Overlap modifiers were used for the final effect. .

History of Visual Arts: Timeline of 20th Century Art Movements – .