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Depressants

Weegy: Withdrawal symptoms from depressants can include death. The answer is: Yes. User: Stimulants Weegy: …

4/11/2021 5:02:55 AM| 2 Answers

whats 2*2

Weegy: The name of the bond that is broken and reformed to release energy from food molecules is: Chemical bonds. …

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4. Before the Renaissance, virtually all dramas focused on...

4. Before the Renaissance, virtually all dramas focused on… – 4. Before the Renaissance, virtually all dramas focused on A. religious themes. B. life-and-death plots. C. family relationships. D. the human condition.The word «renaissance» means «rebirth» in French and was used to denote a phase in the cultural development of Europe between the 14th and 17th centuries. Firstly, Renaissance appeared in Italy.The word "renaissance" means "rebirth" in French and was used to denote a phase in the cultural development of Europe between the 14th The writers and learned men of the Renaissance turned against feudalism and roused in men a wish to know more about the true nature of things in the world.

The renaissance in england – ренессанс в англии… – which of the following inner planets has virtually no atmosphere. once you've chosen your business and focused on your niche, the next step is to.10. Before the Renaissance, virtually all dramas focused on? A. family relationships. B. the human condition. C. religious themes. 11. By the Renaissance theory of correspondences, the heart of the family is the? A. grandfather. B. grandmother.Therefore, the Renaissance man, a man who excelled in many areas, became prominent. Advancements in all aspects of life virtually improved. Thus, many aspects lead to the change from Humanism was one of the philosophies that developed and it focused on classical Greek and Latin…

The renaissance in england - ренессанс в англии...

The Renaissance – Simply stated, the Renaissance was a series of events that triggered the end of the Dark Ages, aka, the The credit for bringing the Great Renaissance in Europe rests completely and entirely on the non existent Vasari in fact wanted to focus on the big change that took place in art starting with Giotto.. "Renaissance" is a French word which means rebirth, reawakening or revival. In literature the term "Renaissance" is used to denote the revival of ancient classical literature and culture and re-awakening of human mind, after the long sleep in the Medieval Ages, to the glory, wonders and beauty of man's…11. Before the Renaissance, virtually all dramas focused on. A. family relationships. Collaborative Learning Community: Collective Exam #1 (Poetry & Drama) a) With your group, write 10-20 essay questions (at least 3 questions written by each team member.) i) Your questions should focus… read…

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The Biggest Mistakes in Oscar History – The Oscars are the biggest night in
Hollywood but just because it's the most important award show around doesn't mean
they get it right every single time.
Throughout history there's been some
truly odd decisions when picking everything from Best Actor to Best
Director but these five are by far the biggest mistakes in Oscar history.
Cabaret winning big over the Godfather. We don't want to say this is the biggest
blunder in Oscars history but… okay yeah it most definitely is. No offense to
Cabaret but it's The Godfather. To be fair,
Francis Ford Coppola's masterpiece did win Best Picture at the end of the
night but it lost virtually everything else to
Cabaret; Best Actor, Supporting Actor, sound, editing, and perhaps the most
egregious Best Director. "And the winner is… Bob Fosse for Cabaret." We get it musicals were having a bit of a
renaissance in the 70s with Grease, The Rocky Horror Picture Show, and All That
Jazz premiering later in the decade, but Cabaret isn't even the best musical
by those standards. The Oscars did give Coppola his moment when The Godfather Part II was released winning in six of the 11 categories it was nominated in
including Best Director. "The winner is Francis Ford Coppola for The Godfather Part II!" But it was an award he
should have gotten way sooner. Dances with Wolves winning Best Picture and Director
over Goodfellas. You can blame this one on too much saturation in the gangster film
genre. Goodfellas came at a time when The Godfather trilogy just ended, Tony Montana introduced us to his little friend in Scarface, and The Untouchables
showed us just how ruthless Al Capone was. At this point Hollywood had its fill
of mobster movies to last a lifetime so it's not surprising that the Academy
opted for the Civil War period piece directed by and starring Kevin Costner
for both Best Picture and Best Director But still Goodfellas is considered the
greatest mob movie of all time and Martin Scorsese had to wait another 16
years to get his long-overdue Best Director statue. " – Hey, mom, what do you think?"
" – You look like a gangster!" Samuel L. Jackson losing Best Supporting Actor to Martin Landau Pulp Fiction is responsible for a lot of iconic moments in movie history but this
movie would not have ascended to become a cult classic phenomenon if not for
Samuel L. Jackson's performance. The opening scene of the movie, you know the one
where Jackson is talking about how delicious a Big Kahuna burger is right
before killing a man has over 4.5 million views on YouTube. "Mmm! This is a tasty burger!" "Vincent, you ever had a Big Kahuna burger?" His tone makes that scene. So then how in
the world did he lose his Oscar moment? Considering the Academy loves to praise
movies about the film industry it makes sense that Martin Landau won for Ed
Wood, a movie about real-life film director Ed Wood's rise to Hollywood fame.
It was the perfect type of movie for the Academy to award, but that doesn't make
it the right choice. "Martin Landau in Ed Wood!" Even during the ceremony, Jackson was visibly
disappointed when he lost. We're all just as shocked as you are, Sam. Alfred
Hitchcock going 0 for 5 in the Best Director category You may not know this
but Alfred Hitchcock, the man responsible for people not taking showers after
Psycho was released never won an Oscar It's an incredible oversight on the
Academy's part considering Hitchcock style has influenced directors of every
generation after him. To make matters worse, some of Hitchcock's most famous
films, Psycho, Vertigo, The Birds, and North by Northwest didn't even get the dignity
of being nominated for Best Picture. Technically speaking, Hitchcock's film
Rebecca did take home Best Picture honors in 1941 but robbing one of the
greatest directors of all time from his shining moment on stage is criminal.
Of course the Oscars did give Hitchcock an award eventually. In 1967 Hitchcock
was recognized for his outstanding work in the film industry with the Irving G.
Thalberg Memorial Award to which Hitchcock gave a quick "thank you" and exited the
stage The King's Speech winning Best Picture
in 2011 The list of nominations for Best Picture at the 2011 Oscars features some
of the best films in the past two decades. David Fincher's biopic of Mark
Zuckerberg and his brainchild Facebook. The uniquely beautiful Black Swan. The
mind-bending action thriller Inception. The dysfunctional family drama centered
around real-life boxer Micky Ward in The Fighter. Any of these movies would
have been great selections but the Academy didn't feel the same way. The
King's Speech came in and swept the competition. Look, The King's Speech is a
perfectly fine movie; a film about King George VI overcoming his
speech impediment to… well, give speeches. But is this the movie you remember the
most from that list now? "…" "Didn't think so." It already took home Best Actor, Best
Director, and screenplay, but come on, how did THIS lose? " – Mark?!"
" – He's wired in." " – Sorry?"
" – He's wired in." " – Is he?"
" – Yes." " – How 'bout now, you still wired in?"
" – Call security." Any answer other than The
King's Speech would have been the right one. No award show is perfect and the
Oscars certainly have gotten it right more times than not but it doesn't mean
that these mistakes are any less confusing. .

#PurdueTour Black Cultural Center – Good morning and welcome to another Tuesday
Tour.
It's John Sautter along with Michael Fairchild behind the camera, and his production
crew, all from the Purdue Alumni Association, bringing you another show, this one featuring
the Black Cultural Center right behind me. We're doing this in support of Black History
Month, which is going on right now. And so logistically, I can tell you, we're at the
corner of Third and Russell Street, right across the street from the Honors College.
Classes have been in session now just about three weeks or so. And so Purdue is underway
once again. And as Michael swings around, you get to see the Honors College, as well
as a great view down Third Street, which I remind you has been kind of turned into a
pedestrian corridor these days. But the snows coming down, and it's just a gorgeous winter
day here on campus. The Black Cultural Center behind me, opened up in 1999, at this location.
Previously, it was three blocks down on University Street. And we'll hear more about that in
a second. But just a wonderful facility architecturally. And with a variety the program is going on,
we're going to go inside and meet Renee Thomas, their director. And she's going to really
walk us through history and the program offerings they've done and the great offerings they
have brought to campus. And to do that we're going to go through the portal. The portal
right here resembles the entrance to a traditional village. And so it's the first of many of
the architectural features we're going to talk about today. So we'll go inside get out
of the snow. We'll see you there. Okay, we're inside the facility now gorgeous facility,
and meeting our director, Renee Thomas. Good morning, Renee. Good morning, Mr. Sautter.
Good to be here. We're going to enter in and what I think used to be the living room. Our
meeting room, but now actually is turning into a wonderful mural. You want to talk us
through that? Certainly this is our formal lounge area, and we converted it to exhibit
space. And we call it the Journey Through Black Excellence, which tells the narrative
of the Black Cultural Center over a 50 year history. And we actually started in the 1960s.
It was when Purdue University began to see larger numbers of African American students
enrolling on campus. And after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Black students
began to think about and challenge the university in terms of providing a home away from home
and a sense of belonging. So they staged a silent protest, in which they met in the Union
Building. They asked everyone to return the next day with a red brick. And at that time,
similar to what we've seen now on campus, there was lots of construction going on, red
bricks were easily accessible. So they got the red bricks met in the Union Building and
had the red bricks placed in a brown paper bag. They staged a silent protest and which
they marched from the Union Building to the steps of Hovde Hall. When they arrived, they
open those brown paper bags and set the bricks on the stairs. The students presented a list
of demands to the University President and President Hovde was presented with nine different
demands. And out of those demands was birthed the Black Cultural Center. We actually opened
our facility in 1970. And it was in an old residential house. And this is a picture of
that house that we were in during that time period. And two directors served on a part
time basis. And then in 1972, Mr. Antonio Zamora was announced the first full time permanent
director. And under his leadership, we introduced the performing arts ensemble program, Mr.
Zamora launched four different Student Performing Arts Ensembles in dance, drama, creative writing
of choral music, and they became the Performing Arts Ensemble, which we call the heartbeat
of the Black Cultural Center is our way of engaging students and communicating the African
American experience through art and culture. So we do what we call edutainment, which is
the combination between education and entertainment. So when you go to hear the Black Voices of
Inspiration, not only do you hear some fabulous music, but you also learn about the role of
traditional Negro spirituals. Let me proceed here to highlight our Cultural Art Series,
which is an opportunity for us to invite guest speakers and performers to the university
campus for public lectures and presentations. We launched the series under Mr. Zamora's
leadership, and had Mr. Muhammad Ali on campus world champion boxer sold out Elliot Hall
of Music in terms of attendance. 1975. Exactly. Also in 1975, the Society of Black Engineers
was birthed at Purdue University. And they now represent a national organization, the
six young men who founded the NSBE organization met in the old Black Cultural Center. And
if you look on the wall, you'll just see a cascade of individuals who have spoken at
Purdue sponsored by the Black Cultural Center. We're really proud because it reads like a
who's who, in Black America. People like Maya Angelou, Gil Scott Heron, poet Sonia Sanchez,
the wife of Dr. Martin Luther King, Coretta Scott King was here at Purdue. And the majority
of these were all sponsored by the Purdue Black Cultural Center. I want to highlight
Kassandra Agee, their first homecoming queen Black Homecoming Queen. That is correct. And
it was during a, you know, a period of time in the 1970s, late 1970s, which we were experiencing
some racial turmoil. So it was wonderful to have an African American Homecoming Queen.
I remember that. Yeah. And then again, it just continues on and on. Tarrus Richardson,
the first Black Purdue University student body president, individuals like Dick Gregory,
Nikki Giovanni and Ossie Davis have come to the University. All big names. Amazing. Now
over here, we have the new facility. Exactly. 1999 is when we moved to this particular facility.
This facility is the first campus first building at Purdue University that was designed by
an African American architectural firm, Walter Blackburn. And he incorporated some very distinguishable
African Elements in the design, and I'll highlight a couple of those. I see Renee Thomas arrived
around 1996. Yes, exactly. In 1996, I was promoted to director I actually started at
Purdue in 1990. Excellent, excellent. And then are one of the things that I'm most proud
about is our Research Tour Experience. Our Research Tour Experience is an opportunity
for students to travel throughout the United States, we engage the students who are involved
in our Performing Arts Ensembles. And we pick a particular geographic location, study the
African contributions to that area, we visit cultural sites, museums, we have master classes
in the various disciplines. And we put all that information together and then do a major
stage production in which we present to the campus community. Our first one was launched
in 2002, and which we went to Harlem, New York and studied the Harlem Renaissance. Since
that time, we went to Charleston, South Carolina to study the Gullah-Geechee Culture. We've
been to Memphis, Tennessee to study the Blues. We've been to Detroit, Michigan. So we've
been all over the United States, looking at the contributions of African Americans. And
then, at 2013, we actually launched our first study abroad program that is open to students
to travel with us during Maymester. We've been to Ghana, West Africa, we've been to
Brazil, we've also been to Cuba, as part of the study abroad program, these research tour
sound very unique, they are unique. And the uniqueness particularly for the research tour
is that not only do those 40 students who travel with us have exposure to those that
historical contributions, but when presented in a stage production at the end of this semester,
so very unique, and have gotten a lot of national recognition. And that is actually excellent.
And then the the wall concludes here with a couple more of our recent speakers and performers
that we've had such as Melissa Harris Perry, Angela Davis, and Harry Belafonte. Well, that's
that's quite a collection very, very well presented in terms of all the historical things
and performing groups. And again, it just sounds like you didn't get some national recognition
for some of these. Exactly, yes, we've been acknowledged by the National Association of
Black Cultural Centers as being one of the finest Black Cultural Centers on college campus.
The fact that we had an African American architect design that facility are one of the few campuses
that has a freestanding Black Cultural Center. Good for you and all you think you've done
for it. And for the campus. We're going to move into the lobby area and see some of the
other offerings of the building. And one is the Zamora Performing Arts Studio tell us
some things about that. Certainly, as part of our 50th anniversary celebration, we renamed
this the Antonio Zamora performing art studio. This is the place in which our Performing
Arts Ensembles, rehearse and do many performances. It's a specially designed room and that is
to stories or dance troupe can have space to do their lifts and spins. It's a wood sprung
floor. And we have some theatrical lighting so that whenever we do our more intimate performances,
we'll do them here. And then we also take advantage of the Hall of Music facilities
for a major stage production excellent. I remember when it was being built the wood
sprung floors always. It kind of moves I guess, just a little bit so quite a unique offering.
We're going to move on to the desk area now because it also has some architectural significance.
About that, Yes, the receptionist desk is whenever you enter the building, you're typically
greeted by one of our student employees. Here, the receptionist desk, which has a somewhat
of an odd shape to it is actually inspired by the whole of a ship. And the whole of a
ship has significance for the African American experience because many of our African ancestors
were transported from West Africa, to the United States as part of the Middle Passage,
and they took that journey in the hull of a ship. It was a fairly horrific journey,
and that they were tightly packed in the hull of a ship. But we use it as a form of inspiration
for students to let them know that if their African ancestors could survive the horrors
of the Middle Passage journey, and then go into slavery that Purdue University should
be a piece of cake. I like that. Never the case, we want the students to know that they
need to move their mindset from surviving at Purdue to a thriving at Purdue. Great perspective,
great perspective. And here's an artwork. Yes, this particular piece was commissioned
by Robert Peppers is called the spirit of the BCC, and it represents the four Performing
Arts ensembles. The Black Voices of Inspiration, Jahari Dance Troupe, New Directional Players,
and we like to say the Haraka Writers are inside the house. Since this painting, we've
introduced several other ensembles, including our Black Collective, which is our scholarly
ensemble. They do research on the African American experience. The Gordon Parks ensemble
is our visual arts ensemble. And we have a tremendous amount of artwork here at the center.
And our newest ensemble is called the Purdue Express, which is a recruitment ensemble,
they do a 30 minute stage production, and which we work with the Office of Admissions
to improve and to educate students through a theatrical and musical performance about
Purdue University. And another artwork here by a famous artist. Yes, Derek Fordjour is
the artist of our Black Boilermaker. This was done 10 years ago as part of our 40th
anniversary celebration when we premiered Black Purdue, and he did the depiction of
the Black Boilermaker. You'll notice in his tool belt, he has a brick as opposed to tools.
And the red brick is to symbolize you got it this protest that happened in 1968. You'll
notice there is a piece of mortar that's on the on the brick that's to remind us as an
institution, we still have room to grow as it relates to our diversity and inclusion
agenda. And on the lip of his hard hat. You can't necessarily see it from here. But the
year 1894 is inscribed. And that year has significance because it was the year in which
Purdue University produced this first African American Graduate. David Robert Lewis from
the College of Engineering, graduated 1894. Just one generation removed from slavery.
Excellent. Excellent. And the artist's name again? Derek Fordjour. Okay. And he is really
excelled in terms of his artwork. He has a major exhibit that's currently up in New York
City. And I think he was just featured on CBS Sunday morning. Exactly. I think I saw.
Yes. Okay. And then behind you, maybe a listing of all the directors that have been here.
Exactly. Singer Buchanan was the first director here at the Black Cultural Center, followed
by a graduate student, Johnny Houston, who served in a very short tenure. And then Mr.
Zamora, who is our Director Emeritus, was appointed full time director in 1973. And
continued to his retirement in 1995. He just recently passed this year and, but he has
his his mark is all over the facility in terms of his contributions to the success center.
Excellent, excellent. Well, that's a good sampling of what's here on the first floor,
we're not going to go up to the next floor and have a look around up there. Okay, we
have arrived at second floor came up the elevator. And now we're on the second floor just outside
the library. But again, quite a few significant architectural features here. Renee would love
to tell us about those. Certainly, the balcony here is to pay tribute to those enslaved Africans
who worked as blacksmiths. If you've ever traveled down to Savannah, Charleston area,
there's a tremendous amount of wear on on work, and the balconies to pay tribute to
the enslaved African labor. Also, if you look down on the carpet design area, it has a very
distinguishable design in a black and gold Purdue University's colors. But more importantly,
we like to say it has an adinkra symbol incorporated in the design of the carpet. And that adinkra
symbol is a windmill pattern, and it means the ability to overcome difficulty in life.
Circular patterns are very prominent in African architecture. So you notice a lot of our rooms
and locations have that circular pattern as well. Excellent, excellent. Let's move into
the library and The Black Cultural Center also has a special collections library, and
that most of the books and materials are related to the African American experience. We have
a wonderful collection of both books, journals and periodicals available for the campus community
to utilize. Okay, anybody can use these? Yes, it's open to the entire campus community,
we part of the library system. So if the student is online, they can access our books and materials
online as well. Which reminds me actually your building is available for anybody if
they'd like to have receptions or get togethers or staff meetings or cultural events. Exactly.
We welcome them to take advantage of the resource that we have here at the Black Cultural Center
for meetings, performances, whatever, however they would like to utilize it. And we encourage
our students to take advantage of it as well, not just for the African American community,
but for the entire campus community. And then recently, I think you've also formed a partnership
with a local art museum. That is correct. Yes, we have a phenomenal exhibit up throughout
the month of February. Boyd Smith is a Purdue graduate and has an exhibit up at the Art
Museum. And please visit the art museum as well and actually tie in with the community.
And then I guess I want to conclude remembering a great story you told us earlier, as I was
quizzing you about some of your favorite speakers on campus. And it's hard to pick one I know.
But I think you had a very interesting story about one of those. Oh, yes, Dr. Maya Angelou,
when she came to campus the Jahari Dance Troupe from the Black Cultural Center was the opening
act. Many people don't realize it, but Maya Angelou was also a dancer. And whenever we
circled up prior to going out on stage, she went through each dancer cupped her hands
on their face and gave them a positive affirmation. So very emotional time period and a special
memory for many of those students. And they'll never forget that I suspect Yes, I like you
won't. So anything else that you'd like to add? I just like to add that this month we're
celebrating Black History Month. The black Carter Center has a variety of programs and
activities planned. Most of them will occur all of them will occur virtually I encourage
you to visit our website and take advantage of our programmatic offerings. Excellent.
Well, we thank you so much for sharing your facility. We appreciate and thank you for
the wonderful work that you're doing for the cultural center here on campus. I think you'll
find this has been a very interesting Tuesday tour. We hope you enjoyed it. Come back and
visit and come back and visit the Black Cultural Center. Hail, Purdue! .

Breaking the Silence: Crash Course Film History #10 – Hey! Hello.
Can anybody hear me? You can? Good! That’s because of something called synchronous
sound. It means that the words I’m saying right
now are being recorded, then matched with the video. So when you watch this, the sound of my voice
is in sync with the image of me talking. Talking. Talking. We take that for granted today, but for the
first few decades of film history, it wasn’t possible. Theaters had to supply music, sound effects,
and narration through phonographs or live performances. And when dialogue was absolutely necessary,
filmmakers had actors mouth the words, and then insert title cards – or inter-titles
– in the middle of scene so the audience could read the dialogue for themselves. It took years of guess-work, tinkering, and
experimentation to make cinema sound the way it does today. But when sound finally arrived, it changed
the way movies were made and watched, forever. WHAAAT? You can hear me say WHAAAT now, thanks to
that. [Intro Music] Nothing shook the foundations of the film
industry like the coming of sound. By the mid-1920s, the major studios were churning
out movie after movie, the star system was in full swing, and cinema had become an integral
part of popular culture. But in order to sync pre-recorded sound to
moving pictures, artists and engineers had to overcome a few major hurdles. The first – and most important – was synchronization. How do you get the image and sound to match
up? At the time, image and sound were recorded
and played back using different devices, so there was no easy way to link them. Second, microphone technology was fairly primitive. Sound quality wasn’t good, and the mics
themselves were too big to conceal. Third, the process of recording and playing
back sound typically required electricity. That meant production companies would need
more equipment, larger crews, and access to power. And finally, there was the problem of amplification. Speaker technology at the time simply wasn’t
loud enough to fill a big theater. And the search for solutions to these problems
went as far back as the 1880s. In 1889, Thomas Edison’s assistant, W.K.L. Dickson, achieved a kind of rough synchronization
between the phonograph and the kinetoscope. Eventually he came up with a device called
the kinetophone that used a system of pulleys to connect the two devices. Thing is, it was buggy – everything had
to be just right, or the whole system fell apart. Luckily, at the same time as Dickson, inventors
across Europe and the United States were working towards the goal of synchronous sound films. In fact, three separate synchronizing devices
were on display at the Paris World Exhibition in 1900. None of them solved the whole problem, though. The common thread in all these early attempts
was the phonograph. That’s what they used to play back the pre-recorded
sound to accompany the film. And the problem was, it was really hard to
keep things in sync, you guys. If the phonograph needle skipped, or the film
jammed in the projector – which happened all the time – it was nearly impossible
to re-sync the two without starting all over again. More importantly, the phonograph relied on
cylinders or discs that could only hold four or five minutes worth of sound. By 1905, virtually all films ran longer than
five minutes. Since the phonograph seemed like a dead end,
engineers started to look for ways to record sound photographically. WHAAAT? That’s right! They hoped to translate sound waves into patterns
of light that could be recorded directly onto a strip of film. They called this technology sound-on-film. Which is not creative naming, but it works. The first experiments with sound-on-film began
in 1910 when Eugène Augustin Lauste, who worked for Dickson in Edison’s lab, successfully
recorded sound right next to the image track on film. In 1919, a trio of German inventors came up
with something called the Tri-Ergon process. They used a photoelectric cell to translate
sound waves into electric impulses, which were then converted into light waves and recorded
photographically onto the film strip. Most notably, they innovated a flywheel into
the projector that would keep the film speed consistent. This mechanism was so superior to anything
else at the time – and its patent so airtight – that everyone had to pay royalties to
the Tri-Ergon creators to use it. At roughly the same time, an American inventor
named Lee de Forest developed his own sound-on-film system. It was very similar to the Tri-Ergon process,
but de Forest’s version solved the problem of amplification. In 1907, while working on radio broadcast
technology, de Forest patented the Audion 3-Electrode Amplifier Tube. My nickname in high school. This was a vacuum tube that amplified sound
and sent it into a speaker, sort of like the way a projector’s lens takes an image and
blows it up so you can see it on a large screen. In 1919 de Forest realized his technology
might help achieve synchronous sound, and by 1922 he’d developed the process enough
to test it commercially. He formed the De Forest Phonofilm Company
and set about making some of the very first sync-sound films. He called them phonofilms. Most were just musical performances, vaudeville
acts, and speeches simply meant to showcase the technology, but a few were narrative films. By the mid-1920s, a hundred exhibitors in
the Eastern United States, Britain, and Canada had wired their movie theaters for sound,
specifically to screen de Forest’s phonofilms. But Hollywood wasn’t ready for it yet because,
the American studios were very good at producing silent movies. And they weren’t convinced that it was worth
the expense to change the way they made and showed films just to accommodate sound. Studio heads thought that “talking pictures,”
or talkies, were just a novelty that would fade away. That began to change in 1926, when a subsidiary
of AT&T introduced the Vitaphone system. Instead of sound-on-film, the Vitaphone was
a sound-on-disc process that solved the duration problem by recording the sound on multiple
discs. Genius. At first, the studios all passed on the Vitaphone. They said, “No way. Punch.” Then along came Warner Brothers. At the time, they were just a small studio
looking to elbow their way into the big leagues. And they decided to take a chance and be the
first film studio to make and show sync-sound films on a large scale. They leased the rights to the Vitaphone system
– as well as the right to sublease it to other studios – and set about converting
their theaters to handle sound films. Now, originally, they didn’t intend to incorporate
dialogue into the sound. Their idea was simply to use it for music
and sound effects. Their first effort was the 1926 film Don Juan,
a sumptuous costume drama starring John Barrymore. Before the film, they played an hour of sync-sound
short films, including musical performances and a brief spoken message from Will Hays,
president of the Motion Pictures Producers and Distributors of America, welcoming the
world to the era of sound. This is part of what he had to say: “My friends, no story ever written for the
screen is as dramatic as the story of the screen itself.” People were blown away. They were like, “Whaaat? That guy’s talking!” Don Juan broke box office records in city
after city. Film critics lavished praise on the Vitaphone
system. And a Columbia University physicist said of
the Hays speech: “No closer approach to resurrection has ever been made by science.” Now, this doesn’t mean that the coming of
sound worked out for everybody. Until now, screen actors up had been trained
to act through gestures. Suddenly, dialogue – not to mention your
voice and your enunciation – had real consequences. And not every silent film star was able to
make the transition. Buster Keaton, for instance, was known as
the Great Stoneface for the stoic expression he wore, no matter how things were falling
apart around his character. But then sound came along, and the charm of
Keaton’s deadpan silence was lost, when he started to speak. Kinda like when I start to speak. Sound films also threatened the musicians
that played live music at movie theaters. And, of course, it was still going to cost
a boatload of money to convert production studios and movie theaters to sound. Nevertheless, by 1927, the writing was on
the wall. Sound was coming, and the major studios couldn’t
stall any longer. That year, the “big three” studios – MGM,
Famous Players, and First National – adopted the Vitaphone process and set about converting
their theaters. Meanwhile, Warner Brothers had already finished
building a sound studio on their lot, and producing their next film, The Jazz Singer. The plan was to make a film with music, not
dialogue; but when star Al Jolson improvised a few lines, the studio agreed to leave them
in. Unlike most lines I improvise for this. Jolson: Now, Mama. Mama, stop now. You're gettin' kittenish. Jolson: Mama. Listen, now I'm gonna sing this like I will if I go on the stage. Jolson: You know with the show. I'm gonna sing it Jazzy. Jolson: Now, get this. Jolson: [singing] Blue skies, smilin' at me. Me, me, me! Jolson: [singing] Nothin' but, little blue skies, do I see. Doh, doh, doh doh doh! And that – this incidental spoken dialogue
– really sent audiences over the top. Think about it – they’d always heard music
in some form while watching a film, either from live musicians or a phonograph. And they’d been spoken to, in speeches and
performances like the Hays speech or the de Forest phonofilms. But they’d never heard informal dialogue
spoken to other characters within the world of the film! Suddenly, audiences were listening in on the
story. And overhearing the dialogue made the story
seem more real. In some ways, sync-sound completed the “illusion
of reality” that began three decades earlier with the very first motion pictures. Soon, new genres emerged. Musicals and dance movies were suddenly possible. Disney led the way in feature film animation,
incorporating dialogue and songs into their shorts and features. Gangster movies and monster films became more
popular, as sound effects and music allowed them to ratchet up tension. Also, newspaper movies became fashionable,
as films like The Front Page and Platinum Blonde had reporters trading witty banter
as they chased down stories. These films eventually led to classics like
Howard Hawks’ His Girl Friday and even the great Citizen Kane. Never heard of it. Old genres got a facelift too. Comedies in particular found new ways to make
us laugh through dialogue, instead of relying on physical humor alone. On the technical side, the arrival of sound
changed career opportunities for women in film as well. And not for the better. Prior to sound, women edited more Hollywood
films than men did. That’s because, at the time, editing was
thought of as menial labor, the grunt work of painstakingly splicing together bits of
film. Then sound came along, and the technological
requirements of the job multiplied. And almost overnight, film editors were responsible
for assembling not just images, but the sound effects, music, and dialogue as well. Just like that, the reign of women in the
cutting room was over. They saw themselves replaced by men, who were
seen as more technically minded. But women editors in Hollywood did make a
comeback – from Thelma Schoonmaker, who cut every Martin Scorsese film from Raging
Bull to The Wolf of Wall Street, to Lisa Lassek, who edited Joss Whedon’s Avengers movies. Today we talked about the engineering hurdles
and breakthroughs that led to the arrival of reliable synchronous sound to cinema. We learned how the Hollywood studios resisted
the arrival of sound films as long as they could, until audience demand forced them to
give in. And we considered how sound film changed the
studios, the films themselves, and the lives of those who made them. Which sets us up perfectly for what came next:
the official Golden Age of Hollywood. I’ll see you then! In the pictures! Crash Course Film History is produced in association
with PBS Digital Studios. You can head over to their channel to check
out a playlist of their latest amazing shows, like Gross Science, Artrageous with Nate,
and Full Time Kid. This episode of Crash Course was filmed in
the Doctor Cheryl C. Kinney Crash Course Studio with the help of these nice flywheels, and
our amazing graphics team is Thought Cafe. .