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What is the percent Cr, by mass, in the steel sample?
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How to Calculate Percent Change in Mass – Calculating percentage change in mass involves knowing the beginning and final mass of an object. The rest is basic math. So 12 percent of the water in the beaker has evaporated over the course of your experiment. Note in your final answer whether the percent change is an increase or a decrease.8.5 – The percent-by-mass concentration of a solution… Ch. 8.5 – The defining equation for percent-by-volume… The speed limit on some interstate highways is roughly 100 km/h. (a) What is this in meters per second? (b) How…The percent composition (percentage composition) of a compound is a relative measure of the mass (or weight) of each different element present in the Jackie the Geologist has just discovered a new iron ore deposit. Jackie took a sample of this iron ore to Chris the Chemist for analysis.
The percent concentration unit most often encountered in… | bartleby – Steel is an alloy of iron with typically a few tenths of a percent of carbon to improve its strength and fracture resistance compared to iron. Many other elements may be present or added.Density (specific weight) is theamount of mass in a unitvolume. It is measured in kilograms per cubic metre. The density of water is 1000 kg/ m3 but most materials have a higher density andsink in water.This is the concentration of a component in a material expressed in mass percentage. Example: a type of coal has 15 % ash. The percent by mass of oxygen in Fe2O3 is 30 %.
Percent Composition Calculations Chemistry Tutorial – Given:3.40g sample of the steel used to produce 250.0 mLSolution containing Cr2O72-. Assuming all the Cr is contained in the BaCrO4 at the end.What percent of the mass will disappear if all the sodium bicarbonate undergoes thermal decomposition? Now we know that the sample starts out with 2.2 grams of sodium bicarbonate. Originally Answered: How do I calculate percent composition of a compound in an unknown mixture?Stainless steels come in several types depending on their microstructure. Austenitic stainless steels contain at least 6 percent nickel and There are a variety of methods for joining stainless steel, with welding being the most common. Fusion and resistance welding are the two basic methods generally…
Chemistry of Mole Concept – chemistry or mole concept is very useful concept specially to school level learners this concept is very helpful while solving various numerical problems relating to microscopic particles besides explanation of related theoretical concepts some numerical problems are solved step by step here in this video the explanation is in very lucid manner to make you easy to understand i hope and believe that you will enjoy your learning chemistry before starting i request viewer to subscribe the channel let's proceed the scientist medio avogadro was born in italy 9th of august 1776.
the most interesting thing is that he started his career as a lawyer and finally switched over to natural science his famous hypothesis is avogadro's law mole is an unit much used to express the numbers of microscopic particles one unit is equal to avogadro's number visible things are expressed in numbers like dozens 100 etc this concept is very useful in explaining the amount of reactants and products in various chemical reactions this is applied to all three physical states of substances that is solid liquid and gas in continuation of explanation of mole here different examples in all three physical states are shown for better understanding the concept how the particles of gaseous substances are doubled or tripled while switched over to atoms from molecules are shown here with examples of hydrogen and ozone marsh of an atom while you consider that means number of protons and number of neutrons present in the nucleus electron is not considered because of its negligible mass such as in the case of lead 82 protons and 125 newtons making a mass number 207 now we proceed to the molar mass molar mass is the amount of substance that is present in one mole unit of expression that is grams for mole example like fps4 its molar mass is 152. so mass of one atom atomic mass while expressed in gram that is gram atomic mass mass of one molecule that is molecular mass expressed in gram gram molecular mass this is summary seed on molar mass that is atomic mass molecular mass formula mass gram atomic mass gram molecular mass how to determine the number of moles in solid substances number of mole is equal to mass of the substance divided by the molar mass of the substance molar mass of the substance may be atom molecule formula mass ions radical subatomic particles explanation determine the number of moles of 76 gram fps mass is 152 so number of moles of faso 76 divided by 152 is 0.5 mole molar volume of gaseous substances that is gaseous particles if it is a one mole of gaseous molecules i've got the number of molecule occupying 22.4 liter at stp similarly gaseous particles containing one mole of gaseous atoms occupying 22.4 liter containing the avogadro number of atoms for example of molecule h2 that is one mole if you add on energy breaks into two atoms of hydrogen that is two moles so that is the volume increasing number of moles also increasing how to solve numerical problems relating to gaseous substances n is equal to v by v n n stands for number of moles v volume of gaseous particle at stp v n is the volume of avogadro's number of gaseous vertical at x t p if b is given at different temperature then you have to convert to the stp using the combined gas law v1b1 by t 1 is equal to p 2 v 2 by t 2 hence it is necessary to go through charles law boyle's law avocados law combined gas law avogadro's law be proportional to aid that is volume increasing number of mole or particles increasing here temperature and pressure definitely remaining constant if it is volume and the chain formula can be also used v1 and 1 is equal to v2 n2 molar volume of liquid bm that represents the molar volume is equal to molar mass divided by density of the liquid take an example in the case of pure water that is more molar mass is 18 density one gram per centimeter so molar volume is 18 cc better example take mercury molar mass 200.59 its density is 13.6 so what is molar volume that is 14.75 cc numerical problems as i cited earlier that some numerical problems are solved here for better understanding the concept dry eye is blocked that is pure co2 solid weighing 880 grams you have to determine how many moles of oxygen atoms present in it one gram mole of dry ice that is 12 one carbon 32 gram oxygen making 44 hence 880 divided by 44 gives 20 gram bonds one gram mole of dry ice contains 2 gram atom of oxygen 20 gram mole 40 gram atom so 40 moles of oxygen atoms are present stainless steel it is an alloy of chromium along with iron and nickel percentage of chromium is 10.5 percent view sample wing 100 gram you have to determine how many more of chromium atom so it is 10.5 gram chromium present because it is 10.5 percent now one gram atom of chromium is 52 10.5 gram atom of chromium that is this divided by this mole of chromium so 10.5 gram of chromium is 0.2019 mole of chromium atoms [Music] this is one more good example on bioinorganic chemistry healthy person having 15 percent hemoglobin hemoglobin is a metal protein of iron you must be knowing that hemoglobin is part of blood technical blood how much iron is present in terms of mood that is you are to determine it is given that molecular weight is sixty four thousand four hundred fifty gram per mole it is a tetramer unit so four ferrous ions are present in it contain ml blood that means 1.5 gram hemoglobin is present 64 458 gram hemoglobin contains 4 moles of ferrous 1.5 gram hemoglobin that is 4 into 1.5 divided by 64 four five eight that much mole of fresh so it contains nine point three zero eight three eight seven into ten to one minus five mole of ferrous line glass of glucose solution that is 200 ml this 25 percent glucose is present in it you want to determine how many more molecules of glucose present in not mole molecules formula c6h12o6 and its formula mass 16 to 12 12.1 plus 6 into 16 making 180 atomic massive 200 ml 25 percent glucose means 50 gram glucose is present in that glass solution in this solution in glass one mole glucose contains 180 gram so 180 present in one more 50 gram present in this much more one more glucose is about a number of molecules so this much mole is this molecules that is 1.67231 into 10 to the power 23 molecules of glucose determine the mass of aluminum in a sample the compound is l2o3 which contains three point zero one one into ten to power twenty three atoms of oxygen the number of mole of oxygen that is three point zero one one into ten to twenty three divided by about number that is 0.5 mol in the molecule l2o3 3 moles of oxygen atoms combined with 2 moles always three moles oxygen combined with two mole so one mole oxygen combined with two by three mole so 0.5 mole oxygen combined with this much mole of aluminium atomic mass that is given here 0.3333 mol the mass of aluminum 27 into 0.3333 hence mass of 0.3333 mole aluminium is roughly 9 or 8.9991 element b combines with c forming compound b two c three in this compound forty two grams of element b containing four point five one five ten to the power 23 atoms 0.5 mole of this compound weighing 80 grams what is the atomic mass of element c as a matter of fact you are not also knowing the atomic mass of element b but some data is given where from initially you are to determine the atomic mass of element b then c number of mole of element b this much atom divided by avogadro that means 0.75 mol so atomic mass of element b 42 divided by this mole is 56 molar mass is easy because 0.5 mole 80 so one mole is 160 hence we can write 2b plus 3c is equal to 160 putting the value of b 3c is equal to 48 hence c is equal to 16 atomic mass even it thanks for watching this video please subscribe the channel if not done earlier if you like this video give a thumbs up your valuable comments are very much required to improve the quality of the video next video is hybridization and molecular geometry best explained .
Iron-carbon (Steel) Phase Diagram w/ Pro-Eutectoid Step – .
Introducing Thermo-Calc 2019b – Introducing Thermo-Calc 2019b, which includes a new module that makes it easy to set up calculations for steel and slag, the Process Metallurgy
The new module is designed for application to steel-making and steel refining processes including converters, such as basic oxygen furnaces, Electric arc furnaces, Ladle furnace metallurgy and more. The new Process Metallurgy Module makes it easy to define the composition of a steel and slag system because the calculator automatically provides the three common material groups Steel, Slag and Gas, and provides default composition input types that are relevant to each material group. The new module also allows you to save your material compositions right from the calculator and quickly access
them in the future. The Process Metallurgy Module allows users to pre-define compositions of steels, ferro-alloys, slags and slag additions. The overall composition of the steel and slag is then obtained by simply adding amounts of these predefined materials. This opens up a whole range of powerful possibilities. Users who have the thermodynamic database
TCOX9 or TCOX8 and a valid Maintenance and Support Subscription receive the new module for free. All other users can test the module with the included OXDEMO database, which has been updated for the 2019b release to work with the new Process Metallurgy module. Two examples demonstrating some of the applications of the Process Metallurgy Module are included in the 2019b release. These can be found in the Help menu > Examples Files > Process Metallurgy. Users with Thermo-Calc 2019b or newer can run the examples with the updated OXDEMO
database. Additionally, we have created tutorial videos for the examples which you can watch by clicking the link in the upper right hand corner of the video or visiting the Video Tutorials page on our
website. The Steel Model Library introduces a template in Thermo-Calc 2019b which sets up a time-temperature-transformation diagram for the steel package. The new template is accessed from the home
screen of Thermo-Calc and has several pre-configured settings that make it easy to set up and calculate
the TTT diagram using the Martensite temperatures and Pearlite property models. The template also comes with a new plotting
mode called TTT mode, which is used to define the Temperature on
the y-axis and Time on the x-axis for all selected quantities. For example, Pearlite will show transformation
times for 2%, 50% and 98% Pearlite. Time independent results, like the Ms temperature, will be drawn a horizontal line. Use of the Steel Model Library, the new template and the new TTT mode all require a valid Maintenance and Support
Subscription plus licenses for the thermodynamic and kinetic steel databases, TCFE9 and MOBFE4. The Precipitation module (TC-PRISMA) includes two new growth rate models in Thermo-Calc
2019b Para-equilibrium and non-partition local
equilibrium (NPLE). In a system where there are large differences between the diffusion rates of the components there is a possibility to have fast reaction
without the need of any redistribution of the more sluggish
elements. In metals the interstitial elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, are smaller than the metal atoms and diffuse
much faster. The paraequilbrium and non-partition local
equilibrium growth rate models are designed specifically to address the fast diffusion elements in iron alloys. A new example, P_13, shows the new paraequilibrium
growth model. The application for the new example is cementite precipitation at low temperatures
for a steel. Users can access the new example in the Help Menu > Examples Files > Precipitation
module. The part of the calculation engine known as
the Gibbs Energy System module, or GES for short, has been completely rewritten for this release
from GES5 to GES6. The main purpose of GES6 is to support faster development of new features than is currently possible with GES5. However, GES6 does not yet support all the
features of GES5, so GES5 and GES6 will co-exist in the application for the foreseeable future. GES6 is enabled by default but this can be
changed by the user. The application will fall back gracefully
and use GES5 automatically in cases where certain functionality is not yet implemented in GES6. See the Thermo-Calc 2019b release notes for further information on this. GES6 has also shown improved calculation times for many long-running calculations. But for short calculations, the execution time of GES6 may be a little
longer than for GES5. This plot compares the execution times between GES5 and GES6 from over 5 000 calculations on various industrial alloys. Calculation types include property diagrams, phase diagrams and Scheil calculations. Points that are above the 1 to 1 ratio line
show cases where GES6 is slower than GES5 and points that lie below the 1 to 1 ratio
line show cases where GES6 is faster than GES5. Points on the 1 to 2 ratio line show cases where GES6 is twice as fast as GES5 and points on the 1 to 3 ratio line show cases where GES6 is three times faster than GES5. The orange symbols represent calculations using the TC-Nickel database, which tend to be more complex calculations. From this we can see that these calculations tend to be 2-3 times faster than the corresponding calculations in GES5. Some new features have been added to TC-Python In the 2019b release. It is now possible to set all options for
each calculation type in a consistent way using the with_option()
method. Additionally there is now a method on the
system object that can convert between different composition
units without performing an equilibrium calculation making the conversion much faster. Also TC-Python now uses GES6 by default. The Diffusion module (DICTRA) has received some improvements in Thermo-Calc
2019b. Several numerical options are now set to “automatic”
by default in both graphical and console modes, making it easier to perform common simulations. In graphical mode, you can now plot a coordinate
inside a region just like you can in Console Mode. This is done using the Distance plot condition, available on the Plot Renderer. In the console mode, a simplified setup of homogenization simulations
was implemented. There is also a new comprehensive tutorial which teaches about the Diffusion module (DICTRA) and the role of diffusion in materials. Visit dictra.com to download the tutorial or click the link included in the description
below. Thermo-Calc 2019b includes three new databases and two updated databases. The thermodynamic database for metal oxide
solutions including slags, TCOX9, adds titanium, bringing it to a 25 element framework. The database also adds 19 binary systems, 26 ternary systems and 30 quaternary systems. The database includes several other updates, some of which are listed on your screen. Two new copper databases are released, the thermodynamic copper database, TCCU3 and the companion mobility database, MOBCU3. TCCU3 adds germanium (Ge), bringing it to
a 30 element framework. 10 Ge-X binary systems are added and 2 new ternary systems are added. Volume data for the newly added phases are
assessed or estimated. The companion mobility database, MOBCU3, is updated to correspond to the updates in
TCCU3. The steel and fe-alloys database, TCFE9, and the titanium database, TCTI2, have been updated with the improvements currently
listed on the screen. To learn more about the 2019b release of Thermo-Calc, read the complete release notes by visiting
our website or by clicking the link included in the video description