source : lastfiascorun.com
Which best describes the 1942 allied strategy in north africa?
What was the codename for the Allied invasion of North Africa?
Operation Torch (8 November 1942 – 13 May 1943) was an Allied invasion of French North Africa during the Second World War.
What was the overall Allied war strategy?
Leapfrogging. Leapfrogging was a military strategy employed by the Allies in the Pacific War against the Axis powers (most notably Japan) during World War II. It entailed bypassing and isolating heavily fortified Japanese positions while preparing to take over strategically important islands.
Which allied nation controlled the Suez Canal in North Africa?
Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco Britain also occupied the shores of the Suez Canal . British control of Egypt was reconfirmed under the 1936 Anglo-Egyptian Treaty.
Who is the leader of an allied nation during the war in Europe?
The leaders of the Allies were Franklin Roosevelt (the United States), Winston Churchill (Great Britain), and Joseph Stalin (the Soviet Union). The common purpose of the Allies was to defeat the Axis powers and create a peaceful post-war world.
What was the allied strategy in North Africa?
strategists had decided on “Torch” ( Allied landings on the western coast of North Africa ) late in July 1942, it remained to settle the practical details of the operation. The purpose of “Torch” was to hem Rommel’s forces in between U.S. troops on the west and British troops to the…
Why did the Allies invade North Africa first instead of Europe?
The Allies fought in North Africa because that was where the Axis, specifically the Italians, attacked the British. (Italy also attacked in East Africa , but the Commonwealth forces had already defeated the Italians and liberated Ethiopia before the USA joined the War).
You might be interested: Where is mauritius in africa
Why did Japan attack us?
Objectives. The Japanese attack had several major aims. First, it intended to destroy important American fleet units, thereby preventing the Pacific Fleet from interfering with Japanese conquest of the Dutch East Indies and Malaya and to enable Japan to conquer Southeast Asia without interference.
What was the allied strategy for ww2 5 points?
What was the Allied strategy for World War II ? ( 5 points ) Allies focus on defeating the Axis in Europe before focusing on the Pacific. Allies focus on defeating the Axis in the Pacific before focusing on Europe.
What was the turning point of ww2?
Battle of Stalingrad (1942–1943) Generally argued to be the most significant turning point of the war, the Battle of Stalingrad was one of the Wehrmacht’s most ambitious operations, in which they committed, and lost, over 400,000 soldiers.
When it first entered World War 2 Why did the United States commit?
When it first entered World War II, why did the United States commit most of its resources to the war in Europe? Roosevelt felt that Germany was more of a threat than Japan. Battle of Stalingrad.
Who did America side with in ww2?
Three days later, Germany and Italy, allied with Japan, declared war on the United States . America was now drawn into a global war. It had allies in this fight–most importantly Great Britain and the Soviet Union. But the job the nation faced in December 1941 was formidable.
How did the Battle of Okinawa affect the decision to use the atomic bomb?
How did the Battle of Okinawa influence the decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan? called for an “unconditional surrender” from Japan, however, Japan very much refused. The declaration stated that if Japan did refuse to surrender, more destruction (following the Battle of Okinawa ) would continue.
You might be interested: What countries make up north africa[embedded content]
Who is in the allied powers?
World War II the chief Allied powers were Great Britain, France (except during the German occupation, 1940–44), the Soviet Union (after its entry in June 1941), the United States (after its entry on December 8, 1941), and China.
What countries are allied with the US?
Places Americans say are allies
Who was the most important person in ww2?
Key Figures of World War II Benito Mussolini. Benito Mussolini founded Fascism and ruled Italy as a dictator for more than 21 years. Franklin D. Roosevelt. Winston Churchill. Joseph Stalin. Harry Truman. Dwight D. Heinrich Himmler. Joseph Goebbels.
Which best describes the 1942 Allied strategy in North – The Allies formed during 1942 pushed back the troops of Rommel completely out of Egypt and thereafter they trapped those troops against the other allied forces of the west. At first, the allies fought in places like Morocco and Algeria. After that they moved towards the eastern side and into Egypt.The Battle of Stalingrad was a brutal military campaign between Russian forces and those of Nazi Germany and the Axis powers during World War II. Germany's defeat in the battle marked a turningThe Allied invasion of French North Africa in November 1942 was intended to draw Axis forces away from the Eastern Front, thus relieving pressure on the hard-pressed Soviet Union. The operation was a compromise between U.S. and British planners as the latter felt that the American-advocated landing in northern Europe was premature and would lead to disaster at this stage of the war. The
Battle of Stalingrad – Definition, Dates & Significance – Which best describes the 1942 allied strategy in north africa? the allies advanced on axis troops in libya from both east and west, trapping them in the middle. the allies pushed rommel's troops out of egypt and trapped them against more allied forces in the west.The battle for North Africa was a struggle for control of the Suez Canal and access to oil from the Middle East and raw materials from Asia. Free French Brigade at Bir Hacheim and turned north, cutting across the Allied rear. An Axis secondary attack in the north pinned down the Allied forces there. The Axis forces finally had a unifiedQuestion: What best describes the 1942 allied strategy in North Africa
Operation Torch: Invasion of North Africa – The Allied victory in North Africa destroyed or neutralized nearly 900,000 German and Italian troops, opened a second front against the Axis, permitted the invasion of Sicily and the Italian mainland in the summer of 1943, and removed the Axis threat to the oilfields of the Middle East and to British supply lines to Asia and Africa.Which best describes the 1942 Allied strategy in North Africa? The Allies advanced on Axis troops in Libya from both east and west, trapping them in the middle. The Allies pushed Rommel's troops out of Egypt and trapped them against more Allied forces in the west.On November 8, 1942, the military forces of the United States and the United Kingdom launched an amphibious operation against French North Africa, in particular the French-held territories of Algeria and Morocco.
Tanks of the Early North-Africa Campaigns, by The Chieftain – WW2 Special – Greetings, all.
I’ve been asked to make a short, fifteen
minute video on the AFVs used in the North Africa campaign. Since the video covering vehicles of the French
campaign took about an hour, I’ll just cover the vehicles in the story so far, about April
of 1941. Remember, most of the North Africa Campaign
pre-dates the Tigers and Shermans which folks normally associate with the fight. Lots of older vehicles are being used instead
which often get forgotten about. We also have about a year’s advancement
over what we saw in France, so there will be some new appearances, and I’ll start
out with a new country: Italy. It sometimes seems forgotten that the Italians
were the primary contributor to the Axis forces in North Africa, and contrary to popular cultural
belief, they were not entirely incompetent. Some units were, others put up very determined
fights. If you will recall from the video on the development
of Italian armored doctrine, the Italians had some very good ideas, but were horribly
let down by manufacturing and budgets. With the predominant vehicle being the L3
series, tiny tankettes based on the 1928 Carden Lloyd, Italian vehicles started out behind
the power curve. And, unfortunately for the Italians, of the
large number of the small tanks they had, not a whole hell of a lot of them were in
Libya. Indeed, come December of 1940, the Italians
only had two notable armored formations. One was the Raggruppamento Maletti, which
was split evenly between M11/39s and L3/35s. The M11/39s can perhaps best be considered
the Italian counterpart to the M3 Lee: There was a sudden realization that both a cannon
and a turret were needed courtesy of experience in Ethiopia, but before there was the ability
to put the cannon into the turret. As the name implies, it’s a medium tank,
comes in at about 11 tons, and accepted in 1939. Very logical, really. Of fairly simple construction, with suspension
which looked suspiciously like that of the Vickers 6-ton, the vehicle was of armor plate
bolted to a steel frame. 3cm of armor wasn’t going to stop much beyond
a light cannon but was typical of the time. The 105hp diesel engine wasn’t going to
set speed records, but was serviceable enough. The primary armament was of two 8mm machineguns,
operated by the commander in the one-man turret off to the side. This, of course, meant that the commander
suffered from the same problems of any other one-man-turret tank. He can fight his tank, he can load and shoot
the weapons, or he can communicate with the outside world. Doing all three at once was a little too much
to be expected, especially since communication was purely visual. No radios. He also had a very good chance of getting
hit by the recoil of the cannon, if he wasn’t careful. The cannon was an older 37mm, semi-automatic,
and very similar to that found on the Fiat 3000, the Italian version of the FT. Indeed, some were taken from the Fiats due
to production lag. Not a fantastic tank-fighter, the cannon would
still do a number on the light tanks which formed a sizeable chunk of Britain’s tank
force and was a danger to the cruisers. The gunner, who had to be careful not to get
hit by a rotating turret, was cramped, and also had to load the gun. And, finally, there was the driver, though
at least the Italians had by then generally figured out driver’s positions. The other vehicle available, as mentioned,
was the L3/35. All of three tons in weight, a two man crew,
and twin machineguns, the vehicle is tiny, which is likely its one redeeming feature. It could be fairly hard to hit. Now, when facing an enemy which isn’t well
equipped with anti-tank weapons, in open terrain, an armored mobile machinegun pillbox is still
a threat to infantry, but there were quite a few Boys ATRs and 2prs out there to face
them. The Italians had long concluded that they
were obsolete, but they didn’t have anything better in the field. The Maletti Group had a very short career
after the British counterattack started. Caught off-guard in camp at Nibeiwa, they
received the attentions of four dozen Matilda IIs, and were wiped out. Determination only goes so far when your opponent
has 3 inches of armor. The only other Italian armored force was the
Brigata Corazzata Speciale, which was a proper combined arms unit with and had some sixty
of the new M13/40s. This tank is generally given scathing reviews,
because Italians faced Shermans and Churchills in it. And, indeed, it wasn’t the best tank in
the world in 1940 either, but, by the standard of 1940, it was quite serviceable. Take the lower hull from the M11/39, replace
the upper hull with a design which incorporates a turret with a cannon. Again, shades of M3 and M4 medium here. Add more armor, now 4cm. This increases the weight to 13 tons. Put a new, more powerful, V8 diesel engine
into it, so 30km/hour is feasible. The turret is now a two-man one, which, though
far from ideal, vastly reduces the workload of the commander. And, best of all, it comes with a 47mm cannon,
which was possibly the best tank gun in the world in early 1940, definitely competing
with the French and Soviet offerings. Well capable of engaging the British cruisers,
it also had a high explosive round on issue. Not the biggest bang in the world, but definitely
better than the nothing their opponents came equipped with. Coaxial to that was one of the 8mm machineguns. A bow gunner fired another twin 8mm, and next
to him, the driver. The Special Brigade was basically wiped out
at Beda Fomm, after a very hard-pressed battle. The Ariete armored division would be thrown
into the fray by February 1941, also equipped with M13/40s and L3/35s, but with a lot fewer
vehicles than they were supposed to have. They’d perform well enough, until they hit
an Australian road-block at Tobruk, being all but wiped-out. The Italians also put into service an armored
car, the Autoblinda AB41 developed from the previous low-volume AB40. This all-wheel drive, all-wheel steering armored
car, complete with rear-facing driver had an engine as good as the tank’s, making
it extremely capable of fast, offroad operations. Better yet, for reconnaissance, very vehicle
had a radio. The turret was lifted from the L6 light tank,
with a 2cm Breda cannon. Sadly, it was a one-man turret, but capable
of going through 3cm of armor, it was plenty dangerous enough to any enemy recon units
it might happen to encounter. By this point, the Germans have also entered
the fray, and they brought along the 5th Light Division, which was something of an ad-hoc
formation. As with the invasion of France before it,
the main tank of the German forces was the Panzer III. By this point, the standard variant is the
G model, most of which had been built with the 5cm/42. Those which had been built with the 37mm had
been slated upgunning. I’ve been quite up-front about my praise
for the Panzer III, and by early 1941 it was still, I submit, the best tank in the world. And no, I’ve not forgotten about the Soviet
Union. It still had the three-man turret crew, radios,
the 5cm gun would destroy anything short of a Matilda II at typical ranges. The ten-speed pre-selector gearbox had had
its teething bugs worked out and the tank was one step shy of bulletproof in reliability. Which was just as well, given how hard it
was to pull out the transmission. With 3cm of armor, the tank was not invulnerable,
but when well handled, remained a dangerous opponent. Supporting them, the Panzer IV. These would have been D and E models. The differences were in detail. Though the E was supposed to be built with
5cm armor as a result of experience in Poland, in the end, they retained the same 3cm of
the earlier variant. It also retains the short 7.5cm gun, providing
a lovely bang for dealing with soft targets, like anti-tank guns at range. Though it did have a reasonable AP round,
accuracy at distance was going to be an issue simply due to low velocity. Otherwise, basically the same tank as seen
in France a year prior. A number of Panzer IIs, mainly B and C models
rounded out the Panzer units, but a few As were also shipped over in February ‘41. The main change compared to the types seen
in France and Poland was a modification for engine ventilation, and the addition of extra
armor, about 2cm worth got bolted onto the front. They were used either in reconnaissance roles,
or to supplement the Panzer IIIs. The 2cm cannon would generally need to be
fired at the side of an enemy tank to have a chance at penetration, but even if fired
from the front, would be quite an attention-getter. A small amount of F models will have just
started arriving, the main difference really just being 3cm of frontal armor to begin with. A small number of Panzer Is would have been
around as well, but they were withdrawn pretty quickly. We met the related Panzerjaeger I in France,
and a battalion showed up with 5th light. The crews retained high confidence in the
gun, but did observe that the only way to reliably deal with Matildas was to pummel
the things until internal spalling forced the crew to abandon. An APCR round would not be developed for several
months yet. The Division was also fairly well equipped
with towed 37mm and a few 5cm guns. Reconaissance was provided mainly by the same
221 and 222 armored cars, supported by a few 231 8-wheeled heavy cars. Self-propelled anti-air guns were the Sdkfz
10/4. A few 88s were around as well, and it’s
probably also worth mentioning the small number of excellent Italian 90mm guns, though by
this point they had not been mounted onto trucks. You will notice that I have not mentioned
the Sturmgeschutz. There weren’t any. Finally, the British. This, also, will be fairly short, but there
is a quirk. You will recall from my video of the development
of British doctrine that the middle-east was considered something of the savior of the
British armored force, because it was the only justification they had to spend money
developing equipment and tactics. This meant that the British basically had
their best modern division there. 1st Armored was barely stood up in time to
get hammered in France. But Egypt was the home of Mobile Force, later
changed to Mobile Division, Egypt, in late 1938. With the change in designation also came a
new commander, and the British sent one of their best armored warfare experts to take
charge, a Major General Percy Hobart. He promptly set about them, and by all accounts
trained his division to a very high standard before a likely personality clash saw him
relieved of command just when the war was starting to heat up. The division he left was later named the 7th
Armored, the Desert Rats. By the time the desert war got going, Hobart
was a Lance Corporal in the Home Guard, although just last month in the WW2 channel timeline
March 1941, Churchill found him, pulled him out of retirement, and gave him 11th Armored. Very well trained though they may have been,
the equipment they had was a bit more limited. To put it in perspective, 6th RTC still had
the Vickers Medium tanks. 11th Hussars was using model 1924 Rolls Royce
armored cars, though they had changed out the turret to the open-topped type with a
Boys, machinegun and smoke mortar, together with some Morris CS9s. Both armored cars performed very well indeed. Tank-wise, we are still talking the first
and second generations of cruisers which we saw in France. The A9 and 10 with the Bright Idea suspension
were the oldest. The A9 was reasonably fast, with almost no
armor, but with the three-man turret and very capable 2pounder gun it could still hit hard
if well handled. The A10, with up to 3cm of armor might, if
you were lucky, take a knock or two, was dangerous to receive the attentions of, but was painfully
slow. Both initially suffered problems with the
air filter in the desert, but modifications had been made by the time the fighting started
given the practical experience the British had encountered in training. Cruiser IV was almost more of the same. Similar turret and firepower, but a new, faster
running gear, the Christie suspension. The downsides, the suspension made the interior
a little cramped, and the liberty engine had a tendency to shake itself apart. The cruiser III had a half-inch of armor,
and Fletcher states that only the IV, with 3cm, was used in the desert. All the cruisers had fragile tracks which
didn’t hold together well on rocky ground. However, all in all, the British cruisers
were moderately fast, very dangerous, and found to be reasonably reliable. Oh, and they all had radios. I would argue that the Cruiser MkIV was the
best tank the allies had in the opening part of the war, and they were the backbone of
the major British successes at the beginning of the North African campaign. Their only major downfall, the lack of a high
explosive round. The jewel was the Queen of the Desert, the
Infantry Tank Mk II. AKA Matilda II. Some 3” of armor, the thing was almost invulnerable
to anything the Italians could throw at it, barring the rare 90mm or artillery pieces
in direct fire. And, to their credit, Italian artillerymen
were often very good. But by and large, Matilda went where Matilda
wanted. They had their own reliability issue, the
clutch, but the commander of the battalion, 7th RTR, the only Matilda battalion, was paranoid
about reliability. He would tow the tank around sharp corners
with a truck to save wear on the steering system, which had been identified as a problem
in France, and he had a rule of not operating the vehicle at over half-speed unless in a
fight or in an emergency. This meant that the tank would trundle from
battlefield to battlefield at 8 miles an hour, and pauses for rest, maintenance or refueling
would reduce that even more. Given the distances of the desert, one can
imagine how this was a problem. Fortunately, the opposition was mainly Italian,
and for the first part of the desert war, they were generally not well mechanized and
so the Infantry tanks could take the time. Making up the numbers were the Mk VI light
tanks, seen before in France, though supposedly at least by one account there was no ammunition
for the five-oh machineguns. Fairly reliable and fast little things, and,
like the Italian tankettes, if you’re facing them with no anti-armor ability of note, they
can be quite dangerous. Then again, the Italians had just brought
into the service the 20mm Solothurn anti-tank rifle which, to the MkVI lights was also quite
dangerous. Again, I have to emphasise how early in the
war we still are, in the realms of technological development, a third the way into 1941. We have not yet reached the era of Mark IV
specials, Crusaders or Stuarts so enamoured of WW2 enthusiasts. Even 2 pounders en portee were not yet a thing. Semoventes have not yet shown up, anything
like a Tiger is a sheer fantasy to a soldier at this point. We can come back and re-visit this theater
and its vehicles in a year or so. .
10 Military Blunders That Changed The World – "10 Military Blunders That Changed The World 10) BATTLE OF TEUTOBURG FOREST In the Autumn of 9 AD, the Roman Governor
of Germania, Publius Quinctilius Varus , was approached by Arminius, a trusted chieftain
of the Cherusci.
He explained that a rebellion was fermenting on the other side of the Teutoburg
Wald. Varus wanted to quell the unrest before winter,
and Arminius suggested a quick, narrow path through the dense forest. The only problem
was the uprising was made up, and presented to Varus as bait by the Cherusci. Despite being warned by Arminius’ own father-in-law,
Segestes, that his men were walking into an ambush, Varus made the mistake of pressing
on regardless, right into the trap. After three days of vicious fighting in the heart
of the forest, three legions and six cohorts of auxiliaries were almost completely wiped
out. It was a huge blow to Roman confidence, and
while Rome pursued a campaign of retaliation, she was forever wary of settling East of the
Rhine. The massacre of Teutoburg Forest is still considered a factor in why Roman culture
and language, which still defines Southern Europe, is missing from the North. 9) DUNKIRK After Britain declared war on Germany in September
1939, the British Expeditionary Force was dispatched to France in May 1940, in much
the same way it had 25 years before. However the German Wehrmacht had learnt from 1918,
and within three weeks the allied armies had been pushed back to the port town of Dunkirk. Almost 350,000 French and British soldiers
were trapped, and awaiting the final push… which never came. On 23rd May Field Marshal
Gerd von Rundstedt ordered a general halt, which was was endorsed by Hitler. The following
day, 24th May, the Fuhrer ordered no-one to attack the beaches save for the Luftwaffe.
Hitler wanted to save tanks for future operations, and believed that Britain would sue for peace
after defeat in France. Unfortunately for him, the delay in attack
allowed the French to establish a rearguard, while the British arranged a strategic evacuation.
When Hitler resumed the advance, it was too late. Over the course of the eight day evacuation
338,226 allied soldiers were evacuated, allowing Britain to stay in the war. In control of
North Africa and India, the UK denied the Axis vital resources and would eventually
be the launchpad for the invasion of Fortress Europe. Hitler’s pause at Dunkirk sowed the seeds
of his own downfall. 8) RED CLIFFS The year is 208, and China is in a state of
civil war. The Han Dynasty, led by the weak Emperor Xian, has been fractured into three
warring states; Wei, Wu and Shu. Dominant among these was Wei, led by Chancellor Cao
Cao, who waged war to reunify China under his ultimate control. Key to Cao Cao’s strategy was control of
the Yangtze River, and it was at a place called Chi Bi, otherwise known as the Red Cliffs,
that Sun Quan of Shu and Liu Bei of Wu faced him. Cao Cao had a host of 240,000 men on
ships, compared to the alliances 50,000. But the men of Wei were apparently not used to
naval warfare, which Cao Cao solved by… chaining the ships together. This made them exceptionally vulnerable to
fire ships, which of course Shu and Wu deployed en mass. The chained ships couldn’t escape
in time, burning or drowning the huge army, and leaving Cao Cao’s campaign in tatters.
Wei would never recover from their defeat, and Chi Bi would mark the beginning of the
end for Emperor Xian, and the Han Dynasty. The battle also prevented Northern domination
of the South, leading to a cultural and occasionally political divide that lasted centuries. 7) STALINGRAD Ok, this one is convoluted, so here’s the
simple version. Following defeat in the Battle of Britain in 1940, Hitler turned his attention
East, towards the Soviet Union. On 22nd June 1941 Operation Barbarossa was launched, hoping
for a quick, decisive victory to knock out the Russians once and for all with a strike
at Moscow. This alone was a huge mistake, for as weak
as the Soviet Army was, the expectation that Russia could be taken before winter was optimistic
at best. The army was not fully prepared for winter, with weapons, fuels and men freezing
without proper weatherproofing. Then, in December 1941, Hitler assumed full
command of the German Army, and decided to turn attention from Moscow to Stalingrad.
By July 1942, as Soviet resistance in the city grew, Hitler personally rewrote operational
objectives to divert more dwindling resources toward Stalingrad. The battle was becoming
one of attrition, something Germany couldn’t win. With the encirclement of the German Sixth
Army in January 1943, Hitler made one more stupid decision, and ordered the army to make
no attempt at break-out. The battled depleted resources the Wehrmacht could ill afford,
breaking their ability to do battle and paving the way to Berlin. 6) FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE By 1453 the Byzantine Empire had been pushed
back to the walls of Constantinople itself. The Ottomans, under Sultan Mehmed II, laid
siege to the city in April and battered the great walls of the city with artillery for
53 straight days. The walls of Constantinople had weathered
Huns, Russians and Arab attacks before, and were considered strong enough to defeat this
latest assault. And they might have, had according to contemporary chroniclers, someone had remembered
to lock the Kerkoporta gate. On seeing the undefended gate, fifty Ottomans
rushed in and raised their standard over the walls. The exhausted defenders, believing
the walls taken, fell back into the city in a panic and Constantinople was taken. Not only did this lead to the fall of the
Roman world, but allowed the Ottomans to launch further attacks into Europe. This would lead
to the partitioning of the Balkans along religious lines; Something we’re still experiencing
the effects of today. However it would also result in Byzantine scholars fleeing to the
wealthy courts of Italy and France, kick starting the Renaissance. 5) BAY OF PIGS On 17th April 1961, 1,500 CIA trained Cubans
landed in the Bay of Pigs, with the intention of overthrowing the unsteady Castro regime.
However President John F. Kennedy was desperate to maintain deniability, and refused to back
up any Cuban invasion with American troops, or meaningful air support. This was the first mistake. The second was
before the force had even landed, a team of trigger happy frogmen scouted the bay, and
inadvertently alerted the Cuban authorities. By the time the main CIA force arrived, most
of the Cuban army was on the way. By 19th April, Kennedy at last authorised
air support for the beleaguered CIA; Bombers from Nicaragua and fighters from an aircraft
carrier near Florida. Except they took off from different time zones and no one had bothered
to synchronise watches. The bombers arrived an hour early with no
support whatsoever, and two B-26s were shot down. With dwindling supplies and no air cover,
the remaining CIA forces quickly surrendered and were ransomed back to the U.S. for
million. Far from toppling Castro, the invasion strengthened his regime, and would directly
lead to the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. 4) NAXOS It’s 499 BC and the island of Naxos in Aegean
Sea has declared independence from the Persian Empire. A local Persian administrator, Aristagoras,
has borrowed a vast amount of money, men and ships from Emperor Darius’ brother, and
sailed to reclaim the island. Problem was that Aristagoras was an unlikeable
guy, and quarrelled so much with the admiral of the fleet, Megabates (MEG-A-BART-EES),
that Megabates decided to sabotage the siege. He sent word to Naxos that a fleet was coming,
and they managed to repel Aristagoras’ invasion. Returning to Persia with his tail between
his legs, Aristagoras decided that instead of waiting to be dismissed, he’s instigate
his own rebellion. After all it worked for Naxos. The Ionian Revolt as it became known
lacked the power to defeat Persia in the field, and so called in Athens and Eretria for support. The revolt was eventually put down, but Darius
was now intent on punishing Athens, previously ignored by the Persians. Fifty years of Greco-Persian
wars ensued, serving to forge Greek identity and culture. Everything we regard as Ancient
Greek was crystallized as anti-Persian, and marked a clear divide between East and West. Because of one man’s inability to make friends,
later Western cultures such as Rome adopted Grecian culture, which would influence “The
West” for millenia to come. 3) BATTLE OF TRENTON By Winter 1776, George Washington’s Continental
Army was looking at defeat. Suffering from poor morale and British victories, desertion
was high, and Washington needed a decisive victory to prevent complete disintegration. He settled on attacking Trenton, in New Jersey,
however his army happened to be on the wrong side of the Delaware River. Washington’s
force of two and a half thousand men was pretty difficult to miss, and on spying the build
up, one loyalist ran to warn the Hessian garrison. However the date was 25th December 1776, and
Hessian Colonel Johann Rall had left instructions not to be disturbed. Sensing he won’t get
to see the colonel any time soon, the loyalist scrawled a note in English, and asked for
it to be passed on. For whatever reason though Rall failed to read the note, either because
he couldn’t understand the English, or because he was busy. The following morning Washington attacked,
taking the garrison completely by surprise. Rall was killed with the unread note still
in his pocket. The victory boosted morale and the following Spring saw the Continental
Army swell with recruits. The larger army bought time for the Spanish, French and Dutch
to effectively bankrupt Britain into submission. If Rall had read the note in time, perhaps
America would be a British colony to this day. 2) HIROSHIMA In July 1945 Japan’s looming defeat was
obvious to just about everyone except Japan’s military. A determined army could still inflict
thousands of casualties before the end, so in an effort to avert this the Potsdam Conference
issued an ultimatum. Either surrender or face “prompt and utter destruction”. When asked for a response by reporters, Japan’s
Prime Minister Kantaro Susuki responded with the phrase “Mokusatsu”. Now this term
can mean either “remain wisely silent or inactive”, or the more aggressive “to
treat with contempt”. An unknown U.S. translator is thought to have only provided one meaning
to the Joint Chiefs of Staff… the negative one. Ten days later, a bomb is dropped on
Hiroshima that kills 70,000 in an instant. But who is to blame? The translator? The U.S.
military for bombing anyway? Or Sasuki for being ambiguous? It isn’t clear, and many
believe there were other reasons to drop an atomic bomb. But this account suggests that
an era of atomic threats, and thousands of lives, hinged on one simple mistranslation.
However this was not the first bloodshed due to a language barrier. BATTLE OF JUMONVILLE GLEN Before the American Revolution, the British
and French had been antagonising each other in the New World for decades. The French would
claim land, the Brits would build a fort on it, everyone got angry. In 1754 the British sent a young officer called
George Washington to Pennsylvania, to protect Fort Necessity. It was during this tour of
duty that on 27th May 1754 Washington attacked without prevarication a French patrol, killing
their commander Joseph Coulon de Jumonville. Naturally Jumonville’s brother Louis wanted
revenge, and with a force of 700 men, captured Washington’s shiny new fort. Vastly outnumbered,
Washington was forced to surrender, and signed a document allowing him and his men to withdraw. Except Washington couldn’t read French,
which meant he couldn’t read what it was he was signing. Washington had inadvertently
admitted to assassinating Jumonville. When news of this reached London and Paris, it
caused a severe deterioration in relations, leading ultimately to war in 1756. The Seven Years War as it became known involved
almost every European country, spanned the globe, and led directly to the American and
French Revolutions. All that bloodshed, because George couldn’t read French. .
Battle of Stalingrad 1942-1943 – World War II DOCUMENTARY – على خلاف حروب العصور الماضية، حروب هذا العصر نادراً ما تحسم خلال معركة واحدة و حتى إذا وجدت معركة تغير مصير المتحاربين عادةً ما تكون طويلة المدة و أقل حسماً بطبيعتها مع ذلك المتابع الفطن سيجد المعارك الحاسمة في أي صراع و ستالينقراد كانت واحده من هذه المعارك التي حددت مصير الحرب العالمية الثانية هذه المعركة استمرت لستة أشهر، و كانت واحدة من أكثر المعارك دمويةً على الإطلاق بعد إجتياح بولندا خلال شهر و النرويج خلال شهرين و من ثم فرنسا و ما حولها خلال ستة أسابيع أحكم النازيون قبضتهم على القارة الأوروبية و هذا مكن هتلر من التركيز على الاتحاد السوفييتي في عام 1941م هجوم ألمانيا على الاتحاد السوفييتي مكنها من السيطرة على بيلا روسيا و أوكرانيا و دول البلطيق بالإضافة إلى مناطق أخرى و تمكنوا من حصار موسكو و ليننقراد بالرغم من ذلك عملية بربروسا فشلة في هزيمة السوفييت خلال حملة واحدة، ناهيك عن الخسائر الفادحة التي سببها الجيش الأحمر الهدف الرئيسي من هجوم ألمانيا عام 1942م كان ستاينقراد و احتياطيات النفط في القوقاز هتلر آمن بأن تدمير قدرة ستالينقراد الصناعية و السيطرة على احتياطيات الاتحاد السوفييتي من النفط و السيطرة على نهر فولقا المهم في عملية النقل داخل الدولة سيكون بمثابة ضربة حاسمة ضد الاتحاد السوفييتي بطبيعة الحال ستالينقراد تحمل قيمة رمزية للطرفين، لأنها مسمية تيمناً بستالين هذا الهجوم يرمز له بـ فال بلاو (الحالة الزرقاء) الجيش الألماني المتركز في أوكرانيا الشرقية قُسِّم إلى جزأين الجزء الأول تحت قيادة "فيلهام ليست" و المتكون من الجيش السابع عشر و جيش المدرعات الأول تم أمره بالزحف جنوباً باتحاه حقول النفط القوقازية الجزء الثاني و المتكون من الجيش الألماني السادس و جيش المدرعات الرابع و جيشان رومانيان وبالإضافة إلى جيش إيطالي و آخر مجري الهدف منه كان السيطرة على فولقا و ستالينقراد و تم إسناد قيادته إلى المشير "فيدر فان بوك" على الجانب السوفييتي، تم تعيين المشير "يرمنكو" لقيادة الجبهة الجنوب شرقية كما أُمر بالتخطيط للدفاع عن ساتلينقراد برفقة "كوموسوف كروشتف" أُنشئ الجيش الثاني و الستون لغرض الدفاع عن ستالينقراد تحت قيادة الفريق "فسيلي جويكوف" عملية "فال بلاو" كان من المخطط أن تبدأ في أواخر مايو 1942م لكن تم تأجيلها بسبب معركة كاركوف الثانية و حصار سيفستبول بالنهاية نجح الألمان لكنهم خسروا الوقت ولم يتمكنوا من البدأ إلا في أواخر يونيو بحلول العشرين من أغسطس تمكنت الجيوش الألمانية من عبور نهر "دون" و كانوا على أعتاب ستالينقراد قُبيل الأشتباك في ستاينقراد، أمرت القيادة السوفييتية بنقل الحبوب و الماشية من المدينة لكن 400,00 مدني تم أمرهم بالبقاء بدايةً قوى المحور أمتلكت 270,000 من القوات المسلحة و 500 مدرعة و 600 طائرة و 3000 مدفعية ضد 190,000 من القوات المسلحة و 400 مدرعة و 300 طائرة و 2200 مدفعية تحت قيادة السوفييت في ستالينقراد بدأت معركة ستالينقراد بقصف شديد عن طريق أقوى قوة جوية في ذلك الوقت "لوفتفافه" (القوات الجوية الألمانية) الغارات الجوية الألمانية في الثالث و العشرين من أغسطس تسببت بمقتل آلاف المدنيين و دمار كل المنشأت الخشبية بالإضافة إلى الحرائق بالبداية تمكنت القوات الجوية الألمانية من السيطرة على أجواء ستالينقراد مع خسارة السوقييت 201 طائرة في ثمان أيام فقط بغض النظر عن تفوق الألمان جوباً و برياً مقاومة السوفييت كانت ملهمة رغم كون غالبية سكان ستالينقراد من النساء و الأطفال عن طريق بناء التحصينات و الخنادق هذا لم يمنع الجزء الثاني من الجيش الألماني من الوصول إلى شمال و جنوب ستالينقراد في بداية سبتمبر هجوم مضاد ضخم بواسطة الجيش السوفييتي الرابع و العشرين و السادس و الستين ضد جيش المدرعات الرابع عشر الألماني تم هزيمته بمساعدة القوات الجوية الألمانية خسر السوفييت 30 مدرعة في هذا الهجوم الفاشل مصير مشابه انتظر هجوم الثامن عشر من سبتمبر مع تدمير القوات الجوية الألمانية 40 مدرعة سوفييتية بحلول الثاني عشر من سبتمبر تراجعت القوات السوفييتية إلى المدينة و بدأت معركة ضارية على كل مبنى و منزل ستالين أمر بمحاكمة عسكرية لاثنان إلى سبعة انسحابات غير مصرح بها لم يكن التراجع خياراً مطروحاً و آلاف الفارين تم إعدامهم هذه كانت إحداى العوامل التي ساهمت في تقوية إرادة المدافعين للمقاومة لكن المؤرخين يرون أن من الخطأ القول أن إرادة الموقاومة سببها الإكراه الأرقام الكبيرة للمتطوعين و بالذات المتطوعات للقنص و التمريض دليل على ذلك التعزيزات كانت مستمره بالقدوم من الجانب الآخر من الفولقا الإحتياطيات الإستراتيجية من منطقة موسكو و الطائرات من شتى أنحاء البلد تم نقلها إلى منطقة ستالينقراد مدافعين ستالينقراد كانوا يقاتلون على كل موقع خسروه في محاوله لاسترجاعه في أقرب وقت ممكن تغير المسيطر على محطة قطار ستالينقراد 14 مره خلال 6 ساعات مثال واضح على ذلك المناوشات داخل المدينة من الصعب وصفها حيث كانت فوضوية جداً و بطيئة و غير حاسمة سيطر الألمان في البداية على المرتفعات حول المدينة مثل "مامايف كوراقان" و "ليسايا كورا" بشكل لافت للنظر ثلاث مصانع سوفييتية تنتج الجرارت الحديدية و مدرعات T-34 اسستمرت بالإنتاج خلال هجوم الألمان القتال تمحور حول هذه الأهداف الثلاث لأشهر حتى تمكن الألمان من السيطرة عليها و إيقاف إنتاجها في أواخر أكتوبر قدم السوفيين أفضل ما لديهم للتقدم إلى الألمان لمنع الأخير من استعمال المدافع عامل آخر في معركة المدينة كان استخدام القناصين كان لدى الألمان قناصين متمرسين أكثر، لكن السوفييتين كانوا يتعلمون بسرعة و احد أشهر القناصين السوفييت "فيسلي زاتسيف" شارك بالمعركة قاتلاً أكثر من 200 عدو من ضمنهم 10 قناصين زاتسيف تمكن من تدريب أكثر من 36 قناصاً خلال المعركة هذه المجموعة استهدفت الضباط الألمان و التي أصبحت مشكلة رئيسية لقائد الجيش الألماني السادس "باولوس" بنهاية أكتوبر عام 1942م الجيش الألماني تمكن من السيطرة على 90% من ستالينقراد و وصل ضفة الفولقا التفوق الألماني الكلي في الجو كان أحد العوامل الحاسمة لهذا النصر المبدئي من السادس عشر حتى الخامس عشر من سبتمبر شنت القوات الجوية الألمانية 10000 غارة بينما قام السوفييت بشن أكثر من 11000 غارة جوية بين السابع عشر من يوليو حتى التاسع عشر من نوفمبر مع بداية الشتاء و المقاومة الشديدة للسوفييت، تباطئ تقدم الألمان إحدى نقاط الضعف الرئيسية للألمان كانت ضعف الخطوط الأمامية في ستالينقراد و التي كانت أطرافها تحميها القوات المتحالفة و التابعة للألمان هؤلاء الرجال كانوا أقل تحفزاً و سلاحاً و استعداداً من الألمان و طلب التعزيزات كان يتم تجاهله و بالتالي بعض المناطق التي تمتد من 1 إلى 2 كم، كانت محمية بـ 20 إلى 30 جندي فقط كان هناك تركيز كبير على ستالينقراد لدرجة أن الألمان أهملوا تعزيز المواقع الخلفية الطلبات العاجزة للتراجع و تعزيز المواقع الخلفية خلف نهر "دون" تم رفضها القيمة الرمزية لستاينقراد كانت عالية جداً بالنسبة لهتلر و الانسحاب منها سيشكل ضربة قاسية معنوياً بنهاية الخريف الجنرالان السوفييتيان "زوكوف" و "فسيلفسكي" ركزو تقريباً 800,000 رجل في منطقة ستالينقراد استعداداً لهجوم مضاد العملية أورانوس انطلقت في التاسع عشر من نوفمبر عام 1942م بهجوم عن طريق ثلاث جيوش تحت قيادة الجنرال "فاتوتين" الهدف من العملية كان اختراق أطراف الألمان ومن ثم محاصرة القوات الألمانية القوات السوفييتية نجحت بتحقييق هذا الهدف خلال أربع أيام في الثالث عشر من نوفمبر وتم محاصرة الجيش الألماني السادس الذي يتكون من 265,000 فرد بواسطة السوفييت بغض النظر عن وضع الجيش السادس اليائس الجزء الأول من الجيش استمر بعملياته في القوقاز حتى التاسع عشر من ديسمبر و بعدها تراجع و لم يكن يستطيع مساعدة الجيش السادس الجيش "دون" المتكون من 22 قسم أنشئ تحت قيادة المشير "مانستين" لمساعدة الجيش السادس مانستين أقنع هتلر بأن لا يأمر الجيش السادس بكسر الحصار مؤكدأً له بأن الجيش "دون" سيتمكن من إمداد الجيش السادس بواسطة القوات الجوية قائد القوات الجوية "قورنق" آمن بأن هذا ممكن لكن هذا النهج أثبت أنه كارثي حيث أن القوات الجوية لم يكن لديها القدرة على إمداد جيش كبير بالإضافة إلى كون جيش المدرعات الرابع يحتاج الوقود باستمرار لعملياته و أيضاً، الجيش السوفييتي استهدف القواعد الجوية القريبة من ستالينقراد التي كانت تستخدم للامداد الجوي و هذا قلل من امداد الجيش السادس المحاصر الهجوم الألماني لإنقاذ الجيش السادس من الحصار وصل لمقربة 48 كم من الجيش السادس لكنه فشل بالنهاية أيضاً و كذلك يعود السبب الى عدم تحرك الجيش السادس الوضع تفاقم بسبب الجوع وسط القوات الألمانية لأن الامدادات انقطعت الإستسلام كان الخيار الوحيد للجيش السادس لكن القيادة العليا الألمانية أمرتهم بالصمود قدر الإمكان لشد انتباه السوفييت لستالينقراد آخر محاولة لهتلر لمنع استسلام الجيش السادس كانت في الثلاثين من يناير عام 1943م عندما قام بترقية الجنرال باولوس لرتبة مشير على أمل أن باولوس لن يرغب بأن يكون أول مشير يخسر بتارخ ألمانيا العسكري لكن الجوع و نقص الذخيرة و تعطل المدافع و المدرعات أدى إلى استسلام الجيش السادس في الثاني من فبراير عام 1943م ستالينقراد كانت أول هزيمة كبيرة لألمانيا في أوروبا خلال الحرب العالمية الثانية ولقد أجبرت القيادة النازية لدعوة الشعب الألماني لحرب شاملة كما أسمتها و التي تعني بأن جميع مصادر الدولة سيتم استخدامها للضفر بنصر ساحق و هذا ثبت بأنه بلا فائدة، حيث أن السوفييت كانوا يكسبون زخماً على الجبهة الشرقية بالإضافة إلى كون الجيش البريطاني يهزم الألماني في شمال أفريقيا و يستعد للهبوط في إيطاليا برفقة حلفائه .