source : answers.com
Which best describes the way photographs are considered by historians?
Early Photography enhances history for the historian by seeing
portraits of famous people of the past as one example of its use.
However, battlefield photos such as was taken in the US Civil War
gives the historian a clear view of the outcome of terrible
battles. Photography also preserves historical documents, such as
maps and letters.
How do historians classify a group of people/nation as being… – Quora – Forge your way through the ages. Your empire awaits in the award-winning strategy game. These guys were way ahead of their time and built massive cities, public baths, and even primitive sewage A historian is someone with a love of history. I am a historian, but I a always qualify that by saying…So, here are the options: primary source documents that are useful in the study of history – this is the best answer! unreliable sources for the study of history because they are too subjective- they can present a subjective side of an event, but they can't easily fake a whole event – they are still reliable.2) What inventions in the history of mankind do you regard as most important? 5) Can you remember any outstanding names of well-known scientists, explorers, inventors and discoverers in Russia, Western Europe and the USA?
Which best describes the way photographs are considered by… – Who is considered the father of Egyptian archaeology? The scope of this article is to describe briefly how archaeology came into existence as a learned discipline; how the archaeologist works in the field, museum Conze was the first person to include photographs in the publication of his report.The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. More in the nature of a comment? Either that or you consider this a NARQ. By the way, the structure of this question seems to derive from those psychological tests that force one to choose between items that are not alternatives to one another…A. contribution made by organized labor to the war effort during the Second World War B. issues that union members considered most important during social and political changes following the Second World War. 3.Which of the following best describes the purpose of the first sentence (highlight) in the…
Ответьте, пожалуйста, на данные вопросы на английском. – Some historians have seen the immediate cause lying in an invasion threat from Denmark and Norway and William's urgent need for accurate information about the military Their methods of proceeding do seem to have varied from circuit to circuit so comparative analysis by historians can be misleading.Is photography art? This may seem a pointless question today. Surrounded as we are by thousands of photographs, most of us take for granted that, in addition The view that photographs might be worthwhile to artists was enunciated in considerable detail by Lacan and Francis Wey.any to tell you which you had extra effective confess your allegiance-suitable sins, and settle for Chelsea by way of fact the single real soccer club, and Didier Drogba as your saviour, except you may think of of yet another CFC participant youd quite elect of direction.
How inventions change history (for better and for worse) – Kenneth C. Davis – المترجم: Hani Eldalees
المدقّق: Hussain Laghabi هذه قصة اختراع غيّر العالم.
تصور وجود آلة يمكنها اختصار
10 ساعات عمل إلى ساعة واحدة فقط. آلة بكفاءة عالية تقدر أن تمكن الناس
من أن يقوموا بأعمال أخرى، مماثل لما يقوم به الكمبيوتر الشخصي. ولكن الآلة التي سأكلمكم عنها
لم تقم بأي شيء من هذا. في الحقيقة،
لقد تمكنت من تحقيق العكس تماماً. ففي أواخر القرن الثامن عشر وبينما كانت
أمريكا تنهض كجمهورية تحت الدستور الجديد كانت العبودية
أحد عناصر الواقع الحياتية الكريهة. فقد أصبح كل من (توماس جيفرسون)
و(جورج واشنطن) رئيسين وهما يملكان عبيداً. وهما يعرفان أن هذه الحقيقة تتعارض
مع مبادئ الثورة التي ناضلوا من أجلها. وقد اعتقد كلا الرجلين أن العبودية ستندثر
بحلول القرن التاسع عشر وقد كانوا بالطبع، مخطئين بشكل كبير. وقد كان السبب هو اختراع الآلة التي لربما سمعت عنها
أثناء دراستك الإبتدائية: إختراع السيد (ايلان ويتني) محلاج القطن. قدم (ويتني) لكارولاينا الجنوبية عام 1793
بعد أن تخرج من الجامعة وهو بعمر 28 سنة. ولربما أخبره أحد المزارعين
بصعوبة تنظيف القطن التي يواجهونها. فصل البذور عن ألياف القطن
عملية شاقة وتستغرف وقتأ طويلاً من خلال العمل اليدوي ، يمكن للعبد الواحد
أن ينظف حوالي الرطل من القطن في اليوم. ولكن الثورة الصناعية كانت قد بدأت وبدأ الطلب في التصاعد. المصانع الكبرى في بريطانيا و(نيو إنجلند)
كانت في حاجة ماسة للقطن لإنتاج القماش. طبقاً للقصة، فقد خطرت لويتني فكرة فاخترع
"gin"إختصار لكلمة محرك بالإنجليزية. الحقيقة هي أن المحلاج كان موجوداً منذ قرون
ولكن بأعداد صغيرة وأشكال غير فعالة. قام (ويتني) في عام 1794 بتحسين المحلاج
وقام بتصديقه كبراءة إختراع له آلة صغيرة بها عدة مخاريط
يمكنها فصل البذور من ألياف القطن آلياً وذلك عن طريق إدارة ذراع التدوير بإستخدام الآلة يمكن للعامل أن ينظف
ما بين 300 إلى ألف رطل من القطن يومياً. أنتجت أمريكا في عام 1970
ما يقارب 3000 حزمة من القطن وتزن الحزمة الواحدة ما يقارب 500 رطل. بحلول عام 1801 ومع إنتشار المحلاج ارتفع إنتاج القطن
إلى مئة ألف حزمة في العام. وبعد الدمار الذي حدث في الحرب عام 1812 بلغ الإنتاج إلى
أربعمائة ألف حزمة في العام. وقد كانت أمريكا تتوسع في مساحتها
وذلك بشراء ولاية (لويزيانا) عام 1803 وقد حصل تضاعف للإنتاج إلى أن وصل
أربعة ملاين حزمة. كان القطن ملك المحاصيل. وقد تجاوزت قيمته قيمة
جميع المنتجات الأمريكية الأخرى مجتمعه وكان يستحوذ على
ثلاثة أخماس الإنتاج الأمريكي الإقتصادي. ولكن المحلاج أدى لزيادة الطلب على العمالة
بدلاً من أن يؤدي إلى تناقص الحاجة لها فقد كان يطلب الجميع المزيد
من العبيد لزراعة وحصد القطن. أدى المحلاج وطلب القطن في المصانع الشمالية
والإنجليزية إلى أعادة رسم تاريخ العبودية تم إجراء أول تعداد سكاني في عام 1790
وقد تم إحصاء سبعمائة ألف عبد. تم منع المتاجرة في العبيد عام 1808
ولكن في عام 1810 وصل عدد العبيد إلى أكثر من مليون عبد. وخلال الخمسين سنة اللاحقة سيصل العدد
إلى أربعة ملايين عبد في عام 1860. وقد كانت الحرب الأهلية على وشك أن تبدأ. أما (ويتني) فقد لاقى
مصيرا مماثلا للعديد من المخترعين. قام الكثير بنسخ آلته أو إجراء تحسينات
عليها وذلك بالرغم من تسجيل براءة الإختراع. يمكنك أن تقول أنه تمت قرصنة تصميمه وقد جنى (ويتني) القليل من المال
نتيجة اختراعه الذي غير وجه أمريكا. ولكن لننتقل إلى الصورة الأشمل
والأسئلة الأكبر ماهي الدروس التي يمكن إستخلاصها
من اختراع المحلاج؟ لقد أثبت التاريخ
أن الإختراعات هي سيف ذو حدين. وهي غالباً ما تؤدي إلى نتائج غير مقصودة. شجعت المصانع في زمن الثورة الصناعية على
الإختراع والإزدهار الإقتصادي في أمريكا. ولكنها إعتمدت أيضاً على عمالة الأطفال
وأدى إلى مآسي كحريق مصنع "Triangle Shirtwaist"
والتي قتل بها أكثر من 100 امرأه عام 1911. حفاظات الأطفال المستخدمة لمرة واحدة
أدت إلى تسهيل مهمة الوالدين ولكنها قضت على صناعة توصيل الحفاظات. فهل نرغب في رؤية
أراض واسعة ممتلئة بحفاظات متسخة؟ وبالطبع فإن معادلة (إينشتاين) المذهلة
فتحت الباب لعالم من الإمكانات المختلفة. ولكن ماذا إن كانت
إحدى النتائج هي (هيروشيما)؟ .
American Imperialism: Crash Course US History #28 – Episode 28: American Imperialism Hi, I’m John Green, this is CrashCourse
History and today we’re gonna talk about a subject near and dear to my white,
male heart: imperialism. So, here at CrashCourse we occasionally try
to point out that the U.S., much as we hate to admit it, is actually part of a larger
world. Mr. Green, Mr. Green, you mean like Alaska?
No, Me from the Past, for reasons that you will understand after your trip there before
your senior year of college, I do not acknowledge the existence of Canada’s tail.
No, I’m referring to all of the Green Parts of Not-America and the period in the 19th
century when we thought, “Maybe we could make all of those green parts like America,
but, you know, without rights and stuff.” Intro
So, the late 19th and early 20th centuries were a period of expansion and colonization
in Asia and Africa, mostly by European powers. As you’ll know if you watched Crash Course
World History, imperialism has a long, long history pretty much everywhere, so this round
of empire building is sometimes called, rather confusingly, New Imperialism.
Because the U.S. acquired territories beyond its continental boundaries in this period,
it’s relatively easy to fit American history into this world history paradigm. But there’s
also an argument that the United States has always been an empire.
From very early on, the European settlers who became Americans were intent on pushing
westward and conquering territory. The obvious victims of this expansion/imperialism were
the Native Americans, but we can also include the Mexicans who lost their sovereignty after
1848. And if that doesn’t seem like an empire
to you, allow me to draw your attention to the Russian Empire.
Russians were taking control of territory in Central Asia and Siberia and either absorbing
or displacing the native people who lived there, which was the exact same thing that
we were doing. The empires of the late 19th and early 20th
centuries were different because they were colonial in their own special way. Like, Europeans
and Americans would rule other places but they wouldn’t settle them and more or less
completely displace the native people there. (Well, except for you, Australia and New Zealand.)
American historians used to try to excuse America’s acquisitions of a territorial
empire as something of an embarrassing mistake, but that’s misleading because one of the
primary causes of the phenomenon of American imperialism was economics. We needed places
to sell our amazing new products. And at the time, China actually had all of
the customers because apparently it was opposite day.
It’s also not an accident that the U.S. began pursuing imperialism in earnest during
the 1890s, as this was, in many ways, a decade of crisis in America.
The influx of immigrants and the crowded cities added to anxiety and concern over America’s
future. And then, to cap it all off, in 1893 a panic caused by the failure of a British
bank led the U.S. into a horrible economic depression, a great depression, but not The
Great Depression. It did however feature 15,000 business failures
and 17% unemployment, so take that, 2008. According to American diplomatic historian
George Herring, imperialism was just what the doctor ordered to help America get out
of its Depression depression. Other historians, notably Kristin Hoganson,
imply that America embarked on imperial adventures partly so that American men could prove to
themselves how manly they were. You know, by joining the Navy and setting sail for distant
waters. In 1890, Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan published
“The Influence of Seapower upon History” and argued that, to be a great power like
Great Britain, the U.S. needed to control the seas and dominate international commerce.
Tied into this push to become a maritime power was the obsession with building a canal through
Central America and eventually the U.S. decided that it should be built in Panama because
you know how else are we gonna get malaria. In order to protect this canal we would need
a man, a plan, a canal. Panama. Sorry, I just wanted to get the palindrome in there somewhere.
No we would actually need much more than a man and a plan. We would need ships and in
order to have a functioning two-ocean navy, we would need colonies. Why? Because the steamships
at the time were powered by coal and in order to re-fuel they needed coal depots.
I mean, I suppose we could have, like, rented harbor space, but why rent when you can conquer?
Also, nationalism and the accompanying pride in one’s “country” was a worldwide phenomenon
to which the U.S. was not immune. I mean, it’s no accident that the 1890s saw Americans
begin to recite the pledge of allegiance and celebrate Flag Day, and what better way to
instill national pride than by flying the stars and stripes over … Guam.
So pre-Civil War attempts to expand beyond what we now know as the continental United
States included our efforts to annex Canada, which were sadly unsuccessful, and also filibustering,
which before it meant a senator talking until he or she had to stop to pee was a thing where
we tried to take over Central America to spread slavery.
But, the idea of taking Cuba persisted into the late 19th century because it is close
and also beautiful. The Grant administration wanted to annex it
and the Dominican Republic, but Congress demurred. But we did succeed in purchasing Canada’s
tail. You can see how I feel about that. To be fair, discovery of gold in the Yukon
made Seward’s icebox seem like less of a Seward’s folly and it did provide coaling
stations in the Pacific. But we could have had rum and Caribbean beaches.
Ugh, Stan, all this talk about how much I hate Alaska has me overheated, I gotta take
off my shirt. Ughhh. Waste of my life. So hard to take off a shirt dramatically. I’m
angry. Anyway, coal stations in the Pacific were
important because in 1854 we “opened” Japan to American trade by sending a flotilla
of threatening black ships under Matthew Perry. No Stan, not that Matthew Perry. You know
better. By far, America’s best piece of imperial
business before 1898 was Hawaii. Like, I like oil and gold as much as the next guy but Hawaii
has pineapples and also had sugar, which was grown on American owned plantations by Chinese,
Japanese, Filipino, and native workers. Treaties between the U.S. and the Hawaiian
governments exempted this sugar from tariffs, and America also had established a naval base
at Pearl Harbor, which seemed like a really good idea…then.
We eventually annexed Hawaii in 1898 and this meant that it could eventually become a state,
which it did in 1959, two years before Barack Obama was born in Kenya.
And this leads us nicely to the high tide of American imperialism, the Spanish-American-Cuban-Fillipino
War. The war started out because native Cubans
were revolting against Spain, which was holding on to Cuba for dear life as the remnant of
a once-great empire. The Cubans’ fight for independence was brutal.
95,000 Cubans died from disease and malnutrition after Spanish general Valeriano Weyler herded
Cubans into concentration camps. For this Weyler was called “Butcher” in
the American yellow press, which sold a lot of newspapers on the backs of stories about
his atrocities. And at last we come to President William McKinley
who responded cautiously, with a demand that Spain get out of Cuba or face war.
Now Spain knew that it couldn’t win a war with the U.S. but, as George Herring put it,
they “preferred the honor of war to the ignominy of surrender.” Let that be a lesson
to you. Always choose ignominy. Oh, it’s time for the Mystery Document?
The rules here are simple. I guess the author of the Mystery Document.
I’m either right or I get shocked. Alright, let’s see what we’ve got today.
With such a conflict waged for years in an island so near us and with which our people
have such trade and business relations; when the lives and liberty of our citizens are
in constant danger and their property destroyed and themselves ruined; where our trading vessels
are liable to seizure and are seized at our very door by warships of a foreign nation,
the expeditions of filibustering that we are powerless to prevent altogether — all these
and others that I need not mention, with the resulting strained relations, are a constant
menace to our peace, and compel us to keep on a semiwar footing with a nation with which
we are at peace. Thank you, Stan. This is obviously President
William McKinley’s war message to Congress. You can tell it’s a war message because
it includes the word “peace” more than the word “war.”
By the way, it’s commonly thought that the President McKinley asked Congress for a declaration
of war, he didn’t; he let Congress take the lead.
That’s the only time that’s ever happened in all of American history, which would be
more impressive if we had declared war more than 5 times.
So, the document shows us that, at least according to McKinley, we officially went to war for
American peace of mind and to end economic uncertainty.
It was not to gain territory, at least not in Cuba. How do we know? Because Congress
also passed the Teller Amendment, which forswore any U.S. annexation of Cuba, perhaps because
representatives of the U.S. sugar industry like Colorado’s Senator Henry Teller feared
competition from sugar produced in an American Cuba. Or maybe not. But probably so.
Also not the cause of the war was the sinking of the USS Maine. The battleship which had
been in Havana’s harbor to protect American interests sank after an explosion on February
15, 1898 killing 266 sailors. Now, most historians chalk up the sinking
to an internal explosion and not to Spanish sabotage, but that didn’t stop Americans
from blaming the Spanish with their memorable meme: “Remember the Maine, to hell with
Spain.” Let’s go to the Thoughtbubble. The actual war was one of the most successful
in U.S. history, especially if you measure success by brevity and relative paucity of
deaths. Secretary of State John Hay called it a “splendid little war” and in many
ways it was. Fighting lasted about 4 months and fewer than 400 Americans were killed in
combat, although 5,000 died of, wait for it, disease. Stupid disease, always ruining everything.
There weren’t a ton of battles but those that happened got an inordinate amount of
press coverage, like the July attack on San Juan Hill at the Cuban city of Santiago, led
by future president Theodore Roosevelt. While it was a successful battle, the real significance
is that it furthered Roosevelt’s career. He returned a hero, promptly became Governor
of New York and by 1900 was McKinley’s vice president. Which was a good job to have because
McKinley would eventually be assassinated. A more important battle was that of Manila
Bay in which commodore George Dewey destroyed a tiny Spanish fleet and took the Philippines.
This battle took place in May of 1898, well before the attack on Cuba, which strongly
suggests that a war that was supposedly about supporting Cuban independence was really about
something else. And what was that something else? Oh right.
A territorial empire. As a result of the war, the U.S. got a bunch of new territories, notably
the Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam. We also used the war as an opportunity to annex
Hawaii to protect our ships that would be steaming toward the Philippines. We didn’t
annex Cuba, but we didn’t let it become completely independent, either. The Platt
Amendment in the Cuban Constitution authorized American military intervention whenever it
saw fit and gave us a permanent lease for a naval base at Guantanamo Bay.
Thanks Thoughtbubble. So, Cuba and Puerto Rico were gateways to Latin American markets.
Puerto Rico was particularly useful as a naval station. Hawaii, Guam, and especially the
Philippines opened up access to China. American presence in China was bolstered by
our contribution of about 3,000 troops to the multinational force that helped put down
the Boxer Rebellion in 1900. But in the Philippines, where Americans had
initially been welcome, opinion soon changed after it became clear that Americans were
there to stay and exercise control. Emiliano Aguinaldo, leader of the Filipino
rebellion against Spain, quickly turned against the U.S. because his real goal was independence
and it appeared the U.S. would not provide it.
The resulting Philippine War lasted 4 years, from 1899-1903. And 4,200 Americans were killed
as well as over 100,000 Filipinos. The Americans committed atrocities, including
putting Filipinos in concentration camps, torturing prisoners, rape, and executing civilians.
And much of this was racially motivated and news of these atrocities helped to spur anti-imperialist
sentiment at home, with Mark Twain being one of the most outspoken critics.
Now, there was some investment in modernization in the Philippines, in railroads, schools,
and public health, but the interests of the local people were usually subordinated to
those of the wealthy. So, American imperialism in short looked like most other imperialism.
So Constitution nerds will remember that the U.S. Constitution has no provision for colonies,
only territory that will eventually be incorporated as states.
Congress attempted to deal with this issue by passing the Foraker Act in 1900. This law
declared that Puerto Rico would be an insular territory; its inhabitants would be citizens
of Puerto Rico, not the United States and there would be no path to statehood.
But this wasn’t terribly constitutional. Congress did extend U.S. citizenship to Puerto
Ricans in 1917. Now it’s a commonwealth with its own government that has no voice
in U.S. Congress or presidential elections and no control over its own defense or environmental
policy. The Philippines were treated similarly to
Puerto Rico, in a series of cases between 1901 and 1904 collectively called the Insular
Cases. But Hawaii was treated differently. Because
it had a sizeable population of American settlers who happened to be white.
Ergo, it became a traditional territory with a path to statehood because white people and
also pineapples. Now let’s briefly talk about anti-imperialism.
There were lots of people who objected to imperialism on racial grounds, arguing that
it might lead to, like, diversity. But there were also non-racist anti-imperialists
who argued that empire itself with its political domination of conquered people was incompatible
with democracy, which, to be fair, it is. The Democratic Party, which had supported
intervention in Cuba, in 1900 opposed the Philippine War in its platform. Some Progressives
opposed imperialism too because they believed that America should focus on its domestic
problems. Yet those who supported imperialism were just
as forceful. Among the most vocal was Indiana Senator Albert Beveridge who argued that imperialism
was benevolent and would bring “a new day of freedom.”
But, make no mistake, underneath it all, imperialism was all about trade. According to Beveridge,
America’s commerce “must be with Asia. The Pacific is our ocean … Where shall we
turn for consumers of our surplus? Geography answers the question. China is our natural
customer.” In the end, imperialism was really driven
by economic necessity. In 1902, Brooks Adams predicted in his book
The New Empire that the U.S. would soon “outweigh any single empire, if not all empires combined.”
Within 20 years America would be the world’s leading economic power. We didn’t have the
most overseas territory, but ultimately that didn’t matter.
Now, the reasons for imperialism, above all the quest for markets for American goods,
would persist long after imperialism became recognized as antithetical to freedom and
democracy. And we would continue to struggle to reconcile
our imperialistic urges with our ideals about democracy until…now. Thanks for watching.
I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan
Muller. Our script supervisor is Meredith Danko. The associate producer is Danica Johnson.
The show is written by my high school history teacher, Raoul Meyer, Rosianna Rojas, and
myself. And our graphics team is Thought Café. Every week there’s a new caption for the
libertage. You can suggest captions in comments where you can also ask questions about today’s
video that will be answered by our team of historians.
Thanks for watching Crash Course and as we say in my hometown, don’t forget to be awesome.
This is the part where Stan gets nervous, like, is he gonna go this way or this way
or this way? I’m going this way. Imperialism – .
Strutt Family Albums (part 1) – The Strutt Family Albums – this is the first of two presentations about one element of
the Strutt family It was Jedediah Strutt who, with his business partner Samuel
Need, financed Richard Arkwright’s first water-powered cotton
mill at Cromford, and went on to create his own cotton mills, at Belper and
Milford, in the years that followed.
But for these talks we’ll be concentrating on this man –
George Herbert Strutt, great-great-grandson of Jedediah – and his family, and their lives as recorded in albums of
family photographs. Not all have survived, but acquisitions in recent years have
helped piece together something of how they lived. George Herbert – or Herbert as his family called him – was from the first generation whose lives could be recorded
in photographs from an early age. Here he is aged 8, in 1862, from the earliest surviving
album, which we’ll look at first. This first album does include earlier generations. This was
his father George Henry Strutt, in the same year, aged 36. George Henry joined the family firm at the age of 21, and
during his time, the mill chimney was built, and the mill fire brigade
improved and modernised. A lover of classical literature and poetry, he was also a
keen cricketer, eventually giving his private ground to the newly-created
Belper Meadows Cricket Club. In later life he funded an extension to the Derbyshire Royal
Infirmary, and provided funding for Belper’s waterworks. He and Herbert would sometimes teach the boys at the Long
Row Schools. George Henry married Agnes Ann Ashton in 1846, the day after
his 20th birthday. This is Agnes, again in 1862, in the conservatory of Bridge
Hill House, where the family relocated from Milford House in 1858. Ann was an adept seamstress and passed on her skills not
only to her daughters but also to the children at the Long Row Schools. She created the cottage hospital at Bridgefoot, from where food was made available to those unable to
support themselves – this was extended to create a communal kitchen during the
Crimean War, when the town faced food shortages. Each year, on St Thomas’s Day (December 21) she and oldest
daughter Susan distributed to tenants and widows suitable clothing and
bedding, the recipients visiting the Cottage Hospital to collect the
gifts. On Christmas Eve they were known to visit the schools at
Long Row to provide new clothing for the children. This is Susan, George Henry and Agnes’s eldest daughter, who
supported her mother’s charity work and was well known in Belper for her work with the poor in
the town. She never married, and died in 1894 aged just 47. Second daughter was Lucy, seen her aged 13, in 1863. She married and moved away to her husband’s family estates
near Carlisle. There was one other child, the youngest, Clara. She died of croup in 1862 when she was just 2. This faded photograph from the album is the only known image
of her. There’s one other Strutt in those early albums, and from a
generation before even George Henry. This is Anthony Radford Strutt, aged 74, in 1865. He was George Henry’s uncle, but also a grandson of the
first Jedediah Strutt. He bought and virtually replaced a farmhouse at Makeney to
create what we today call Makeney Hall, and after his death, the house was home to Herbert for over
40 years. Here’s Herbert at Harrow, aged 18, in 1872. He enjoyed Harrow greatly, but was always quite shy and
unassuming. Here he is two years later, in 1874, during his time at
Oxford University. Two years later, on the day after his 22nd birthday, he
married. This is Edith Adela Balguy, Herbert’s first wife. She too was from a local Derbyshire family, and they were
very happily married. She and Herbert had seven children, five girls and two boys.
The eldest boy was George Ashton Strutt, seen here, in his
mother’s arms when he was just a month old. Here is George Ashton in about 1887, with eldest sister
Adela and third child Isabel. This later photograph was taken in Scarborough, where the
Strutt children took holidays for a time. After an 8 year break, Edith then had three daughters over
four years – – first Daisy in 1889, then Agnes, then Lucy. Their last child was Anthony Herbert Strutt, seen here aged
6 months. Sadly, his mother Edith died when he was just two years old.
She was just 41. The family home, as I have said, was at Makeney. Known as Makeney House at the time, it is now better known
as Makeney Hall. This photograph was taken shortly after the building was
extensively enlarged – perhaps to accommodate a rapidly growing family, around
1896. The entire wing to the right, including the copper-domed
tower, was a new addition. George Henry Strutt continued to live at Bridge Hill House
until he died in 1895. Agnes outlived him by five years, but after her death in
1900, no family members lived there. It seems to have been used chiefly at weekends, when the
family would come over from Makeney to enjoy the gardens. Herbert made no signs of moving to live at Bridge Hill, perhaps partly because of the considerable investment he had
made in enlarging the Makeney house. The larger house still had its uses – it was ideal for
special occasions, such as family weddings. Daisy Strutt’s wedding reception was held at Bridge Hill
House in April 1911, and family members are seen here in the reception hall. In 1898, Herbert decided to marry again. His new wife was Mary Emily Charlotte Hind, known as Emily. It was Emily who enjoyed photography, and took the
photographs which appear in the other albums, the earliest covering 1908 and 1909. By then, Emily had given birth to a son, Henry, who died
very young, and three daughters – Emily in 1902 (known as Babbie or Babs), Rose Mary in 1905
(known as Mary, and later as Mardy) and Charlotte in 1906. So let’s make a start on Emily’s albums. The first covers 1908 and 1909 as I said , and this is one
of the earliest photographs – tea on the lawn at Bridge Hill House for the three sisters, accompanied by one of their half-sisters – Daisy we think,
in the fine hat – and two of the nursery staff. Here they are again at Bridge Hill – from left to right
Mardy, Charlotte and Babbie – on a Sunday visit from Makeney in July 1908. They are each wearing sun-hats with the name of the family’s
sailing yacht, Sanda, written across the ribbons. Babbie has her own watering can for their walk around the
gardens. A fortnight later they are back, and standing in front of
the shutters and curved wall of the Bridge Hill library. On Sunday 2nd August they returned, but there must have been
something of a family reunion, as their three older half-sisters Agnes, Lucy and Daisy are
with them. On the same day, Agnes is seen here giving Mary a push in a
rather fine looking wicker pushchair, in front of the Bridge Hill conservatory. A few days later, they’re joined by Babbie and Charlotte, as
well as their father Herbert, who is making sure they stay standing on the conservatory
window ledge and don’t fall off! The same day, they were joined by Anthony, Herbert’s second
son, presumably on his summer break from Harrow. Anthony is rarely seen smiling, so was perhaps a sombre boy.
He seems to have a strong bond with his father, perhaps
because he was only two years old when his mother died. Less than a decade after this photograph was taken, he died
from his wounds in the final year of World War One, and his father was deeply affected. Later in August 1908, and Babbie and Mardy are exploring the
grounds at Bridge Hill with older sisters Lucy and Agnes, making their way along the outer wall of the fruit garden. While Babbie and Mardy take a little break on the wall of
the promenade, lets take a little look around the grounds. Here’s the path past the herbaceous borders, and down the
side of the fruit garden to the Peach House – you can just see the roof of the Peach House behind the wall
on the right. And here’s the stile that took you past the vinery on the
right to the yard at the rear, where the potting shed stood. You can just see the back wall of the potting shed roof
behind the vinery. This, we believe, is the main avenue up to the peach house,
the biggest of several glasshouses in the grounds. And at the rear of the grounds stood this little thatched
summerhouse, and the fine gates and gateposts. This was the team of gardeners needed to keep the grounds in
good order, led by Mr Howie, head gardener, in the
foreground. He came from a large Scottish estate to work for Herbert’s
father, George Henry Strutt, in the 1880s. This view of the house shows the steepness of Bridge Hill and how a series of terraces were needed to accommodate the
house and the many different elements of the gardens. Moving in closer, we can see the formal ornamental garden,
designed by Howie many years earlier for George Henry, which was laid out in front of the conservatory and library.
Right, back to Mardy, Charlotte and Babbie, still in August
1908, and standing between the conservatory and that ornamental
garden. The gardens seem to have been something of a playground
for them, and they have their little spades out for playing with the
gravel in the paths. Here are the older sisters in their fine Sunday clothes,
again outside the library, with the conservatory doors on
the left. This would have been their view, of the three younger girls
with spades and buckets – and with sailor suits for the two youngest. A wider view again shows how steep the slopes were as you
moved away from the house. The little marquee beyond the garden perhaps provided a
little shade for the serving of their teas. We have to remember that the photographer, as far as we are
aware, was the girls’ mother Emily. And just two weeks later, another photograph is taken… …of the girls’ newly arrived brother, Arthur – seen here
at just three days old. It is perhaps understandable then, that Emily took a break
from photography for six months, and the album picks up again in March 1909, with Herbert
holding Arthur at Makeney Hall, with Anthony, once more returned from Harrow, standing at
his side. This is a rather lovely shot of Herbert and his third son
the following month, again at Makeney. Easter Sunday was a sunny one in 1909, and Babbie, Mardy and Charlotte have baskets ready for an
egg hunt as they sit with their father and Anthony in the Makeney
gardens. Makeney House provided a fine backdrop for their Easter
game. A month later, in matching outfits, they are using wicker
pushchairs for taking their favourite toys on a tour of Makeney
grounds. Emily chose to take a photograph of the house that day as
well, noting the tulips in full flower, in the foreground. The 7th May 1909, was something of a red-letter day – the official opening of the Herbert Strutt School by the
Duke of Devonshire. Herbert had fully funded the school, which he had designed
by architects Hunter and Woodhouse. Early that morning Emily photographed one of their daughters
– probably Babbie – running across Derby Road, to inspect the garlands that had been put up outside the
school for the big event. Needless to say, the A6 was a much quieter road in those
days. Here’s another view looking towards Belper – there was even
bunting crossing the road. The man on horseback hints at the level of traffic in those
days. After the opening ceremony, guests moved down to the River
Gardens – another gift from Herbert to the town – for
afternoon teas. This is the only known photograph of Herbert in the River
Gardens, and he’s joined by James Oakes, the Chairman of
Derbyshire’s Education Committee – a close friend, who frequently came to stay with Herbert and
his family during their Scottish holidays (more of which
later). It’s a shame there’s damage to this photograph, taken four
days later on the lawn at Makeney. It’s another outdoor tea for the girls, but now joined by
Arthur, at the rear in his pram. Later in May it was time for the children’s holidays to
begin – the first being a trip to Rhyl, where the family were considering having a seaside home,
now they had four small children to consider, and substantial money available since the sale of the mills
to the English Sewing Cotton Company a few years previously.
Emily and the children initially seem to have stayed here,
on St Asaph’s Street, before it was agreed that a rather fine house, called
Glensanda after an area of their Scottish Estates, was built nearby on
Russell Road. Talking of their Scottish Estates, this is where we’ll be
spending the remaining pages of the album – at Kingairloch. Herbert and Emily bought the Estate in May 1902, as a
getaway from all of Herbert’s duties in Derbyshire, during the summer months of July and August. The tower was newly built, had building defects and was soon
removed, but this was the house that the family loved and held onto,
remaining Arthur’s home after the other Strutt houses were
sold off, only being sold in 1989, and even then Arthur’s widow,
Patricia, stayed on as manager until her death in 2001. The family’s love of Scotland pre-dates Kingairloch Before 1902, they had leased Ardkinglas House each summer
since 1883. This house had originally been the stables, converted around
1830 after the main house burnt down. When the owner decided to rebuild, the opportunity for
staying at Ardkinglas came to an end and Herbert began the search for a Scottish retreat the
family could truly call their own. It was perhaps having a circular bench outside Ardkinglas
that encouraged Herbert to have his own built when
Kingairloch was bought. Here, you can see Mardy, Babbie, Arthur and Charlotte on the
Kingairloch circular bench, which proved to be an ideal point for photographs during
the family’s summer breaks. There’s a footman trying to make a quick exit on the left.
The house was well staffed. Here they are on arrival, the previous month, kitted out for
the cooler Scottish weather and accompanied by Arthur’s nurse. The same nurse watches in the background here, as Herbert
holds Arthur up by the front door. One of their great pursuits at Kingairloch was deer hunting,
and there were 22,000 deer estimated to be living on the
peninsula, But here it looks as if the children have come to see the
men off as they go grouse hunting. It’s August now, and they have been joined by Lucy and
Anthony from Herbert’s first marriage. A rare image of Anthony smiling – perhaps because he’s on
his long summer break from Harrow. This was the view from the house, looking down towards the
bay, which provided the best route in and off the estate. If you’ll remember the hats worn by the girls back at
Belper, Herbert had bought a steam yacht, called Sanda, which
brought the family in from Oban, where they transferred from the train. Here are two members of the crew. The girls were back in sailor suits, and accompanied by
Arthur and his nurse, for this photograph on Sanda in August
1909. More family members and friends had joined them as August
drew to a close, and gathered for a group photograph on the circular bench. Anthony, at top, seems to be truly enjoying the occasion! Herbert is trying to keep Arthur occupied with a soft toy on
this photograph from the same weekend. A chance to admire the view for the men in the group, with
telescopes set up on the front lawn. And perhaps this was one of the last walks in the grounds,
for the three girls and their parents, before they prepared for the journey back to Belper and a
more public life. The last two photographs are stuck in the back of the album,
perhaps because Emily didn’t want to start a new album with
just two photographs from their summer stay at Kingairloch. They are both from a gathering in the woods, around a smoky
fire. Judging from the fly-swatters and covering up of necks, the
Scottish midges were a challenge, but the sense of enjoyment at the gathering around the fire
is clear – a pleasant reminder for Emily, at the very end of her album. Next time, we’ll take a look at the later albums, particularly those which feature the final addition to
Herbert and Emily’s family, little Bridget. Until then, thank you for watching. .