World News Headlines

Coverage of breaking stories

Which best summarizes the flow of energy in a producer? sun à adp à muscle cells sun à mitochondria à c6h12o6 sun à chloroplasts

source : allnswers.com

Which best summarizes the flow of energy in a producer? sun à adp à muscle cells sun à mitochondria à c6h12o6 sun à chloroplasts

The statement that best summarizes the flow of energy in a producer is;Sun > Chloroplasts > mitochondria.

Explanation;During the process of photosynthesis; which plant uses to make their own food, light energy from the sunlight is used together with water and carbon dioxide to produce simple sugars. This process takes place in organelles called Chloroplasts. This energy is converted from light energy to chemical energy stored in simple sugars. Then the simple sugars are then used in the process of cellular respiration which takes place in the mitochondria, where glucose is broken down to release energy in the form of ATP, the conversion is from chemical energy to chemical energy. The energy is then used in the performing of cellular activities. 

Food chains & food webs (article) | Ecology | Khan Academy

Food chains & food webs (article) | Ecology | Khan Academy – Practice: Energy flow through ecosystems. Next lesson. Population ecology. Sort by: Top Voted. Flow of energy and matter through ecosystems. Impact of changes to trophic pyramids. Up Next. Impact of changes to trophic pyramids. Biology is brought to you with support from the Amgen Foundation.Producers are found at the bottom of the pyramid because producers… answer choices . provide energy for consumers. Organisms can be classified according to the flow of energy in a food chain. Which is the correct order of the flow of energy? Which best summarizes the relationship between ocean depth and the availability of sunlightAnswer: 3 📌📌📌 question Which best summarizes the flow of energy in a producer? Sun à ADP à muscle cells Sun à mitochondria à C6H12O6 Sun à chloroplasts à mitochondria Sun à mitochondria à chloroplasts – the answers to estudyassistant.com

Unit 7 Review | Science Quiz – Quizizz – These functional aspects include such things as the amount of energy that is produced by photosynthesis, how energy or materials flow along the many steps in a food chain, or what controls the rate of decomposition of materials or the rate at which nutrients (required for the production of new organic matter) are recycled in the system.As illustrated in Figure 2, as energy flows from primary producers through the various trophic levels, the ecosystem loses large amounts of energy. The main reason for this loss is the second law of thermodynamics, which states that whenever energy is converted from one form to another, there is a tendency toward disorder (entropy) in the system.cost of energy. On the other hand, there may be a lack of confidence concerning their survivability and de-sign [3]. Figure 2.1.2.1 illustrates some of the types. 2.1.3 The Flow of the River and Siting Considerations The best performance and the highest power produc-tion is made by a smooth linear flow of water at high velocity [5].

Unit 7 Review | Science Quiz - Quizizz

Which best summarizes the flow of energy in a producer – Energy in Producers flows from the Sun to the chloroplasts to the mitochondria.Brainly User Sun Chloroplasts Mitochondria is the best flow of energy for a Producer.In summary, all living organisms require energy for both survival and reproduction. Energy is the ability to do work, where work is done when a force moves an object. While the sun provides energy

Rice Straw And Rice Husks As Energy Sources—comparison Of Direct Combustion  And Biogas Production | SpringerLink
Ecosystems And Restoration Ecology
Solved: Key Concept Life In An Ecosystem Requires A Source... | Chegg.com
Energies | December-2 2020 - Browse Articles
An Improved Artificial Ecosystem Optimization Algorithm For Optimal  Configuration Of A Hybrid PV/WT/FC Energy System - ScienceDirect
5 Battery Electric Vehicles | Assessment Of Technologies For Improving  Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy—2025-2035 | The National Academies Press
PSATINMSQT® PSATINMSQT®
Estimating Regionalized Planning Costs Of Green Infrastructure And  Low-Impact Development Stormwater Management Practices: Updates To The US  Environmental Protection Agency's National Stormwater Calculator | Journal  Of Sustainable Water In The
Food Webs: From Traits To Ecosystem Functioning (Part II) - Adaptive Food  Webs
3.3 Energy Flow In Ecosystems
Question Ecosystems Contain Producers, Consumers, And Decomposers. Which  List Below Includes An - Brainly.com

Charts Are Like Pasta – Data Visualization Part 1: Crash Course Statistics #5 – Hi, I’m Adriene Hill, and this is Crash
Course Statistics.
So, for the last few episodes we’ve discussed
ways to summarize data using numbers. We used measures of central tendency and measures
of spread. But sometimes it can be helpful to actually
*see* your data in addition to having numbers to describe it. Data visualizations are important to understand
because you’ll see them everyday. In the news, on Facebook, in magazines. Maybe I’ll make an infographic of all the
places we see data visualizations. INTRO There are two main types of data that we might
encounter: categorical and quantitative. Quantitative data are quantities, numbers
that have both order and consistent spacing. For example, how many ounces of olive oil
are in each American home. If three families told you how many ounces
of olive oil they have, you could put them in a meaningful order–from least to greatest,
or greatest to least. This order also has consistent spacing, an
increase in 1 ounce of olive oil is the same whether you go from 0 to 1 ounce, or from
100 to 101 ounces. These properties allow us to do simple math
with the data–like taking the mean or calculating the standard deviation. Categorical data doesn’t have a meaningful
order or consistent spacing. For example, favorite kind of pasta. You might like penne, rotini, linguine, or
even Angel Hair, but there’s no objective way to put those pastas into a meaningful
order. Is penne truly better than linguine? Where does rotini fit in? It would be pasta madness to try to put them
in order. The simplest way to display categorical data
is to make a frequency table. A frequency table shows you all of the categories
and the number of data points that fall in that category (in other words, its frequency). To change a frequency table into a relative
frequency table, we just need to take each raw frequency and divide by the number of
total points to get a decimal between 0 and 1. Some of you may be used to reading decimals
as percentages, but if you’re not, just multiply by 100 to get the percentage. For linguine we have 10/50 which is 0.2 or
20% of the group. Relative frequency tables have the benefit
of being easy to compare. No matter what we’re measuring or how many
data points we have, it’s easy to compare percentages. If 20% of people like linguine, we can see
that’s a smaller percent than the 67% of people who like pineapple on pizza or greater
than the 10% of my family who thinks statistics are scary. The relative frequency table for favorite
pasta might look like this. We can also add more than one variable to
our frequency table. We could ask people to rate their favorite
pasta sauce and make a combined frequency table, or a contingency table, of both pasta
and sauce preference. If I were planning a party, and needed to
pick some pasta for the group, my best bets would be Rotini with Red Sauce and Penne with
Red or White sauce. And because I’m planning a party and because
I’m having food, I did look it up: the chance of death by choking on food in the US in a
given year is 1 in 100,686 But, sometimes we don’t want just numbers
in our visualization. Earlier in the series, I talked about how it can be hard to wrap your head around numbers–especially when they get really big or really small. There are other more visual ways to represent
categorical data. One way to do this is with a bar chart. A bar chart uses the frequencies that we saw
in our frequency table to create bars that have a height equal to the frequency. That way, we can compare the height of bars
instead of looking at raw numbers. Here’s a bar chart representing the pasta
data we saw in our original frequency table. You can see that penne is by *far* the most
chosen pasta, and how it compares to Angel Hair. Bar charts display a lot of information in
a very simple graph, they can also display the frequencies of multiple variables. Let’s say we want to compare each of these
pasta types with either white or red sauce. We can either stack frequencies so it gives
us the same information as our contingency table, or we can have bar charts side by side. Pie charts are another way of displaying categorical
data. They use the relative frequency of categories
to portion out pieces of a Circle, just like a pie. The higher the relative frequency, the bigger
the slice of pie a category gets. Pie charts are useful because our eyes are
pretty good at comparing slices. Our pasta data in a pie chart looks like this. Pie charts are great at visually displaying
one variable. But they struggle to effectively display more
than one variable, like our pasta and sauces contingency table. Another way to display categorical data is
a pictograph. Pictographs represent frequency with pictures. A picture, like the ball in this basketball
participation graph, will represent some number of units, say 100 kids. So if Riverdale High had 550 students participate
in their basketball programs, then the graph would show 5.5 basketballs. Sometimes pictographs represent frequencies
by increasing the size of the picture instead and it’s not wrong, but it’s more difficult
for us to visually compare, especially for small differences, which can be misleading. Plus, at a casual glance, we don’t know
what the size difference means. Are we comparing the diameter of the basketballs? Or are we comparing their areas? *BREAKING NEWS* This is Channel 2 News. Looks like all you students out there are
really hitting the books! Data from the US Department of Education shows
the graduation rate has been climbing! So way to go everybody! You’re passing the test of life with flying
colors! Let’s push that stack of books even higher! So, that last pictograph…not at all to scale. See how the stacks of books are not proportionate? It shows a difference of 5% (from 75% – 80%)
with a stack of books that is over *double* the height of the 75% stack. This makes the difference seem huge because
the axis doesn’t start at 0. And yet, an increase of 80-81% is shown by
two stacks that are BARELY different in height, even though the 5% difference looks huge. Always keep on eye on those axes. Let’s loop back to quantitative data, which
as you’ll remember, have a meaningful order and consistent spacing. Frequency tables can be used to display quantitative
data, like age, or height, or ounces of olive oil in your house. We just have to create categories out of our
quantitative data first. We do that with a process called “binning”. Binning takes a quantitative variable and
bins it into categories hthat are either pre-existing or made up. For example I can say that 0-15 oz of olive
oil is “Very Little”, 16-32 oz is “Average”, 33-49 oz is “A Lot” and 50+ oz is “Excessive”–like
suspiciously Excessive. Like Will’s 14 cats excessive. Why do you need so much olive oil? Anyway, once I’ve binned my data, I can
create a frequency table or relative frequency table, just like with our pasta example. It might look something like this. Binning is most useful when there’s pre-existing
“bins” for our data. Like, you can divide age-in-years into the
bins “Child”, “Teen”, “Adult” and “Older Adult” because those are pre-existing
categories. We can also take a score on a depression test
and create two bins: “clinically depressed” and “not clinically depressed”. You can see from this example that bins don’t
HAVE to be equally spaced, but if you see quantitative data that has been binned, make sure that the way it was divided up was appropriate for the situation. Unequally spaced bins can be misleading unless
there’s a real world distinction to back it up. Say politician X wants to make himself look
popular, but it seems like people in their 30’s really hate him. (probably because he said that the reason
they can’t afford a house is their brunch habit). Politician X wants to hide the fact that over
80% of people in their 30’s said they won’t vote for him. So he does some “re-binning”. Traditionally the data are binned roughly
by decade 18 years old to 29 years old, 30 years old to 39 years old, 40 to 49…you
get the point. But Mr. X needs to hide these hateful 30-somethings
in the data. The old chart looked like this: But Politician X decided to split up the 30-somethings
to make his numbers look better: He moved the data around to hide the glaring
group of 30 year old dissenters. Instead of showing the truth that 30-somethings
despise him, we see a more…positive view of his popularity. By splitting the 30-somethings and putting
some of them into two other, larger groups, he can obscure their political dissatisfaction. Looking at this new table, he’d win the
popularity vote in each of the 5 new bins. If I don’t show you the number of voters
per bin, it seems legit… Another categorical graphing method we can
apply to quantitative data is bar charts. When we use bar charts for quantitative data,
we squish the bars together so that they’re touching and we call them histograms. The bars are squished together because the
data are ‘continuous’ which means the values in one bar flow into the next bar,
there’s no separation like in our categorical bar charts. In histograms, like bar charts, the height
of the bars tell us how frequently data in a certain range occur. A histogram also gives us information about
how the data is distributed. We can estimate where the mean, median and
mode of our data are as well as see how spread out the data is. Look at this histogram for our olive oil data. For this histogram, we can see that the range
of the data is approximately 85 since it covers value 0-85 ounces and that it’s right skewed
(the tail is to the right), and that it’s center is around 25 ounces. The histogram gives us more information about
the data than a frequency table does, but they’re still obscuring WHAT the specific
data values are. If you read the news–or watch the news–you
will see these representations over and over and over. You will likely see far more of these charts
and graph than you will create. The big take away here, as a consumer of these
things, is to look closely at what the visualization is actually telling you. Or maybe trying to hide from you. These charts and graphs give us another way
to comprehend numbers–to see the big picture. Thanks for watching! I’ll see you next week. .

How Does Music Production Work? Learn with Free Software [Bandlab Tutorial – Part 1] – shortcuts because it will improve your work flow the section between work for both sites and since this to or chromebook If you're a music educator and Look deep inside and you find the right Eric.
How this is mix nature, teacher Tv and I'll see you next time contact me connect with me on socials my name is And learn from each other and if you wanna music educators to connect facebook group. This is a great community for please join the mix major teacher connect, kids grades three through 12 and of course, use here at mix major and it works great with first re mixes this is the same process that I process for engaging students in creating their band lab and I'll show you my step by step students so in the next video we'll continue with can you see yourself using banned laugh with your colleagues and in the comments let me know how video a thumbs up and share it with your video was helpful if it was please give this the upper right and we're done so I hope this and now I can save my project by clicking save in On mute last step is to output of these five tracks to avoid this the would hear everything double, since this is the left, you can see the wave form for the entire project. So if I slide this all the way to the by dragging it from my finder window back into my my desktop and see what the audio file looks like give us whatever name I like and I can go back to I'll go ahead and save this to my desktop. I can and click download to save space, let's, just download the highest quality mp. Three which is this one right here the bottom the smaller sized files at the For now uncompressed audio files the bigger size files at choices for different quality mp three 's and click on mixed out as and you'll see, some to do click on the download button at the bottom with a single wave form band lab mix is very easy we'll have a single audio file of the composition different ingredients and once the export is done exporting like baking a cake. These are the composition. What does that mean. Well think of and assessing what weave done, making adjustments along the way until we come to a final composition we're now ready to export our energy and vice versa now, let's take a listen decreases increases again and then decreases sound that you have playing at a time the more So now that we're finished arranging our audio towards the end in general. The more elements of That the energy starts off low increases before, and after it and you'll also each set of four bars does not match the ones four bars there is a change in the pattern and before we listen to it you'll notice that every the end so this is the finish composition and Middle build. It back up and then drop it towards increase the energy drop, it somewhere near the the composition and I'm gonna keep the energy low composition and keep in mind at the beginning of you're watching me and fast forward finish. This entire clip to where you want it. So right now audio clip make the loop shorter and drag the Arranging your sound would be to click on the that section and click delete and an alternative section of audio that I've sliced, I click on and your speed so now, if I want to remove a I highly suggest you learning all these keyboard on shortcuts and hear all the keyboard shortcuts. shortcuts click the gear icon at the bottom click you wanna see a list of all the other keyboard the audio and click s and there it goes and, if gonna go ahead and place to play it here click on shortcut s so if I wanna cut right here, I'm Slices more efficient which is using the keyboard way it works in an lab the way. It doesn't slice just here, but that's the audio loop. I'm not sure why it does, it that right at the play ahead and at the end of the slice you'll see that the audio has been cut your play had anywhere on the timeline right click the audio you want to slice and then select command. This is one way to slice the audio place order to do that, you'll need to know the slice mind, let's start carving out our audio and in this section between nine and 13 so, with that in through five and this must also be different from five and nine must be different than bars. One of four bars before it and after it, for example, every set of four bars is different from the set this composition, that's this make sure that give you one set of directions for the rest of happen with the energy in each section and I'll different sections based on what we want to off with one big block of audio, then carve out that a sculptor would work with clay we'll start carving out our composition almost the same way don't need it anymore and we're gonna start And, let's turn the cycle button off since we way to 33 repeat this process for all five loops the link button and dragged to the right. All the composition click on the first loop and click on gonna take this beat and turn it into an actual out until you see bar number 33 right here we're By hitting command right, arrow, as well, so zoom hitting command and left arrow. You can zoom zoom out so we can see more of the timeline by it's not a composition just yet, let's click on this button here to hide all the packs and, let's pretty cool beat that's running on a loop, but rename. The first one drums the second one high one, the last one music too, so now we have a hats, the third one base the fourth one music So now that we've picked out all of our sounds, let's rename our tracks to get organized on the let's listen to from one another is because, when we play them at the same time, the ear will be able to Altogether distinguish between the two more easily so now, the reason why we want these loops to be distinct here, which has more notes and faster delivery and we're gonna hear how these sound, together somewhat slow. I'm gonna choose this loop right There aren't that many notes and the delivery is example, we can see in our previous music loop. characteristics than the music. We just added for one more music loop that has different composition. The last thing we're going to add is gonna move on to the last element in our I definitely like the way that sounds and I'm high, sound with notes, called moneys bells. I'm gonna drag that in here and listen With the beat and the high hats and we have one low, sound with the base, I'm gonna choose a loop that has different characteristics than the have two rhythmic sounds we already have in our arrangement. We next step in this composition is to add a music the top loop button and dragging to the right the previous two clips by clicking on it clicking on make this base loop the exact same length as the the energy the energy definitely goes up. I can together the answer is yes and what happens to I'm going to assess do I, like the way the sound, So now that I've arranged another sound the base, already added let's listen is half the size of the first two that we've beginning and we'll notice that this audio loop create a new track and, let's move that to the and drag it into this empty spot right here and let's scroll down to the explode base number four move on next. Our composition needs some base so, in mind for later in my arrangement for now we'll up since I've added the hyatt loop I'll keep that here and I have noticed that the energy has gone I do like the sounds, together shall keep them let's listen up down or stayed the same once I put them in like the sounds, together and has the energy gone I'll take a listen to it and I ask myself, do I, I'll add some high hats to this arrangement and like this Beach. So I'm gonna keep going next a beat that you do like and replace this one I'd do, then keep it. There and move on. If not find Now you must assess. Do you like this beat if you by dragging an audio loop into an audio track. You've just made your first arrangement of sound Bloop will play in by clicking. You can also use the keyboard shortcut see to turn that on and off and this cycle button is on this can be toggle on and off loot a for bar section you'll notice that the one drag to bar marker number five and I have now beats. You can also highlight an area and loop. It for example, I can click on bar marker number beneath the bar, markers fyi one bar equals four timeline by clicking on this small gray area You can also move the play had to anywhere in the button or more simply hitting the space bar back to the beginning and clicking the play And listen by either clicking this button to go project now. Let's drag this to the beginning of the audio loop in it. You can see the way forward for the beat right here See that it's created an audio track with this section and this bit right here and drag this to this empty all gonna be in the exact same key. Let's take beat bells and what's cool about this is they're different categories of loops in the name base, the loops in this pack here and you can see the I'm gonna start with you can see a list of all these packs that you like, but this is the one pop music. You can, of course, use any one of kids are listening to nowadays in current rap and because the sounds and it closely resemble what I'm gonna start with underground trap mega each of these packs by clicking the play button audio loops in different genres. You can preview music production each of these packs contains loop packs are Place to start when learning DAW is empty and there are no tracks just get these list of loop packs on the right right now. This loops and this will open the dog and you'll see a start off with just audio tracks click on browse instruments to keep things simple we're. Gonna tracks that control virtual and even physical audio tracks or by arranging notes inside many channels and this is We arrange our sounds, we can do this either by arranging audio inside channels of sound a track is one of these dog, as a digital mixer that has multiple creating a new track. What's a track? think of a before starting you'll see a few options for project. This will lead you to the band lab DAW its features once you're ready to use them next click on create and click start a personal education site so that you're, more familiar with Is for music educators. I suggest working in the site edu.bandlab.com. Your log and will you'll need to create an account. You can do this either at Bandlab.com or on the education Let's put this process into practice. First listener. So to summarize arrange, assess and export this is how music production works. Now. that can be played back on demand by the is to export your sounds into a single audio file you are satisfied with your music, the final step arranging making adjustments along the way once a loop. You arrange your music, assess Continue anything I'd like to change. These two steps go in yourself, do I, like this arrangement or is there assess, listen to your arrangement and ask sounds in a digital audio workstation, then you like this. The first step is to arrange your listener when you produce music the process looks perform a piece. Hopefully perfectly for the on a loop until you've practiced enough to Then practice performing it, these two steps go like this you learn a piece of music at all when you perform music the process looks music production doesn't require any performance audio workstation to create music that can be played back on demand. Unlike music performance, the process of arranging sounds in a digital in the last video. I defined music production as so if you're ready to get started, let's begin address so you can create your Bandlab account some headphones or speakers and an email connection. It could be either a mac or windows all you need is a computer with an Internet free online based music production software, so on here every two weeks on mondays so in this video you'll be learning Bandlab. Bandlab is a notification Bell because you'll see new videos students make sure you subscribe and ring the So you can pass that musical creativity onto your you're excited about learning music technology. and it even works on android tablets and coming up ipads Hey everyone this is Eric Jao and welcome to Mix Major Teacher TV composition so if I were to hit play right now, I software that works on windows, mac and chromebook production works in three steps then I'll walk You through your first tutorial using free This video I'm going to show you how music .

ECObuild_1x_2020_Week_1_5_Energy_efficient_building_concepts-video – Welcome to this lecture
on energy-efficient building concepts.
In this lecture I will take you
on a short journey through a few concepts that are used a lot in the area of
sustainable and energy-efficient buildings. They are used by policy makers,
architects and designers and sometimes also as a brand for marketing. The idea behind these concepts is to offer concrete products
and steps towards more sustainability. But what do I mean by building concepts? Let’s define it as being the total
of a coherent group of measures taken at building level, building site level
or even at the level of the energy system. First let me remind you of the energy chain,
in which primary energy is used to supply electricity, heat, cold and various renewable
and non-renewable fuels to a building. See the white building in the picture, below, the fuels being supplied to
the energy conversion system inside the building, and above, the heat, electricity and cold supply. Energy-efficient building concepts
rely on this energy chain. What we haven’t shown yet in this energy chain is
the possibility to generate energy in the building itself, or on the building site,
and to transport and sell it to the grid. It is possible to deliver energy back to the grid,
and for the building itself to act as an energy producer. See the black arrow on the slide. An example of this would be
if a building has a lot of solar panels, and does not use all the electricity
that these solar panels generate. It is technically possible
to sell this surplus electricity to the grid. Let’s take a closer look at this,
on the building or building site level. We now have a building in orange. Please be aware that the building now looks like
a house, but it could also be an office building, a school, a data-centre or any type of building. You see, on the right, the energy demand, which is determined by the wish
to maintain a certain temperature and by construction characteristics like insulation. Left we see the energy delivered to the site. The HVAC systems distributes these electricity,
heat and cold inside the building. In these HVAC systems, electricity, heat and cold
can also be made based on incoming fuels, think for instance of a home gas boiler. This is what the dark blue arrow represents. But you also see that renewable energy
may be produced on site. Think of solar photovoltaic panels
on the roof of the building; think of a small wind turbine
placed in the lawn belonging to the house. Both will produce electricity. Another example of production on site
may be the excess heat produced by a data-centre, or a geothermal source located on the house plot. Concerning cold production, it may be
the cold well of an aquifer thermal storage, or a lake. In general the energy generated on site
is used first in the building itself. But at certain moments of the day,
there is no need for this energy, and there is not enough
storage capacity on site for it either. The excess energy can be exported to the grid
or to other buildings that do have an energy demand. That is what happens in so-called smart grids,
with electricity but also with heating or cooling. By injecting renewable energy into these grids,
the share of renewable energy used increases, and the grids themselves become more sustainable. There is a lot of research
on how to design these smart grids. However, the biggest issue at the moment
may be the one of policy: in many countries it is forbidden
to export energy to the grid. There are in general 2 reasons for this: the first one
being stability and controllability issues. The second one relates to economic issues
around monopolies for energy delivery and taxes and costs agreements about buying
and delivering energy to the net. So, be aware that, at the moment,
this may not be possible in your country. Now, let’s take a look at 9 different building concepts: Passive and Active buildings,
Net zero and Nearly zero energy buildings, Positive energy buildings,
Zero energy and CO2 neutral buildings, Circular buildings and finally Healthy buildings. Let’s start with Passive buildings. The main idea in this concept
is to reduce energy demand as much as possible. This way the energy delivered to the site
is strongly reduced as well. Look at the picture: You see the reduction
in demand and in energy delivered. You also see that the insulation of the house
has increased a lot. We speak of a passive building
if the yearly energy demand for space heating is below 15 kWh/m2. The total energy demand for space heating, appliances,
hot tap water etc. should be below 60 kWh/m2. To achieve this, a high level of insulation is needed, high efficiency glazing should be used
and ventilation systems should apply heat recovery. In fact, such a house should be able
to create a good indoor comfort with almost no heating or cooling system. The heat produced by appliances like laptops
and lighting and the heat produced by human activities should be enough to heat the house. From the cooling point of view
the house should be designed in such a way that no cooling system is needed: using cold night air or air cooled down
in pipes in the ground should be enough. The second concept we’ll look at is completely different. We call it an active building, and the idea here is
that if we use infinite renewable sources of energy, we don’t need to reduce the energy demand that much. We’d better put all attention to the smart functioning
of what we would call a multi-commodity system. Basically the energy demand is left for what it is and the attention is put on
increasing the use of renewables. Look at how the picture will change: The amount of renewables on site and off-site increases
and smart controls are used to make the best use of it. This includes controls inside the building,
think for instance of solar blind controls and also playing with energy market prices:
when to buy and sell which type of energy. Unfortunately many active buildings
would consider only cost optimization. But there is a large potential to extend the controls
towards minimum primary energy and minimum CO2-emissions. Net zero energy buildings, so-called NZEB are based on the achievement of a balance
between the energy delivered to the site and renewable energy produced and used on site. In Net zero energy buildings, energy delivered to the site
must be equal to renewable energy produced on site. This concept takes into account the fact
that renewable energy is intermittent. It recognizes that the possibilities vary
from hour to hour and from season to season. For instance solar electricity is produced during the day,
while you need lighting at night. Solar boilers produce a lot of heat in summer,
while you need space heating in winter. Without the use of large batteries
or the use of energy from the grid, it is currently very difficult to bridge
this mismatch between supply and demand, especially in cold countries. There are many definitions of net zero energy buildings,
it is not a standardized term, so make sure all partners in a project
have a clear idea what exactly you mean. First the renewable part
of the energy delivered to the site, may or may not be taken into account. Think of green certificates for electricity,
or geothermal district heating. Second the renewable energy generated on site
may be defined as energy produced and used on site, or even as energy produced, used and exported. Third, in some definitions,
not all energy is accounted for, but only electricity or only heating or cooling. Let’s move on to the Nearly zero energy buildings. Please be aware that the abbreviation is also NZEB, the same as for the Net zero energy buildings,
which is very confusing. In these buildings, a small deviation
of the yearly balance is accepted, meaning that producing a bit less
renewable energy on site than is needed to balance the energy
delivered to the side is allowed. How large this small deviation is, depends very much
from national and local agreements, if any. For instance European guidelines indicate
a maximum imbalance of 45 kWh/m2. Just like for the Net Zero energy buildings,
many different definitions can be found. A Positive energy building
is just the opposite of a nearly zero one: the balance carries on the other side,
and now more energy is produced by on-site renewables than delivered to the site. Of course, all these NZEB
and Positive energy buildings are very nice ideas, but in the end, fossil fuels
are still consumed in these concepts, and we want to aim for buildings
that are completely fossil-free. We will call them Zero energy buildings. Be careful here as well because some people
use the term ZEB, but mean NZEB. There are two main definitions for ZEB buildings. In the first one the building site is allowed
to received energy from outside, but this energy should be 100% based on renewables. In the second definition,
only onsite renewable energy is accepted, making the use of storage
and batteries on site necessary. As zero-energy buildings use only renewable energy, they produce no carbon emissions
during the operation of the energy systems and can therefore be called
Carbon-neutral buildings as well. They are also sometimes referred to as
zero-carbon buildings or net-zero carbon buildings. It would be even better if not only
the energy usage would be carbon-free, but also if all construction materials, processes and the
materials used in the HVAC systems were carbon-free. We would then speak about circular buildings,
where a lifecycle approach is used: how are the materials produced, transported and how they are processed
at the end of the lifetime of the building. Finally, it is worth mentioning
the concept of Healthy Buildings. This is related to energy, as indoor health
is partly determined by indoor air quality, and therefore by ventilation flow rates,
that also greatly influence energy demand. It is also partly determined by the quality
of natural light and artificial lighting. And it is also determined by the quality
of the materials used in the construction and the finishing: these should not emit
any substance that are harmful to people. Some definitions of circular buildings
do include healthy buildings. However healthy buildings may include
a broader view on health, including for instance incentives
to have exercise or to eat healthy. To summarize, we have reviewed
9 energy-efficient building concepts. Some are about the building itself,
and others more about the supply of energy. In many of them, the concept is about using
renewables and fossil fuels in equal shares. Finally some concepts go for the complete elimination
of fossil fuels and CO2 emissions, and this may even include building materials and health. .