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Which element of tragedy does shakespeare most develop in this passage? conflict among characters suspense in the plot hero overcoming

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Which element of tragedy does shakespeare most develop in this passage? conflict among characters suspense in the plot hero overcoming

English, 21.06.2019 14:30

Match each excerpt with the type of essay it represents. descriptive essay narrative essay expository essay persuasive essay essay excerpt type of essay when hal arrives at the pond, a bleak sight greets him as he discovers the surface of the skating pond is layered with snow. realizing he is facing a monumental task, he industriously begins to shovel the mounds of new snow from the frozen pond. lifting shovelful after shovelful of heavy wet snow, hal tirelessly works. while he works, he dreams of his brilliant future as a magnificent hockey star. soon a massive pile of glistening snow begins to appear on the bank, and the icy surface of the pond is smooth glass. hal’s back and arms ache as he eagerly exchanges his work boots for an old, worn pair of hockey skates. arrowright potter’s lake used to be the nicest lake in the area. but these days the water is green with algae, and the lake is choked with weeds all summer long. as a result, people can no longer swim in it. experts have determined the cause of the problem.fertilizers from yards and farms have been running into the lake. they cause algae and weeds to grow out of control. they also kill birds and fish. arrowright a hard, gray mountain loomed over a serene, florescent-blue lake, which gently lapped at its granite base. miles above the lake, a trio of mountain peaks jutted into the sky. each seemed to be topped with a chilled scoop of vanilla ice cream. as a cold and distant sun crept over the peaks, the lake and valley below instantly became suffused with blue light, which seemed to touch everything but warm nothing. morning had arrived. arrowright since 1897, the population of the bachman’s warbler in north carolina has decreased from more than 500,000 to fewer than 100. the main reason is the destruction of areas (like asbury woodlands) that the bird uses for its natural breeding grounds. bachman’s warblers prefer thickly wooded swamps and wet thickets in heavy, full-grown forests. it’s there that they can build their nests and feed on insects. this fact does not mean that we cannot build a community theater. we simply must not build it in asbury woodlands. after all, our community has forever prided itself on caring for our natural surroundings. with the council’s and the support of our townspeople, future generations will be able to continue to appreciate the beauty of this little bird

Answers: 3

William Shakespeare Biography - Childhood, Life Achievements...

William Shakespeare Biography – Childhood, Life Achievements… – William Shakespeare was an English poet and dramatist. Read this brief biography to find more on his life. Furthermore, there are passages in all the plays that deviate from this and use forms of poetry or It was in the last league of his works that Shakespeare mixed tragedy and comedy to come up…Shakespeare's poetic and dramatic career has been divided into four periods corresponding to the growth and experience of his life and mind. These plays show a rapid growth and development in the poet's genius.What did Shakespeare write? Shakespeare wrote thirty-six plays, all of which are still studied, performed and even made into films all over the world! Where were his plays performed and who went to see them? Most of Shakespeare's plays were performed at the Globe Theatre in London…

Four periods of Shakespeare's Plays – Quotes & Plays – This project was sponsored by MHRD, New Delhi under NMEICT (Sakshat) initiatives for eContent development. After discussing the definition of tragedy, Aristotle explores various important parts of tragedy. The Plot is the most important part of a tragedy.Shakespeare's Tragic plays are Antony & Cleopatra, Coriolanus Hamlet, King Lear Macbeth, Othello, Romeo and Juliet. Shakespeare wrote almost twice as many comedies as he did tragedies or histories. Shakespeare wrote ten tragedies, which include his most famous works.Many critics believe that Shakespeare's greatest tragedies represent the peak of his art. In this play, Shakespeare adds a supernatural element to the tragic structure. In addition, the fact that Shakespeare did not produce an authoritative print version of his plays during his life accounts for…

Four periods of Shakespeare's Plays - Quotes & Plays

ГДЗ, английский язык, верещагина, spotlight, афанасьева 9класс… – Shakespearean tragedies feature a main character (s) with a tragic flaw that brings about his or her downfall. Easiest way to look at a Shakespearean tragedy is to know that the Tragic Hero is doomed and usually dies. The redemption in a Shakespearean Tragedy usually comes from someone close…Try this amazing Gateway B2 : Trivia Quiz On Reading Skills Test! quiz which has been attempted 951 times by avid quiz takers. Also explore over 231 similar quizzes in this category.William Shakespeare, often called England's national poet, is considered the greatest dramatist of all time. His works are loved throughout the world, but In these, Shakespeare's characters present vivid impressions of human temperament that are timeless and universal. Possibly the best known of these…

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Paradise Lost Notes – Today you're going to be taking notes over
Paradise Lost by John Milton because it is one of the books that Frankenstein's creature
finds in the story Frankenstein by Mary Shelley.
Some author background for John Milton: He
lived right after Shakespeare. He lived in England. He wrote in Italian, Latin, and English,
unlike Shakespeare who wrote just in English. He lived during the restoration, and the English
Parliament had taken away the throne. He lived when they brought the throne back. He did
not believe in the traditional Christian trinity. Christians generally believe in one God in
three representative forms, kind of like the three points of the triangle—you have to
have all three to make the triangle itself. One is God, the father. The second is his
son, Jesus Christ. And the third part is the Holy Spirit, and these three work together–God
in three parts making one person, one entity. The fall of Satan and the angels is part of
the Christian creation myth. Satan was in heaven, and he was an angel himself, and he
presumed to try to be equal to God. So Paradise Lost addresses Satan's fall, addresses his
arrogance, and addresses the angels who took his side, and all of them were kicked out
of heaven. Now, there are three verses here. I'm going
to show each one, and I'm going to have you pause the video and I'll walk you through
it. When you pause it, you'll need to read the verse, and then I'll talk about it. Here's the first one. Pause the video right
now, and read. This is a representation of Satan as Lucifer, wanting to be equal with
God. He says, "I will be like the most High." I want you to pause the video here and read
this one. Pause it now. This verse could apply to both Satan and the king of Babylon; it's
not necessarily clear which one Ezekiel is speaking to. It could be both. It could be
using Satan as a metaphor for this king of Babylon, but either way, this king or Satan
have messed up somehow, so they're being cast out of heaven as Satan is said to have been. The third one is Revelation 12:7-9. If you
don't know, Revelation is the final book of the Bible, and it deals with final judgment.
So you're going to pause the video right now. So this deals with the war in heaven between
angels and Satan. Often Satan is depicted as a serpent or a dragon–reptilian creatures.
So Satan is cast out and his angels cast out with him. It doesn't say necessarily how many
angels, but they were cast out with him. The next thing we need to deal with here as
far as making sure you're informed about the creation myth in the Christian and Hebrew
tradition is the creation and fall of man. So first I'm going to have you read the creation
one, so pause the video right now. So this is God creating man to take care of the earth.
God created man in his own image, meaning they're similar, but it's not really clear
in what way. The second verse is the Garden of Eden, a
description of it. Pause the video and read. Here we have the introduction of the tree
of the knowledge of good and evil. This is the element that gets Adam and Eve kicked
out. Eve eats of the tree and tempts Adam into eating of the tree as well. God finds
out, and he kicks them out of Eden. This is the fall of man once they eat from it. They
do have these orders not to eat from the tree. The third one is the creation of Eve. Pause
the video and read. Here we have Eve. The story goes that God put Adam to sleep, takes
a rib out of Adam, and creates Eve from Adam's skeleton basically. Adam knows she is part
of him, and that they're meant to be companions. Also this part about them not being ashamed
because they're sinless. They don't mind being naked. They don't even notice their nakedness
because it's the natural way they're created. The final one here is the fall of man where
they eat of the tree. This one is rather long, so I'm going to open it, and you will read,
and I'll scroll down. Pause the video and read. After you click play, here's the next
section, click pause and read. I'm going to scroll down the rest of the way so you can
finish off the section. Click pause right now and read. In this passage from Genesis, we have Satan
having tempted Eve into eating of the tree. It describes each of their punishments, that
the serpent is going to be crawling on his belly, and everyone is going to hate the serpent.
To the woman, her childbearing is very painful. And for Adam, he is doomed to toil the ground
and work hard in order to get food. It won't just grow on it's own. Some characters you'll need to be aware of.
We have God, the Son, and this third one who some people say is the Holy Spirit, but we
know that Milton didn't believe in the traditional three-part God. These are some angels. And
then Adam and Eve, of course, we've discussed them, the first humans according to the Christian
myth. Satan who fathers sin and death. Beelzebub is the chief lieutenant to Satan. Also Beelzebub
translates to "lord of the flies" which we may have discussed sophomore year. Now the genre that this falls into is epic.
It's an epic poem. Some components of the epic are that the flawed hero is very similar
to that in a tragedy. He has remarkable origins. Also we have the invocation of the muse, a
vast setting—where it's set is going to be very large, complex. The book is written
in a highly formal style—they're going to use big words, find a dictionary. Also there
are going to be supernatural elements. Obviously, we're dealing with Satan, we're dealing with
angels, we're dealing with God, we're going to be dealing with the supernatural, the beyond
natural. The purpose of epic, and particularly this one, is to confront the reality of a
fallen world in order to demonstrate that heroism is not only physical but spiritual
and psychological. It goes beyond just what we see in our everyday lives. Heroism is being
something and doing something greater than yourself. Frankenstein is going to relate to Paradise
Lost. Mary Shelley chose to put Paradise Lost in Frankenstein on purpose. The epigraph to
Frankenstein comes from Paradise Lost. The first page, there's a little saying before
it: "Did I request thee, Maker, from my clay / To mould me man, did I solicit thee / From
darkness to promote me?" This is echoing the creature's words, "I didn't ask to be created.
I didn't ask you to abandon me, and yet you still did." That's taken straight from Paradise
Lost. Satan rebelled against his creator—God. Adam also rebels against his creator. And
Victor rebels against his creator by trying to be God, similar to Satan rebelling and
trying to be equal with God in heaven. Adam rebels in that he eats the fruit of the tree
after he was told directly, "don't do this." The only thing that God said don't do it,
and he does it. In this, we're going to discuss the complexities of Satan's role, Adam's role,
the creature's role, Victor's role. Who is who? Who's the creator? Who's the created?
And who's the hero? These are the questions in Paradise Lost that we're going to look
at. Some other Frankenstein-ian elements: we have
the dangers of knowledge: the tree, the fruit, and the knowledge of good and evil. Playing
God, this desire to be above God. Being cast out—Victor is cast out of society–he casts
himself out, the creature gets cast out of society. Satan gets cast out of heaven. Adam
and Eve do what they know is going to get them kicked out of the garden. Some interesting thematic ideas are the danger
of evil, charismatic leaders: Satan is very likable, Victor is very likable, and yet they
have this charisma, and it leads them to be a negative example. Satan at one point says
he's going to make a heaven of hell. You have to make the best of your situation. Satan
also resists being a servant. There's no shame in being a servant and being humble and helping
others, but Satan does not want to do that. He lacks humility. He's very arrogant. .

What makes a poem … a poem? – Melissa Kovacs – المترجم: somyah puth
المدقّق: Rana Al-Mahameed قضى (محمد علي) سنوات من التدريب
ليصبح أعظم ملاكم شهده العالم على الإطلاق، ولكنه استغرق فقط بضع لحظات
لكتابة أقصر قصيدة.
في عام 1975، أسر علي قلوب
خريجي جامعة هارفارد بكلمته التي ألقاها عن الوحدة والصداقة. عندما انتهى، أراد الجمهور المزيد. أرادوا منه إلقاء قصيدة. ألقى علي أقصر
قصيدة على الإطلاق. "أنا، نحن". أم أنها "أنا، ونحن"؟ لا أحد متأكدٌ تمامًا. إن كانت هاتان الكلمتان تكونان قصيدة،
إذًا ما الذي يجعل القصيدة قصيدة بالضبط؟ وجد الشعراء أنفسهم صعوبة في
الإجابة على هذا السؤال، مستخدمين الاستعارات غالبًا
لذكر تعريفٍ تقريبي. هل القصيدة آلة صغيرة؟ ألعاب نارية؟ صدى؟ حلم؟ يمتلك الشعرعمومًا مجموعة
من الخصائص المعينة المعروفة. واحد – تبرز القصائد خصائص اللغة الموسيقية. يمكن تحقيق ذلك من خلال
القافية والإيقاع والوزن الشعري، من سوناتات شكسبير، إلى قصائد كونفوشيوس الغنائية، إلى الفيدا السنسكريتية. اثنان – لغة القصيدة موجزة وغنية، مثلها كعمل أدبي نزع منه الحشو
وأبرز فيه الجوهر. ثلاثة – تعرض القصائد غالباً مشاعر قوية، من الشعر الروحاني لجلال الدين الرومي إلى قصيدة البصل للشاعر بابلو نيرودا. الشعر، مثل الأدب نفسه، لديه طريقته
في تحدي التعريفات البسيطة. على الرغم من أن الأنماط
الإيقاعية لأقدم القصائد كانت وسيلة لتذكر القصص
حتى قبل ظهور الكتابة، إلا أن القصيدة لا تحتاج إلى
أن تكون غنائية. قصيدة أبفيل لراينهارد دوهل وسيلنسيو ليوغين غومرينغر فصلوا بين الفن البصري والشعر. في الوقت نفسه، كتب إي. إي. كامينغز
قصائد كانت أشكالها مهمة بقدر أهمية الكلمات نفسها، بمعنى المبالغة في وصف الشعور
بالوحدة المحزنة لورقة تسقط عبر الفضاء. إذا تلاشت الطبيعة البصرية
للشعر في الخلفية، ربما ما نحصل عليه هو الموسيقى، وهذا مجال يحب الناس النقاش فيه. هل الأغاني قصائد؟ كثيرون لا يعتبرون كتاب الأغاني
شعراء بالمعنى الأدبي، ولكن كلمات من فنانين مثل بول سايمون، وبوب ديلان، وتوباك شاكور غالبا ما تبقى وتُحفظ حتى من دون الموسيقى. في موسيقى الراب، العناصر الشعرية مثل
القافية والإيقاع والصور المجازية
هي جزء لا يتجزأ من الصورة. اقرأ هذه كلمات لمغني الراب
نوتوريوس، بي. آي. جي. " قادر على سماع صوت العرق
حين يسيل إلى أسفل خدك صوت ضربات قلبك مثل صوت قدم ساسكواتش صاخب، يهز الصلب." حتى الآن، كل الأمثلة التي رأيناها
تحتوي على فواصل أسطر. حتى القصيدة ذات الكلمتين التي
نظمها علي على الهواء أنا، نحن. يملك الشعر شكلًا يمكننا عادة إدراكه. تساعد فواصله السطرية القراء
على التنقل بين إيقاعات القصيدة. لكن ماذا إن اختفت هذه الفواصل؟ هل ستفقد جوهرها كقصيدة؟ ربما لا انظر إلى القصيدة النثرية. تحتوي القصائد النثرية على صور حية
وتلاعب بالألفاظ لكن يتم تنسيقها مثل الفقرات. عندما ننظر إلى الشعر
كمفهومٍ أكثر منه كشكل، يمكننا أن نرى الشاعرية في كل مكان حولنا: في التراتيل الروحية، وفي خطابات الخطباء مثل
مارتن لوثر كينغ الابن، وجون كينيدي، وونستون تشرشل، وفي أماكن مفاجئة مثل
وسائل التواصل الاجتماعي. في عام 2010، غردت الصحفية جوانا سميث
بتحديثات من مكان وقوع الزلزال في هايتي. " كنت في غرفتي أرتدي الملابس عندما
سمعت اسمي يُنادى. هزة أرضية. ركضت إلى الخارج
عبر الأبواب الجرارة. كل شيءٍ هادئٌ وآمنٌ الآن،
والديوك تصيح." تستخدم سميث اللغة بطريقة
قوية ومباشرة، ومليئة بالصور الحية. لنقارن بين لغتها ولغة شعر هايكو. وهو شكل شعري ياباني قديم يركز
على تدفق المشاعر العميقة يكتب في ثلاثة أسطر من
خمسة ثم سبعة ثم خمسة مقاطع صوتية. للشعر جذور عميقة ومتشعبة على نطاق واسع. فقد تطور الشعر مع مرور الوقت، وربما الآن أكثر من أي وقت مضى، أصبح الخط الفاصل بين الشعر والنثر
والأغنية والفن البصري غير واضح. مع ذلك، هناك شيء واحد لم يتغير. في الواقع، بدأت كلمة الشعر
على هيئة فعل، تأتي هذه الكلمة من قساوسة اليونان
القديمة والتي تعني الخلق. الشعراء، مثل الحرفيين، لا يزالون يعملون
على المواد الخام الموجودة في العالم من أجل التوصل الى مفاهيم جديدة والتعليق على ما يعنيه أن تكون إنسانًا
باستخدام طريقة يستطيع البشر القيام بها. اختبر باحثون من كلية دارتموث هذه الفكرة
من خلال أمر الروبوتات بكتابة شعر. فرز فريقٌ من الحكّام مجموعة من السوناتات ليروا إذا كان بمقدرتهم التمييز بين
ما صنعه الإنسان وما صنتعه الآلة. قد تشعر بالفرح لمعرفة أنه
في حين نجح العلماء في استخدام الذكاء الصناعي في التصنيع، والأدوية، وحتى الصحافة، إلا أن الشعر له قصة مختلفة. حيث تظهر أعمال الروبوتات جليّة كلّ مرة. .

Poetry of Heartbreak: Discussion with Jack Lankester – This week we've been looking
at heartbreak and one of the key texts is Jane
Austen's Sense and Sensibility but also looking at some poems.
What's your own experience
with heartbreak? Well, I mean, I went to study
literature at university, but I'd already always
just went to study because I'd been good at
it, actually, in school. And I didn't realise
the point in it. But I was terribly,
terribly heartbroken as a young man at university. And my girlfriend left me
and for about six months, I couldn't work,
I couldn't sleep. And I was a dreadful state. I was almost thinking
of actually dropping out of university. And none of my friends
understood, you know. I believed in my naivety
that no one had ever been as heartbroken as I was. No one understood. And I mean I even went to
doctors and counsellors but the vibe was very
much, just get over it. It's quite normal. But I think to a lad
of that age, really, you can't– someone can't
simply say just get over it because you feel so alone and
isolated and there's a wall between you and the rest
of the world, very much. But at the time, I had
a very good teacher who saw I was in
a bit of a state and she forced me, really,
to write lots of essays and study a sequence of
poems by Philip Sidney, who was a Renaissance poet,
which very much engages this young lad chasing after
a girl who no longer wants him and being very upset
and very traumatised. And when I started
reading him, it was almost just like, you
know, the penny dropped and I completely understood
what he was saying. I could never say it
as well as he could. But he was expressing
the emotions I was actually feeling far more
beautifully than I ever could. And in that instant, I suppose
I felt wildly less alone. And the fact that he had been
writing these poems 500 years ago, really did make me realise
that being heartbroken or sad or lost is in many
ways inevitable. And it's a part of
the human condition. And that this voice speaking
to me from the past maybe, and I felt he was speaking
directly to me because It was such an
intimate revelation. I remember it exactly. It's 2 o'clock in the morning. I was sitting out at the
top of my block of flats just staring out at this
stormy sky with the moon there and I'd been crying again. And in that instance,
just reading this one poem of 140 syllables, it was
just like this huge weight had been lifted off me. And I was still sad, obviously. And I was still very
upset but it was suddenly not feeling alone, so much
and feeling someone else– Somebody understands. And that's a theme that we've
been coming back to is that, A, you are not alone. And I'm fascinated by this. Because how can a poem written
so long ago resonate with you and make you feel that you're
in communication with somebody from all of this time? And it's the same feeling,
it's the same emotions, but expressed better than
you and I could ever say. Was it that? Is that what it was? I mean it was a direct–
although it did very much feel like he was speaking to me
and I feel like I almost could have written this as well. I think even, it
doesn't matter how long, how much time has
actually passed between the creation
of a work of art and one's response to it. There doesn't have to
be anything topically. Still, we all look up at
the moon when we're sad. The same metaphors–
or if it's a cloud on my soul or a
stormy ocean and I think that speaks to
us, whatever age we are, whatever generation we're from. And it's almost magical,
a magical moment when you actually realise that
you're not so alone. And I thought it was a
direct dialogue with me. What is it about poetry? Do you think there's
something very peculiar particular about
a poem, as opposed to other forms of literature? Well, I think one of the
things that I found so amazing about this experience and then,
I read the entire sequence, was– it was 140
syllables, you know. Poetry is so short
but I maintain it is just so intimate,
because I suppose with film or music
or even comfort food, where we try and take
solace when we're sad or heartbroken or upset,
all of these mediums in some way stimulate one or
all of our senses. With– If you see a
beautiful woman in a film, it's directly there. You can actually visualise it. If it's a sad song, you can sit
down and lose yourself in it and just have it wash over
you in a quite passive way. But I find poetry and
literature, generally, because it doesn't actually
stimulate any senses at all– the idea
of black squiggles on a white page that can
speak so profoundly to you because no senses are
actually being stimulated, it's quite– you have to
engage with it quite intimately and quite personally
and if it's beautiful and you still have to visualise
it actually in your mind. And it's not a passive process. And I think that makes
the whole process of reading more intimate. You've chosen a Renaissance poem
to talk about today in relation to your own experiences
with heartache. I think it's a really
beautiful poem. Is there anything that
particularly draws you to the Renaissance poets? I think, partly, it's the
universality and the connection across that long period
of time I take comfort in. But at the same
time, and I don't want to sound too
academic or pompous, but it's really, really good. There's a reason we
still read Shakespeare. I mean they were
brilliant writers. I consider it the golden
age of literature. And being a little bit more
familiar with the language, you know, there's not
quite that disconnection that some people find. But it's still readable English. And they are
really, really good. It's a sonnet, isn't it? So sonnet– 14
lines– do you think there's anything of comfort,
of value, if your heartbroken, in a certain rhythm. It's quite interesting that
people often turn to sonnets. Shakespeare's sonnets are
really popular for heartbreak. I'm just trying to tease out the
sonnet, or is that almost just coincidence. It is that just this one
just appealed to you? No, I think there is
something quite contained about a sonnet form
or any form of poetry. If, for instance, one's
having a very intense emotion, I suppose the temptation
is just to write floridly and in free verse, and keep
going and going and going, because you've got
so much to say. Whereas, if you take a form,
be it a sonnet or a villanelle, it's almost not necessarily
a cage but a way to trap and control an emotion. And I think we respond
quite naturally to that. I think a sonnet, 140 syllables,
it's just about enough space to present an idea,
explore it with a couple of interesting images, and then
turn so it never gets boring and you can reach some
kind of conclusion. And there can be
some kind of dialogue actually with yourself in there. Would you mind
reading the sonnet? I'd love to. It's not happy poem. That's fine. I suppose one can
find it quite strange that such a sad, lonely
slightly self-indulgent poem can actually give
comfort or happiness, but it's still a sense
of belonging or searching for allies across time and space
and having them sort of speak to you. So it's 'Sonnet 31'. 'With how sad steps, O Moon,
thou climb'st the skies! How silently, and
with how wan a face! What, may it be that
even in heav'nly place That busy archer his
sharp arrows tries! Sure, if that long-with-
love- acquainted eyes Can judge of love, thou
feel'st a lover's case, I read in thy looks;
thy languish'd grace. To me, that feel the
like, thy state descries. Then, ev'n of fellowship,
O Moon, tell me, Is constant love deem'd
there but want of wit? Are beauties there as
proud as here they be? Do they above love
to be lov'd, and yet Those lovers scorn whom
that love doth possess? Do they call virtue
there ungratefulness?' Tell me what why did
that speak to you? I want to get to
the bottom of what was it that you're feeling–
that that's how you felt? I did. I think the poet is looking
at the moon and saying, you are alone, you
are just wandering. And I think there's
universality to it because this Renaissance poet
is so desperate for some kind of connection. He can't find it in
anyone around him. So he's turning to
the moon in this quite poetic, exaggerated,
slightly naive way, but I think he's trying
to definitely find some fellowship with
the moon and he's imposing his own emotions
on it, because obviously the moon isn't in love. The moon isn't heartbroken. But that imposition
of his own emotions and that search for some kind
of soothe to his loneliness. And almost the naivety of
it– like, looking now, it's almost quite funny. So then were you able
to be more objective about your own heartbreak
because you were reading somebody who's writing about
it, making sense of it, poking fun maybe
satirising mocking it, but also not mocking it
because saying actually know it really does hurt,
and I really was in love, and I am still in
unrequited love, so was any of that
going through your mind? I think all of that was. I mean I think the
reason it resonated so much was the actual
moon in front of me and it had just
captured that snapshot. But it's 108 sonnets. This is what I particularly
love about the sonnet sequence. They come at the same emotion
again, and again, and again– just hammering it out. But at the same time, there
is a sense of celebration behind the actual sadness. Did you get over your heartbreak
as a result of poetry? I think I was able
to understand it, not so much– I'm
not sure one ever gets over their
first broken heart, but I was less ashamed
of it, I suppose, because I felt I was
being sappy and soft and I was overreacting. And it allowed me to
come to terms with it. I didn't read the poem and go,
'fantastic, life's brilliant.' But I was less alone. I was less afraid of it,
less ashamed, less ashamed of actually expressing myself. It definitely
helped just to see– and I suppose that
can be– one could say that's a negative conclusion
that heartbreak's quite natural and it's going to happen. But one thing it did, I suddenly
started furiously writing poetry, and that
really– I suppose it was more the creative
element that did help me move beyond it. But it made me aware of it
and almost not enjoy it, but understand it, and revel
in that intensity of emotion. Can it be harmful? Can reading poetry if you are
in a fragile state cause harm, do you think? I think anything can cause harm,
but I would never, never have found it so because one thinks,
why would someone write a poem? If you were just sad and
miserable and angry and furious, why would you
choose to write a poem? Why would you try and
put it into a form unless there is
something to celebrate there or at least some beauty. Philip Sidney said
the aim of poetry is to teach and to delight. And I've always found
that quite interesting that there are lessons
there, that even if we are watching a
tragedy, we are taking some kind of pleasure in this. Not that we're
watching and we're pleased that someone else
is suffering and we're not, but it allows us to grapple with
these emotions on the stage, or even emotions
we haven't actually felt with that intensity. Tony Harrison says poetry
allows us to kind of stare into the darkest aspects of
the world and our own life 'without being turned to stone.'
I think if anyone is reading responsibly, then I
don't see the harm in it. Do you ever find yourself
saying to a particular student, you've got to read this. You'll love– this
will really help you, almost prescribing poetry. Well I normally would
make them read it aloud, because you will often
have a slight resistance to just one– give them, say,
look, just read this aloud. And then when they can actually,
as you mentioned earlier, with a sonnet, the iambic
pentameter, the rhythm. There is a structure to it. There is something we can take
comfort in, almost like music. But I would make
them read it aloud and you can have some
startling responses of kids who have– I had one
student who was 17 years old, and had never read a
book outside of school. He absolutely never read a book. And then he was absolutely
traumatised and sad. And I actually gave
him Philip Sidney. And when he first saw it,
I'm not going to read this, you know. This is Shakespearean language. But then you just
make him actually visualise it and respond to it
personally and in his own mind. Yeah, he absolutely loved it and
he's doing a literature degree now, actually. And, you know, I don't think you
can put a price on it, really. To sit and read a poem
may take five minutes, but the rewards
can be immeasurable and then through your life,
you can come back to the poem. And, for instance,
if I read it now as I did then, there is
that slight tongue in cheek nature to it or that's so
naive, that's so innocent. But you can always come back
to it and like good friends that have just provided you
comfort at different stages in your life, and
if you read a poem and learn it by heart or
adore, and it brings you some kind of comfort
or consolation, if you come back to
that poem in two years, you will have a
different response to it but there will still be the
intimacy that you actually managed to develop beforehand. And it is, you know,
concentrated emotion, concentrated study, but
it doesn't take that long. So how do you teach
Renaissance poetry to young people, many of
whom might be –or learners– and might feel intimidated
by the language, by the sonnet sequence? How do we break that down? I think the first point would
be to make it very, very clear that they don't have to
understand every line. I don't. I don't think it's
the case of this, as I said, this jigsaw to
unpack or this riddle to solve. I don't think poetry
is necessarily this rational process
that we go through. And I think that's the
problem with schooling. It's– the question might be,
how does the poet present these emotions? It should be more, what
emotions do you feel? Ask them to visualise the
scene and if there's words they don't understand, skip them. You know, it's not necessarily
about understanding every part or this cerebral process. It's much more emotional. And try to imagine the scene. Like, where is the poet
when he's writing it? What mood's he in? Have you felt like this? And they have then to engage
and not be scared of it. And let it be more of an
instinctive, you know, emotional process. And visualisation really helps. And reading aloud. Reading aloud and visualising
it as you're doing it. Confidence, and the more you
read aloud, the more confident you get? And the more poetry you read,
the better you'll get at it. And I suppose I– before I
really started reading poetry, it never quite occurred
to me that– you love your Jane Austen, Paula,
but novels that have been around for a few hundred years. We've been writing poetry
for thousands and thousands of years. Almost caveman. We've been reciting poetry
for thousands and thousands of years. And there must be
a reason for that. Even before the printing
press, we had our long epics. And the oral tradition. Yeah, oral tradition and
the bardic tradition. It's so ingrained
in our civilisation. Again, it was Philip
Sidney who said, 'poetry is the right words in
the right order.' And we all use words. And to actually, when
one starts, I find, when one starts
reading poetry a lot, or understanding your own
emotions more via poetry, I think you learn to understand
other people better as well, because we all use
words to communicate. That's what separates
us from animals. And by reading poetry,
I firmly believe it connects us not only to
ourselves but to everyone else we ever engage with. .