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Which line best develop the central idea that the plague was almost impossible for elizabethans to survive? “although there are

source : allnswers.com

Which line best develop the central idea that the plague was almost impossible for elizabethans to survive? “although there are

The line that best helps to develop the central idea that plague was a very deadly disease is  “In 1565 the people of Bristol count up the plague victims for that year and arrive at the figure of 2,070 . . .”

Explanation: This line counts the number of dead, thus showing that the disease is highly dangerous and devastating, being able to kill more than 1,000 people in a single year.

This line also indicates that the disease is contagious and spreads rapidly in the population, since in a single year it brought such a high number of dead and contaminated.

Which line best helps develop the central idea that the plague was...

Which line best helps develop the central idea that the plague was… – …was a very deadly disease is: "In 1565 the people of Bristol count up the plague victims for that y… "In 1565 the people of Bristol count up the plague victims for that year and arrive at the figure of 2 I hope my answer has come to your help. Thank you for posting your question here in Brainly."Plague was pretty prevalent, with epidemics in Western port cities. But the last urban plague was in Los Angeles in 1925. It can be hard to identify the disease in its early stages because symptoms, which usually develop after three to seven days, are flu-like – a laboratory test can confirm diagnosis.There were very few doctors. In the early medieval period, most of them were educated men from the higher ranks of society who learned through practice rather than by attending a medical school. The Church taught that everything was divinely inspired by God, and that illness was a punishment for evil.

Why hasn't the US eradicated the plague? – BBC News – They can walk, turn left and right and even create their own products. One day, such microscopic devices could actually be used to build tiny computer chips or to detect and treat diseases such as cancer at a molecular level. It is interesting to note that the nano-spiders are made of DNA molecules.Well, plague, in a sense, set the standard by which all other epidemics are judged. The plague was, we might call it, the worst-case scenario, and we'll see that in later centuries, when societies experienced some new and unfamiliar disease…The disease was also terrifyingly efficient. People who were perfectly healthy when they went to bed at night could be dead by morning. Today, scientists understand that the Black Death, now known as the plague, is spread by a bacillus called Yersina pestis.

Why hasn't the US eradicated the plague? - BBC News

Early methods of prevention of illness and disease – Attempts to… – A very important development during the Middle Ages was the hospital. In China, acupuncture has been a part of Chinese medicine since ancient times. Originally it was used to treat diseases; nowadays acupuncture's effectiveness in controlling chronic pain has become more widely used.Bazi plague is a deadly, rapidly spreading disease with no known cure. Though treated as a public health crisis by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization, the virus is later revealed to be a mechanism that causes rapid speciation and accelerates evolution.The Chronicle of the Black Death (written in 1348 at the cathedral priory of Rochester) contains several compelling and chilling lines : perhaps the most telling one, translated into modern English is, "Alas, this mortality devoured such a multitude of both sexes that no one could be found to carry the bodies of…

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The Green Flu – Database: Episode 2 – Hi, and welcome to Episode 2 of ValveTime Database, where we take an in-depth look at an element within
Valve's games to determine the larger impact.
In this episode, we'll be taking a look at the
pathogen central to the Left 4 Dead series, commonly referred to as The Infection. This deadly infection sets up the events of the series, making most of the population of the
Eastern United States violent and animalistic, but is this pathogen more than just a simple illness? Officially known as The Green Flu, The Infection is a pathogen which causes
increased levels of aggression and decreased mental faculties in those who are infected. Despite its namesake, the Green Flu is more likely
to be some sort of rabies-like viral infection, with the name "Green Flu" being used by
the Civil Emergency and Defense Agency in an attempt to cover up the disease. Despite their best efforts, the graffiti in safe rooms shows that people are aware that this is no ordinary flu. Each of the symptoms of the disease has an
important impact on the gameplay of Left 4 Dead. Infected individuals appear pale with milky-white eyes, something which helps players to quickly differentiate
the cool, sickly pallet of the infected from the warm, lively tone of the survivors. The milky-white eyes serve a dual purpose in helping to make the infected appear extra creepy and disturbing, while also removing the need to draw and animate separate pupils for each of the zombies in the infected hordes,
thus improving system performance. The virus also drastically weakens the body's
structure to the point where the infected can be easily dismembered, even by blunt weapons
such as baseball bats and crowbars. This helps give the series a large portion of its trademark gore. As revealed in The Sacrifice comic series, victims of the Green Flu suffer from severe hallucinations, causing them to see the survivors as demonic or monstrous. This may be part of what causes their erratic,
animalistic behavior and increased aggression. This behavior in-game helps to create a frantic tone, as common infected barrel down on you
at full force, shouting and coughing, barely able to keep their own balance while leaning into turns. It may also explain why the infected are easily distracted by loud noises and flashing lights
such as car alarms or pipe bombs. The age of most of the "living" infected encountered in both games ranges from young-adulthood to middle-aged. This may indicate that, like with most flus,
the people most susceptible to dying from the infection are infants, children, and the elderly. However, this might have been a conscious design choice by Valve to improve efficiency and avoid censorship. Most sicknesses transmit in one or more of five ways: droplet contact through coughing or sneezing; direct physical contact through touch; indirect physical contact such as touching a contaminated surface; airborne transmission; or fecal-oral transmission, usually through
contaminated food or water sources. From the evidence in the comic, it would appear that biting and vomiting
are the primary methods of transfer, something which is further supported in the gameplay, as common infected can be found coughing
and puking when in their idle state. However, the Green Flu may also be able
to change its transmission method, or it may exist in multiple, distinct strains. For example, it is suggested that the
sickness may be related to livestock. In the Left 4 Dead campaign Blood Harvest, and
Left 4 Dead 2 campaigns Dark Carnival and Swamp Fever, the player will encounter several deceased cows. These cows have had the skin on their heads removed, indicating that a rabies-like test has
been performed on the animals. Upon seeing the dead cow pile in Swamp Town, Rochelle sometimes mentions that the news
claimed the virus spread through livestock. [Rochelle from L4D2]
We heard reports that the virus spread through mammals, but I have no idea if that was true. Well, better safe than sorry, I guess. [James]
Given the rate at which the infection spreads, it would
seem that the infection can be airborne as well. This is confirmed in The Sacrifice comic series, where it was noted that the sickness was
"Sometimes airborne, sometimes not." The variety of transmission methods suggests
that multiple strains of the virus exist. This could explain the rapid rate of mutation of the disease, in that one victim could become infected
with multiple strains of the virus. This could help explain the origin of the Special Infected. In The Sacrifice comic, it is revealed that immunity to the
Green Flu is passed down through the father's genes. The most common theory is that the
gene which makes people resistant is a recessive allele on the X chromosome. A recessive allele will only produce its characteristic trait when paired with an identical allele from the other parent. This means that, for any female survivors to be resistant, they would need to receive the recessive
gene from both their father and mother. Therefore, the number of resistant males would be
the square of the number of resistant females, which would explain why the number of male survivors outnumbers the number of female survivors in both games. Unfortunately, resistance to the virus comes at a price. Survivors are not immune to the virus,
rather they are asymptomatic carriers of it, a fact revealed in the finale of the
Left 4 Dead 2 campaign "The Parish." [James]
In the last part of the Left 4 Dead campaign No Mercy, players can find the dead body of what
may be "patient zero" of the Green Flu located on the fourth floor of the Mercy Hospital. He can be found in a room with a glass door covered
in caution tape and a biohazard warning sign. This is further hinted at in the game Payday: The Heist, where players revisit the Mercy Hospital in a campaign which Overkill Software created in collaboration with Valve. In this campaign, the players rob the Mercy Hospital, infiltrating the fourth floor to draw blood
from someone kept in quarantine. This heist opens up with a cryptic statement playing
off of the airborne nature of the infection, foreshadowing that the robbers may become infected and that they may be the reason the infection
escaped the hospital in the first place. However, we're not entirely sure if the events
of Payday would be considered canon. Given that the heist ends with the military sending
fighter jets to shoot missiles at the hospital, some fans have suggested that the
government's strong response may indicate that the nature of the virus was known
well before the events of Left 4 Dead, or that the virus may have been created or
engineered by the government as a weapon. This idea is further supported by the
existence of the special infected, given that, under normal evolutionary
conditions, it can take many years for multiple distinct strains of a virus to form. In total, there are 8 types of special infected: the Boomer, Hunter, Smoker, Witch, and Tank in Left 4 Dead, who are joined by the Charger,
Jockey, and Spitter in Left 4 Dead 2. It is unknown exactly what causes Green Flu victims
to mutate into one of the special infected, but it is clear that new types of special infected
continually mutate and develop as time passes. This is mentioned in the opening cutscene for Left 4 Dead, where Bill touches what appears to be a puddle of Boomer Bile and notes that it indicates the infected are "changing." [Bill from L4D]
They're changing. [Francis from L4D]
Dammit, Bill! Ugh, it stinks! [James]
This is further supported by the emergence
of the new special infected types encountered in Left 4 Dead 2, which takes place
just one week after the events of the first game. A poster found in one of the rooms in
The Vannah Hotel in the campaign Dead Center shows a pie-chart noting the infection ratio figures. Based on this chart, 63% of all Green Flu
victims become common infected, 4% become Spitters, 3% become Tanks,
6% become Boomers, 9% become Hunters, 7% become Smokers, 4% become Jockeys,
and 4% become chargers. The Witch is curiously missing from this chart. We won't talk about the individual details
of each special infected in this episode, as we plan to make them the subject of an upcoming episode. In the beginning of Dead Center,
the first campaign in Left 4 Dead 2, the players can find a map created by CEDA which reveals that the epicenter of the infection was Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. This supports the patient zero theory
in that the fictional city of Fairfield, which serves as the setting for the
Left 4 Dead campaign "No Mercy," is also located in Pennsylvania. The disease quickly spread from
Pennsylvania to Georgia in just 3 weeks, infecting most of the East Coast of the United States. Using the population of the East Coast — an estimated 58.28% of the total population
of the US, or about 180 million people — we can calculate the total number of people
infected with the Green Flu in that time. With only 22% of the population being resistant, combined with the quick rate of transmission as well
as the unprepared and ineffective evacuation efforts, and a nearly 100% probability of infection on
close contact with an infected person or carrier, it can be estimated that the total number of infected individuals could be up to a maximum of 140 million people. For comparison, between 1918 and 1920, the Spanish Flu killed an estimated 2.5% of the population of Earth, or around 50 million people over the course of 2 years. In epidemiology, the number of secondary
infections likely to be caused by an infected individual over time is
called its basic reproductive number — denoted as its R-nought. Generally the larger the R-nought,
the harder it is to control an epidemic. According to a report in the Oxford Journals, the R-nought for the Spanish Flu was
in the range of 1.2 to 3.0 overall, and 2.1 to 7.5 for community-based and confined settings. While there is not enough information
in the Left 4 Dead games and comics to accurately determine the Green Flu's exact R-nought number, it would appear to be extremely high,
likely higher than any disease in history. While the Green Flu itself is clearly quite deadly, the Left 4 Dead games have proven that the
victims of the flu are effective killers too. Be sure to tune in for a future episode of ValveTime Database, which we'll use to continue talking about the
Green Flu and the Special Infected themselves. Also, be sure to give us some suggestions for
future episodes in the comments below. Don't forget to subscribe to our YouTube channel
and to follow us on Facebook and Twitter to stay up-to-date with all the latest Valve news and developments. Thanks for watching and bye for now. .

How the Sugar Industry Lobbied Harvard Scientists to Blame Saturated Fat – Yes or no? Do you believe nicotine is not 
addictive? I believe nicotine is not addictive,   yes.
Mr. Johnson? Uh, congressman, cigarettes 
and nicotine clearly do not meet the classic   definitions of addiction, there is no 
intoxication. We’ll take that as a no   and again time is short, if you could just, 
I think each of you believe nicotine is not   addictive. We just would like to have this for 
the record. I don’t believe that nicotine or our   products are addictive. I believe nicotine 
is not addictive. I believe that nicotine   is not addictive. I believe that nicotine 
is not addictive. And I too believe that   nicotine is not addictive. The SRF’s purpose, and I quote “was dedicated 
to the scientific study of sugar’s role in food   and communication of that role to the public 
during a period of war-time sugar rationing.”   But as we already know, bureaucracy is a 
machine that keeps growing exponentially. By the end of World War II , 77 firms and 
corporations, presumably led by the global elite,   were actively involved in the SRF. While The 
foundation funded some scientific research,   their mission statement was and still 
is “to convey the value of sugar as   a food staple and industry to the public 
using accurate and pertinent information” These were going to be completely unbiased, 
rigorously reviewed, pieces of evidence,   right? It doesn’t take a rocket scientist to 
see that there would be conflicts of interest   in the research of the products they sell. 
These conflicts of interest came to light   in 2016, but it was too late as sugar had 
already become a staple in modern food.
  The Journal of the American Medical Association, 
one of the top sources of scientific literature,   got its hands on internal industry documents 
from the SRF, including corporate conversations   and instructions that the foundation gave the 
scientists it worked with. They also looked at   the evidence that was used to create the dietary 
recommendations of several government health   organizations *show pics of organizations from 
study*. Three researchers used the documents to   tell us a chronological story of special interest 
corruption on behalf of the SRF. The paper made   very few headlines, so most people have no idea 
about it. Therefore, I’m going to summarize the   findings from the paper, which you can 
find linked in the description below.
  The story begins in the 1950s. Coronary heart 
disease was at an all-time high, and scientists   began researching dietary factors for possible 
causes. By the 1960s, two major camps evolved   that argued the main cause of heart disease. One 
hypothesis was built on the work of prominent   British physiologist John Yudkin, who claimed that 
added sugar was the culprit. On the other hand,   an American physiologist named Ancel Keys, 
claimed that total and saturated fat were the   main causes. One of these two theories would end 
up shaping nutrition science as we know it today. Clearly the SRF needed to protect the interests 
of their shareholders. The SRF’s president,   Henry Hass, closely observed the debate. He 
gave a speech in 1954 to the American Society   of Sugar Beet Technologists, saying “Leading 
nutritionists are pointing out the chemical   connection between [American’s] high-fat 
diet and the formation of cholesterol… If   the carbohydrate industries were to recapture 
this 20 percent of the calories in the US diet…   this change would mean an increase in the 
per capita consumption of sugar more than   a third.” [pull up study quote and highlight]

The sugar industry’s goal was to replace the   market share of fat with sugar. So they decided to 
invest 0,000, which is .3 million in today’s   money, to increase their profits. ATP Science 
on Youtube does a great job explaining what   happened. They paid .3 million to educate policy 
makers, which are basically politicians with no   scientific background, educate policy makers on 
how fat causes heart disease by basically saying   look inside this artery, it's got fat in it. 
Look in this food, it’s fat. There’s no sugar   inside this artery. Sugar can’t go inside the 
artery, fat goes in the artery, therefore fat   is evil and sugar’s good. And the policy makers– 
“makes sense to me, I have no idea about science.”   And with the .3 million investment into the 
propaganda, they managed to get the policy and   what their whole campaign was, was to stimulate 
the business associated with the profit of selling   sugar by taking 20% of the allocated calories in 
the food pyramid off the fat to give to sugar. Profits continued to rise for the 
sugar industry as people started to   eat less and less fat. Everything was 
going smoothly until new research came   out stating that low fat diets high in sugar 
could raise serum cholesterol. John Hickson,   the Vice President of the SRF at the time, began 
keeping his eye on this new information. He   considered multiple ways to combat the so-called 
deniers, such as the physiologist Yudkin.
  In 1965, the SRF decided to appoint a new 
member to its scientific advisory board.   This new member was Fredrick Stare, chair of the 
School of Public Health Nutrition Department of   Harvard University. He was an expert on dietary 
causes of heart disease, and was also consulted   by the American Heart Association and National 
Heart Institute. However, he also had ties to   food companies and trade groups, which 
weren’t widely questioned until the 70s. Later on in 1965, a faculty member of Stare’s 
department at Harvard, D. Mark Hegsted,   published three contradictory studies. The 
first two were epidemiological studies that   suggested blood sugar to be a better predictor 
of atherosclerosis than serum cholesterol. The   third study showed that sugar, more than 
other carbohydrates, contributed to high   triglycerides. Yudkin previously claimed that 
this was a major risk factor for Heart Disease.   The New York Herald Tribune jumped on board, 
running an article supporting the notion that   sugar consumption may be casual in developing 
heart disease. As Yudkin’s hypothesis on the   true cause of heart disease gained validation 
through Hegsted’s research, the SRF had to act   quickly to protect their financial interests.

That’s exactly what they did. Two days after the   article was published, the SRF approved of 
project 226. Project 226 was designated as   a literature review of “Carbohydrates and 
Cholesterol Metabolism.” The project was   overseen by Stare and written by Hegsted 
and colleague at Harvard, Robert McGandy. Hickson provided the researchers with 
articles demonizing sucrose, which is sugar,   that could’ve potentially threatened his profits. 
Hickson told Hegsted “Our particular interest had   to do with that part of nutrition in which there 
are claims that carbohydrates in the form of   sucrose make an inordinate contribution 
to the metabolic condition, [until now,   the consensus has been that fat intake is the 
cause]. I will be disappointed if this aspect is   drowned out in a cascade of review and general 
interpretation.” Hegsted replied “We are well   aware of your particular interest in carbohydrate 
and will cover this as well as we can.” As you can see, Hickson really had a way with 
words. He converted a man who conducted three   studies correlating sugar with heart disease, 
to a believer of the dietary fat hypothesis in   just a few sentences. Or maybe it was the 00, 
which would be about 50 grand in today’s money,   that Hickson ended up paying him. Either 
way, Hickson was one convincing guy. As Hegsted and McGandy worked on project 
226, a separate group of researchers,   known as the Iowa Group, were reporting 
that there were positive associations   between the consumption of 
sugar and serum cholesterol. In the 9th month of the project, Hegsted 
explained to the SRF that “Every time the   Iowa group publishes a paper we have 
to rework a section in rebuttal.”
  Hegsted gave Hickson the final draft 
about half a year later and Hickson   assured him “This is quite what we 
had in mind and we look forward to   its appearance in print.” The literature 
was published in the New England Journal   of Medicine in 1967 titled “Dietary Fats, 
Carbohydrates, and Atherosclerotic Disease.” As with any respectable piece of scientific 
literature, those who funded the study were   cited in the paper for the public to see. However, 
Hickson’s payment to Hegsted was not disclosed,   but that’s probably because Hegsted pocketed 
the cash instead of using it for the research.   The paper assured that the only way to prevent 
heart disease was to reduce dietary cholesterol,   and to replace saturated fats 
with polyunsaturated fats.
  Any objective view seems to indicate that the 
SRF retained their own scientific hired guns to   manipulate the empirical data and reach their 
pre-determined results. They put out enough   information to influence government policy, 
exactly what the sugar industries needed. The review contained epidemiological,   experimental, and mechanistic studies 
of sugar’s effect on coronary heart   disease. The epidemiological studies done 
by Yudkin and the Iowa group showed that   there was a positive association with the 
consumption of sucrose and heart disease. Of course, those studies were discounted 
either because of confounding variables,   poor interpretation or the 
method of collection of the data. The experimental studies showed that serum 
cholesterol and triglycerides rose when components   of the diet like fat, starch and vegetables 
were replaced with sugar. But apparently,   the amount of sucrose used in the studies 
supposedly wasn’t comparable to American diets,   so that was disregarded by Hegsed and 
company as well. They also believed   that the studies showing a raise 
in triglycerides were irrelevant   because total blood cholesterol was 
the real risk factor for heart disease. PSH! I don't know about that Then finally, the mechanistic studies showed 
that it was biologically plausible that sucrose   could affect cholesterol levels and fructose 
could affect triglyceride levels. However,   this hypothesis was ultimately disregarded 
because it was built on mechanistic evidence   conducted with glucose and fructose 
instead of sucrose. Never mind that   the sucrose molecule immediately breaks down 
into glucose and fructose upon digestion. Also, never mind that the epidemiology, controlled 
trials, and mechanistic data all painted a clear   picture on sugar’s role in heart disease. They 
also fed rats low fat high carb diets that would   supposedly never be in line with a human’s, even 
though that’s essentially what they recommended. So the review looked at the overwhelming 
body of evidence that sugar had a clear   role in the development of heart disease, 
but went ahead and picked each study apart   one by one to deny the obvious conclusion. 
In essence they’re just making stuff up. Okay? Alright… So the SRF funded review, utilized hired 
guns and dismissed all of the studies   showing sucrose to be harmful, but did not 
include any quantitative results detailing   fat’s intervention in the studies. Of 
course, they overstated the effect that   fat had in the studies. There was only one 
randomized control trial that lowered serum   cholesterol by substituting saturated fat 
for polyunsaturated fat. Out of all the   studies they reviewed though, this was the only 
relevant experiment to draw a conclusion with. Would you just look at it? I mean just look at it Even though the epidemiology was ignored with 
the sugar studies, the epidemiology from the   fat studies was extremely important. They 
could draw the conclusion that fat causes   heart disease from those. The review made sure to 
claim that polyunsaturated fats were a realistic   replacement for saturated fats, and that 
it was the only dietary change that people   should make in order to avoid heart disease.

It’s clear that the SRF engaged in coronary   heart disease research in 1965, and then funded 
and participated in a literature review published   in the New England Journal of Medicine. Their role 
in the review wasn’t disclosed until 2016. The New   England Journal of Medicine did exactly what the 
sugar industry wanted them to do and told society   to ignore the epidemiological, experimental, and 
mechanistic studies linking sucrose to coronary   heart disease. They told people that the only 
thing they had to worry about for heart health was   dietary cholesterol and saturated fat. Americans 
had been convinced that they had nothing to worry   about when it came to sugar, and that they should 
just avoid fat and they will be fine. So called   healthier low fat alternatives started flooding 
the market, with sugar replacing the fat.
  The story doesn’t end there though. In 
1971, the sugar industry got into the   minds and pockets of the National Institute 
of Dental Research Caries Program. They aimed   to shift the focus of dental problems away 
from the consumption of sucrose. In 1976,   the sugar industry came out with another review 
called “Sugar in the Diet of Man.” It’s credited   with strongly influencing the evaluation 
of the safety of sugar by the FDA in 1976.
  By the 1980s, most scientists believed 
that added sugar had nothing to do with   coronary heart disease. The SRF got exactly 
what they wanted, and the money poured in. In essence, whether you know it or not, the 
sugar industry is a giant money machine.   They have had and still have a pivotal role 
in influencing American dietary policies.
  Policy makers and average citizens don’t read 
scientific journals, so they will blindly follow   the recommendations the USDA gives them. This is 
why it’s so important to regulate conflicts of   interest in dietary studies. Some bad information 
could lead to years of bad policy. Much of the   information propagated by the SRF is still 
very relevant in mainstream science today. With access to insider industry documents 
like these, we the people have a chance to   search for the truth. The SRF paid scientists 
to come up with enough paperwork to show that   sugar is nothing to be concerned about, 
all to increase their market share.
  The tobacco industry used similar tactics. 
They convinced us that smoking was healthy,   but thankfully, the public perception changed. 
Now, even smokers acknowledge that smoking is   unhealthy. However, the public perception of sugar 
still hasn’t changed, with most people believing   that it’s fine to consume in moderation. The 
sugar industry was more successful in deceiving   the public than the tobacco industry 
because the public still believes them. John Yudkin had worked diligently to 
research the harmful effects of sugar,   and let the world know before it 
became a staple in nearly every   food in the market. But as they say, 
history is decided by the winners. The SRF is now known as the Sugar Association,   and it still has a powerful hand in Washington 
DC. It still strongly denies the possibility   that there is a relationship between sugar 
consumption and cardiovascular disease. The sugar industry had a huge 
role in shaping over 50 years   of nutritional science and the dietary 
recommendations that we still have today. Don’t let them fool you, subscribe to our channel. .

Bzantines notes – .