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Which of the following is a characteristic of the | Biology Questions & Answers


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Proteins are used by the body for energy, metabolism, gene growth and maintenance 10 to 35 percent of the daily calorie intake should ideally consist of proteins. they are found in all cells of the body. Hair and nail are made up of a protein called Keratin, having  sulphur  bonds. curlier hair has more sulphur  links. Too much intake of proteins can sometimes lead to body weight.




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Ascomycota - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ascomycota – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia – Ascomycota is a phylum of fungi (kingdom Fungi). Members are commonly known as the sac fungi. They have a sac, the ascus, which contains four to eight ascospores in the sexual stage. The structure defines the group and distinguishes it from other fungi.They have at least three of the following: Flower parts are in 3's or multiples of 3; Leaves are parallel-veined; Vascular bundles are scattered throughout the cross section of the stem; Seeds possess one seed Originally Answered: What is a comparison of the characteristics of monocots and dicots?The fungal symbionts in the majority of lichens (loosely termed "ascolichens") such as Cladonia belong to the Ascomycota. This is a cushion of conidiophores created from a pseudoparenchymatous stoma in plant tissue. The pycnidium is a globose to flaskshaped parenchymatous structure, lined on…

What are the characteristics of monocots? – Quora – Importantly, these analyses resolved the Leotiomycetes as the sister group to the Sordariomycetes, a region of the Ascomycota phylogeny that has remained problematic in molecular phylogenetic studies of more limited character sampling. Additional phylogenetic analyses which included orthologous…- which variable is the most important in game theory models of aggression and why? This site is using cookies under cookie policy. You can specify conditions of storing and accessing cookies in your browser.ascomycota facts, ascomycota species, ascomycota reproduction, ascomycota classification, ascomycota definition, ascomycota common name, ascomycota structure, ascomycota habitat Almost all of the members of this phylum form arbu…

What are the characteristics of monocots? - Quora

Ascomycota – Wikipedia | Fungus | Biology – Which of the following is TRUE about scuba diving? 1) You can do it only in the sea. 2) It involves use of special breathing equipment. Which part of a diver's equipment is NOT absolutely necessary?The majority of known fungi belong to the Phylum Ascomycota, which is characterized by the formation of an ascus (plural, asci), a sac-like structure that contains haploid ascospores. Filamentous ascomycetes produce hyphae divided by perforated septa, allowing streaming of cytoplasm from one…Ascomycota. The division is a large and very diverse group that has historically been difficult to characterize. However, the one unifying characteristic is that all members produce ascospores inside of a sac-like cell called an ascus (pl.= asci) and during sexual reproduction (Fig.

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Basidiomycota – .

BIO 1802 Fungi: Zygomycota – All right we are on to activity 2 
where we're gonna talk about chytrids   and zygomycetes.
So just to remind 
me you're gonna watch this lecture,   there's some bonus videos that are embedded in the 
PowerPoint slides, but also I'll post separately,   and then this will correspond to questions 3 & 
4 of your worksheet. Alright so the first group   we're going to talk about is cytridiomycetes. 
So these are the most closely related ancestral   fungal form and they are most likely have 
having diverged from a protist ancestor.   They're pretty simple and water dependent. They 
are unicellular but they have a wide variety of   physical forms and features. They are usually 
aquatic and motile with flagellated spores- so   their spores have a flagella, and many of them are 
active decomposers just like most fungi. So this   is a really cool picture here at the bottom of a 
chytrid cell actually decomposing a pollen grain.   You can recognize what type of pollen grain 
that one is, right?? the Mickey Mouse Club. All right so cytridiomycetes are saprobic 
parasites, which means that they break down their,   they use extracellular digestion to break down 
organic matter, and so they usually decompose   really tough things like pollen, cellulose, 
chitin, and keratin. They're, sometimes, some   of the only groups organisms that can sometimes 
break down these really complex molecules. There   is one and really one really important chytrid 
species, it's Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.   This organism is believed to be partially, if not 
fully, responsible for major declines in amphibian   populations worldwide. I'm sure you've heard about 
them, maybe. So the chytrid infects the amphibian   skin and it breaks down the keratin on the skin 
and it causes sores and excess skin production,   which is a big issue for amphibians since they 
breathe through their skin. And so it inhibits   that cutaneous breathing, which is breathing for 
your skin. There are ways you can test for it in   fungi, chytrid fungi, on amphibian skins but 
it's a really big issue. A lot of people that   do field work with different amphibians have 
to be really really careful that they really   well clean their boots and wear different 
gloves when they're go in a different field   site so they they don't spread the chytrid, and 
there is a video that you can watch about it. Alright, so the next group we're gonna move 
on to is zygomycetes. So zygomycetes are bread   molds that do not have a fruiting body. So 
that means they are just vegetative bodies,   no fruiting bodies, and no sexual reproduction. 
There are over a thousand species and they are   typically found in terrestrial environments living 
in soil or dead or decaying plant matter. We know   them best for growing on old bread. So if 
you ever have had a bread, loaf of bread,   or I feel like I see it on strawberries a lot, 
maybe I'm just bad at eating strawberries,   but throat that white fuzzy stuff- that's a 
zygomycete- it's bread mold. And they reproduce   sexually, and asexually. I think I said a little 
bit ago that they don't reproduce sexually- I was   wrong. They have no fruiting bodies, but they 
still produce sexually, so wipe that from your   brain. All right their hyphae are aseptate, so 
they do not have cell walls in their hyphae. And   the hyphae usually grow unnoticed in their 
substrate until their reproductive structures   are produced. So pretty much, if you see mold on 
your bread it's already been there for a while,   right? It only produces the reproductive 
structures when it's really happy and it   usually has enough sugar and it's able to really 
get to town, so sometimes you like cut off a chunk   of bread that's extra green, there's still other 
mold in it, but you probably fine, cuz we all eat   a lot of mold in our lives, so you'll be okay, 
but just know that there is mold all the time. Alright so we're gonna go over the lifecycle of 
sexual reproduction in zygomycetes, so it starts   out with the hyphae. So there's cell signaling 
that will occur within the 1n hyphae to produce,   within the different mating structures, so 
like + and -. The gametangia are produced,   which is this kind of like blob structure that 
comes off of the hyphae. Then the two meeting   types will fuse together, and fuse their cytoplasm 
through plasmogamy to form a zygosporangium,   and the zygosporangium is n + n- it's this little 
Oreo looking thing in the middle. And then the   zygosporangium will go through mitosis and break 
up a little bit more and then, we we'll see it,   it's still, so it's still n + n here, go through 
mitosis and then the nuclei of the zygosporanium   will then unite via karyogamy to form the zygote, 
so. Then it's 2n, zygote, it goes through meiosis   really quickly to form the zygospore with a tough 
outer wall, and the 1n nuclei. And under favorable   conditions it will produce zygospores that are 1n, 
and that will mature into conidia- they'll spread   the spores throughout. So just to review that a 
little bit, I feel like there was a lot going on,   so we have these different mating types that 
reach out to each other from the gametangia,   you can see them reaching out forming the 
gametangia right here. Once the gametangia,   which is 1n, is meeting, we have plasmogamy 
going on so that becomes the zygosporangium,   which is n + n. It grows via mitosis, eventually 
you'll fuse together via karyogamy to form   the 2n zygote. The 2n zygote will then go through 
meiosis to divide from 2n to 1n, usually pretty   quickly to form these zygospores which are 1n. So 
go through that a couple times and try and draw   it out because it's confusing. Alright and then 
asexual reproduction: the 1n hyphae in zygomycetes   can also reproduce asexually. In this case it 
just goes through mitosis and forms 1n spores.   This creates, obviously, less genetic diversity 
then you would have in sexual reproduction,   but it does spread pretty quickly. Alright so when 
it undergoes through asexual reproduction the 1n   spores will spread through the air, the spore 
bearing structures kind of look like lollipops,   I think, which is going to be different from 
when we see different asexual structures in   Ascomycetes later, that it'll look more like 
trees. So here we have a sporangiophore with   the sporangium on top. This spreads the 
spores and it usually branches directly   off of the hyphae and those are, you'll 
see it called conidia sometimes too, so   sometimes it's called sporangiophore but 
the conidia are the spores on the head part. Okay so just take a closer look at the sporangia, 
so like I was saying earlier the sporangiophores   are the stalk and the sporangium is the head 
part on the top. And it appears to, it looks   like a lollipop, again you're seeing the 
the circular sporangium shape on the stalk,   and then eventually the sporangium will open 
up and the spores will be spread. Let's see,   and this is just a review of the lifecycle, so 
we can talk through it one more time. Let's start   off in the mycelium with two different 
mating types, there's plus and minus,   they reach out to each other to form the 
gametangia, which is this Oriole looking   thing in the middle, but they are still having 
haploid nuclei, they're still separate cytoplasm,   but a through plasmogamy they fuse together to 
have the dikaryotic nuclei which is n + n. That'll   mature and form the zygosporangium, a which is 
heterokaryotic or dikaryotic, so it's n + n,   and then via karyogamy it'll the n + n will come 
together to form a 2n embryo, and then the diploid   nuclei will go through meiosis to create spores, 
that'll spread off of the sporangium. And remember   in zygosporangium, they're called zygospores, or 
in zygomycetes, rather, there are zygospores that   are contained within these zygosporangium. 
Alright that'll be all for that one. .

Virtual Breakfast 8-1-19: Managing Cercospora leaf spot in sugarbeets – – [Bob] Good morning and welcome to this morning's Virtual Breakfast.
I'm Bob Battel and I'll be your host. Today's guest specialist is Daniel Bublitz and he'll be talking about
Cercospora leaf spot, in sugar beet. Daniel take it away. – [Daniel] All right, well thank you Bob. Well good morning everyone. Thank you for tuning in this morning. Happy first day of August. My name is Daniel Bublitz and I'm the sugar beet
extension specialist here at Michigan State. Because I'm new to my job I was asked to take just a brief moment to give a little
introduction about myself. I grew up on a small farm
near Fairgrove, Michigan. And yes, I've been
working with sugar beets and field crops for pretty
much my entire life. So I graduated with my bachelor's degree at Saginaw Valley State University in 2015 and just this past spring I graduated from Michigan State University with my master's in plant pathology. I've worked in the lab
of Dr. Linda Hanson, specializing in Cercospora
leaf spot in sugar beets. So Cercospora leaf spot, it's caused by the foliar pathogen
Cercospora beticola. This is a fungal pathogen
from the phyllum Ascomycota. And today it's found most places
where sugar beets are grown but has the greatest economic impact in regions that have warm, wet summers. The optimal temperature for the disease is 16 to 32 degrees Celsius. And really, the wetter the better. So foggy mornings and rain really help to encourage the disease. So in Michigan there are actually five different leaf spots
that can occur on sugar beets. And so it's important for management to be able to tell them
apart from one another. So a typical Cercospora lesion is circular unless it's stopped by a leaf vein, and they're usually fairly small lesions. From three to five
millimeters in diameter. And typically they have
a tan or gray center with a darker red or brown border. And the two most important
diagnostic characteristics of the disease are that they have small,
black pseudostromata in the center of the lesion. So you can see in this top picture, this very nice little
pseudostromata there. And then from these pseudostromata, they produce silver, needle-like conidia that you can see in the bottom picture. And so it's possible for
several of these lesions to form on a single leaf. And if there's enough of them it can actually kill the sugar beet leaf. And that generally takes
between 400 to 1000 lesions. And it's possible over
the course of an epidemic for an entire plant and even a whole field to become defoliated
because of this disease. So now I want to take just a brief moment and talk about the life
cycle of Cercospora beticola. Every year the life cycle
begins when it overwinters as pseudostromata in infected leaf debris. The sources for this infected leaf debris include old sugar beet leaves, as well as leaves from weedy hosts such as Lambsquarter, species of Pigweed, and species of Mallow. So once the pseudostromata overwinter, the next step is for conidia
to be produced in the spring from those pseudostromata. Once produced, these
conidia are moved then to an infectible leaf,
such as sugar beet leaf with some sort of an outside force, such as rain splashing,
wind, or some other things. And generally, most conidia have a fairly limited range of motion, with most moving from within
100 meters of the source. So once a conidia lands
on an infectible leaf, infection may occur. And infection generally
occurs through a leaf opening, such as a stomata or a wound in the leaf. After infection, disease
development will occur. And it begins asymptomatically at first, with the symptoms typically forming 10 to 15 days after infection. And so because of this, it's important to apply fungicides and such prior to the symptoms actually developing. So in Michigan, the first
Cercospora leaf spot symptoms are generally observed
in the middle of June to early July. And this is a polycyclic disease so it's possible for several cycles of it to occur throughout one growing season. And so that initial
infection that you see, those very first lesions, they'll produce new conidia, which then reinfect the leaves and then the cycle continues. And so it's possible because of this for this disease to cause
a healthy sugar beet field, like I have on the screen now, to go from looking nice
and green and healthy to looking like this by
the end of the season. All burnt down and leaves
destroyed by the disease. And so these infected
leaves will then serve as the primary inoculum for
the following growing season. So as you can imagine, this can have a rather significant impact on the yield of sugar beets. Under the worst case scenarios, a loss of up to 40% is possible. And this loss can be manifested in the form of a decrease in root size, a decrease in the sugar
concentration of the roots, as well as an increase in impurities which can hinder the extraction process, and an increase in storage losses. These losses are often due to both a loss of the photosynthetic area of the beet as well as leaf regrowth that comes at the expense
of the sugar stored prior to infection. So in order to manage this disease, there are several different
cultural practices that growers can employ. These incur several different
management techniques that growers can employ. Among these are cultural practices, including things such as having a minimum of a three-year crop rotation, avoiding planting next to old beet fields, practicing proper weed control
in and around the field, both the year before and the year when beets are grown there, and doing deep plowing. Now deep plowing is
usually a tough one to do because plowing deep
down is very difficult, and it can increase erosion. So because of this,
farmers generally shy away from that practice. The second group of management strategies is to employ host resistance. Now in this host-pathogen system, generally quantitative resistance is used. And this is rather difficult to breed for because it's governed by
four to five major genes and several minor genes. And historically, resistance
to Cercospora leaf spot has come at the cost of yield as resistant varieties are
generally lower-yielding than the susceptible ones. But in recent years, several very good high-yielding resistant
varieties have been developed. And so while there are no
varieties that are actually immune to Cercospora leaf spot, we do have very good
resistance that's available. So on the picture that
I have up on the screen, this was taken at the Cercospora leaf spot nursery in Richville. This field is actually
inoculated with Cercospora in order to encourage the disease and see how the varieties responded. The variety on the left
is a susceptible variety. And you can see it's very heavily infected by Cercospora. While the variety on the
right is a resistant variety, and there's maybe one
or two spots in there throughout the whole patch. And so Michigan Sugar Company also has minimum resistance requirements in order for varieties
to be approved here. Which that has really helped with managing the disease as well. And so the chart that I just
put up on the screen now shows all the approved varieties
for the state of Michigan. And it has them separated by their resistance to Cercospora. So the varieties on the
top that are in green are the more resistant varieties. The ones in the middle, in yellow are moderately susceptible. And the ones on the
bottom that they're in red are highly susceptible. So the third group of
management strategies for Cercospora leaf spot is fungicide applications. In Michigan, there are several
different types of fungicides available for Cercospora leaf spot. And these include systemics
or translaminar fungicides, such as the triazoles, strobilurins, and the benzimidazoles. As well as protectants such as the organotins, EBDCs and coppers. Now there is quite a bit
of fungicide resistance that has been found here
in the state of Michigan. Resistance has been found
through the strobilurins, the benzimidazoles, and the triazoles. And there is also
resistance to the organotins out in the Red River Valley region of North Dakota and Minnesota. And so this fungicide resistance tends to decrease the efficacy
of this management strategy and has made overall
Cercospora leaf spot management more difficult. So in order to improve the
efficacy of these fungicides it's important to have
good application technique. This includes having things
such as good leaf coverage. And so in order to obtain
that, sprayers should be set to apply approximately 20 gallons per acre of the spray solution at 100 psi. And the timing of fungicide applications is absolutely critical. All the fungicides that we currently have should be applied just
before infection occurs. And because of the polycyclic
nature of the disease, the first and second spray applications are the most important. Because if you allow the
disease to get started and get those initial lesions formed, they'll continue to produce conidia and it can be much more
difficult to control after that. Also in the state of Michigan, we do have a prediction
model, the BEETcast model. Which is used to improve
fungicide application timings. Michigan Sugar has also found that the use of an appropriate adjuvant can help to increase the
efficacy of fungicides. Some of the best ones they've found include Regard and MasterLock, although there are several
others that can be used. And also because of the resistance that we have to fungicides, it's important for
growers to practice good resistance management. And this includes doing
things such as tank mixing, systemic fungicides with
either an EBDC or a copper, and to rotate chemistries. So that you never apply a fungicide from the same class back to
back, for systemics that is. So the table I just put up on the screen shows one potential Cercospora
leaf spot spray schedule. All these fungicides are
applied with an adjuvant. And the first application would come towards the middle or end of June, depending on the weather. That would be just an EBDC. The next application would
be the first week of July. Where it would be a triazole
tank mixed with an EBDC. Then two weeks after that, we would apply a tin, benzimidazole, and
EBDC all tank mixed together. And we would apply the tin
and benzimidazole together because there's actually some synergism that happens between those two fungicides. And the next application would come the first week of August. It would be a triazole plus an EBDC. Then two weeks after that would
be another tin application with an EBDC. Then during the last week of August, the next application would
be a strobilurin tank mixed with an EBDC. There is quite a bit of
resistance to strobilurins in the Cercospora population in Michigan. But I would still include that fungicide in the spray program because it's one of the best chemistries against Alternaria leaf spot. So not only would we get a little bit of Cercospora
control from it, it would also help us
to manage Alternaria. And the next application would come on September eighth. It would be a triazole plus a copper. And the final I'm gonna
have listed up on the screen would be September 18th. And it would be just an EBDC. Then if the weather conditions continue to be favorable after that, a grower may decide to apply a copper, but that would be up to them. So now I want to take
just a moment to talk about the current status of Cercospora leaf spot in Michigan. As of now it's widespread in most fields, but it's generally not severe yet. So over the past couple weeks, every field that I visited, I have found Cercospora in that field but so far it's not very severe. The highest levels that
I've found have been from the Quanicassee to Reese area. Which really isn't surprising
because historically that's been one of our
hotter spots for Cercospora. Also in the past month we've had some very conducive weather
conditions for the disease. In fact, according to the
Akron BEETcast station, in the month of July, 14 of 31 days were assigned either a three or a four. So for those of you who aren't familiar with the BEETcast model, it assigns a value for the
risk of infection every day. And these values range
from a zero to four, with a zero being a low risk of infection, and four being a very
high risk of infection. So to have this many days
that are a three or a four is somewhat surprising. But also there were no
days that were a zero. And so going forward, since there is that widespread infection
out there currently, if we do get very conducive
weather conditions this disease could really take off. So it's concerning, but it's
not reason to panic yet. So growers should continue
with their spray program. And they should definitely
be sure to stay on time or even a little bit early
with their applications. And so with that, I would
like to thank everyone who has helped to make
my research possible. I would like to give a special thank you to my grower collaborators. I would like to thank my funding sources, including Michigan Sugar
and Project Greeen. And then I would also like to acknowledge all of the other organizations
doing sugar beet research here in the state of
Michigan and in the area. So with that, I'll take any questions that you have at this time. Thank you. – [Bob] Daniel, looks
like we have a question. It's about soybean cyst nematode. Three questions related to the use of Defender as the sugar beet
cyst nematode cover crop trap. How deep does the Defender grow? In other words, could it
get into my drain tiles? – [Daniel] I have heard reports of it getting into drain tiles but if you have a nematode problem I would still recommend using it because that's one of our
best management strategies for that problem. – [Bob] And have the root tips break off in the tiles after the
plants when winter killed that completely plugged his tiles. Two, since my neighbor to the west is currently growing sugar beets and my winter wheat field to the east was recently harvested, I'd like to plant a sugar beet cyst nematode
cover trap crop, i.e. Defender, how wide of an area
along our property line should I plant the Defender? In other words, how far would
sugar beet cyst nematode from his field travel into my field? – [Daniel] Well, generally
they can move with the soil particles, so I don't
know the exact distance that they can travel. But generally they won't travel themselves through the soil very much but if you have a wind storm or such it's possible that they could be moved with
soil particles that way. So my recommendation would be, I would put at least
100 feet along the edge. But if you're not gonna put
any other cover crop there I would just plant the whole field to it. – [Bob] Okay and then the third question, how wide should the sugar beet
cyst nematode cover crop trap be along a wood edge? – [Daniel] Does he mean along a wood lot? – [Bob] Yes. – [Daniel] So generally, I'm
not aware that we see very many sugar beet cyst nematodes
come from wood lots. So it wouldn't be as important as planting next to that old beet field. – [Bob] Okay. Thanks Daniel for that informative report on Cercospora leaf spot. – [Daniel] You're welcome. .